39 relations: Acetylcholine, Alkaloid, Anesthetic, Arrow poison, Atracurium besilate, Benzylisoquinoline, Bronchospasm, Calabash, Choline acetyltransferase, Chondrodendron tomentosum, Cisatracurium besilate, Claude Bernard, Curare, Diplopia, Glottal stop, Histamine, Hypotension, Intravenous therapy, Latrodectus, Latrotoxin, Mechanical ventilation, Median lethal dose, Mucous membrane, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Pancuronium bromide, Potassium channel blocker, Receptor antagonist, Rocuronium bromide, Route of administration, S-Adenosyl methionine, Salivary gland, Skeletal muscle, Spider, Surgery, Suxamethonium chloride, Tetraethylammonium, Thoracic diaphragm, Vecuronium bromide.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Arrow poisons are used to poison arrow heads or darts for the purposes of hunting and warfare.
Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
1-Benzylisoquinoline is a chemical compound, and the structural backbone of many alkaloids with a wide variety of structures, including papaverine, noscapine, codeine, morphine, apomorphine, berberine, protopine, tubocurarine, and sanguinarine.
Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.
A calabash, bottle gourd, or white-flowered gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, also known by many other names, including long melon, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil.
Choline acetyltransferase (commonly abbreviated as ChAT, but sometimes CAT) is a transferase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Chondrodendron tomentosum is a species in the Menispermaceae family.
Cisatracurium besilate (INN; cisatracurium besylate (USAN); formerly recognized as 51W89; trade name Nimbex) is a bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinolinium that has effect as a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Latrodectus is a genus of spiders in the family Theridiidae, most of which are commonly known as widow spiders.
A latrotoxin is a high-molecular mass neurotoxin found in the venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus (widow spiders).
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Pancuronium (trademarked as Pavulon) is an aminosteroid muscle relaxant with various medical uses.
Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Rocuronium bromide (brand names Zemuron, Esmeron) is an aminosteroid non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker or muscle relaxant used in modern anaesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation by providing skeletal muscle relaxation, most commonly required for surgery or mechanical ventilation.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Suxamethonium chloride, also known as suxamethonium or succinylcholine, is a medication used to cause short-term paralysis as part of general anesthesia.
Tetraethylammonium (TEA), (NEt4+) or (Et4N+) is a quaternary ammonium cation consisting of four ethyl groups attached to a central nitrogen atom, and is positively charged.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
Vecuronium bromide, sold under the brand name Norcuron among others, is a medication used as part of general anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
ATC code M03AA02, ATCvet code QM03AA02, C37H41N2O6, D-Tubo Curare, D-TuboCurare, D-Turbo Curare, D-tubocurare, D-tubocurarine, D-turbocurarine, Delacurarine, D‐tubocurare, Jexin, Tubarine, Tubocurarine, Tubocurarine Chloride, Turbocurarine.