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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. [1]

137 relations: Activating transcription factor 2, Acute-phase protein, Adalimumab, ADAM17, Adipose tissue, Allosteric regulation, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anthony Cerami, Apoptosis, Appetite, ASK1, Asthma, AU-rich element, Australian National University, Bacteria, Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2, Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3, Bcl-2, Beta sheet, Breast cancer, Bruce Beutler, C-jun, C-Jun N-terminal kinases, C-reactive protein, Cachexia, Cancer, Capsid, Carcinogenesis, Cardiac muscle cell, Caspase, Caspase 8, CCL2, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Certolizumab pegol, CFLAR, Chemotherapy, Chromosome 6, Complementary DNA, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Cysteine protease, Cytokine, Disease, Endothelium, Eosinophil, Etanercept, Exon, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, ..., FADD, Fas receptor, Fever, Fibroblast, Fibrosarcoma, Fusion protein, Gemcitabine, Gene, Hidradenitis suppurativa, Homology (chemistry), Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamus, IκB kinase, IκBα, Immune system, Immunostimulant, In vivo, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Infliximab, Insulin resistance, Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1 family, International nonproprietary name, IRS1, Kevin J. Tracey, Kinase, Ligand, Lipopolysaccharide, Liver, Lloyd J. Old, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Lymphotoxin, Lymphotoxin alpha, Macrophage, Major depressive disorder, MAP3K1, MAP3K10, MAP3K11, MAP3K7, Mark Mattson, Mast cell, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, Molecular cloning, Monoclonal antibody, Morpheein, Myokine, Natural killer cell, Neuron, Neutrophil, NF-κB, Ovarian cancer, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Pancreatic cancer, Phagocytosis, Phosphorylation, Prostaglandin E2, Protein–protein interaction, Psoriasis, Reactive oxygen species, Renal cell carcinoma, Rheumatoid arthritis, Sepsis, Septic shock, Shock (circulatory), Signal transducing adaptor protein, SOD2, Stress (biology), T helper cell, TNF inhibitor, TNF receptor superfamily, TRADD, TRAF2, Transcription factor, Transmembrane protein, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Unified atomic mass unit, University of California, Irvine, Viral replication, White blood cell, William Coley, Yale University. Expand index (87 more) »

Activating transcription factor 2

Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene.

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Acute-phase protein

Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.

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Adalimumab

Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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ADAM17

ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17), also called TACE (tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme), is a 70-kDa enzyme that belongs to the ADAM protein family of disintegrins and metalloproteases.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.

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Anthony Cerami

Anthony Cerami is an American entrepreneur and medical research scientist.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Appetite

Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.

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ASK1

Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is a member of MAP kinase kinase kinase family and as such a part of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

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Asthma

Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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AU-rich element

Adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AU-rich elements; AREs) are found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code for proto-oncogenes, nuclear transcription factors, and cytokines.

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Australian National University

The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2

Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2 (also known as cIAP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BIRC2 gene.

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Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3

Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein3 (also known as cIAP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BIRC3 gene.

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Bcl-2

Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.

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Beta sheet

The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Bruce Beutler

Bruce Alan Beutler (born December 29, 1957) is an American immunologist and geneticist.

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C-jun

c-Jun is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUN gene.

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C-Jun N-terminal kinases

c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), were originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphorylate c-Jun on Ser-63 and Ser-73 within its transcriptional activation domain.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Cachexia

Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Capsid

A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.

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Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

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Cardiac muscle cell

Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).

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Caspase

Caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases, cysteine aspartases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis) and inflammation.

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Caspase 8

Caspase-8 is a caspase protein, encoded by the CASP8 gene.

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CCL2

For the ICAO airport code see Candle Lake Airpark, for the diradical compound see Dichlorocarbene. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) is also referred to as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and small inducible cytokine A2.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Certolizumab pegol

Certolizumab pegol (CDP870, tradename Cimzia) is a biologic medication for the treatment of Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

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CFLAR

CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFLAR gene.

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chromosome 6

Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Complementary DNA

In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.

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Cysteine protease

Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.

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Cytokine

Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Endothelium

Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Eosinophil

Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.

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Etanercept

Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.

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Exon

An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

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Extracellular signal–regulated kinases

In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.

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FADD

Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), also called MORT1, is encoded by the FADD gene on the 11q13.3 region of chromosome 11 in humans.

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Fas receptor

The first apoptosis signal receptor (Fas or FasR), also known as apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAS gene.

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Fever

Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Fibroblast

A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

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Fibrosarcoma

Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant mesenchymal tumour derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by the presence of immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells in a storiform pattern.

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Fusion protein

Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.

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Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine, sold under the brand name Gemzar, among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a long term skin disease characterized by the occurrence of inflamed and swollen lumps.

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Homology (chemistry)

In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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IκB kinase

The IκB kinase (IKK) is an enzyme complex that is involved in propagating the cellular response to inflammation.

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IκBα

IκBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) is one member of a family of cellular proteins that function to inhibit the NF-κB transcription factor.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunostimulant

Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components.

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Infliximab

Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Interleukin 6

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.

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Interleukin-1 family

The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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IRS1

Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a signaling adapter protein that in humans is encoded by the IRS-1 gene.

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Kevin J. Tracey

Kevin J. Tracey, a neurosurgeon and inventor, is the president and CEO of the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, professor of neurosurgery and molecular medicine at Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, and President of the Elmezzi Graduate School of Molecular Medicine in Manhasset, New York.

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Kinase

In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Lipopolysaccharide

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lloyd J. Old

Lloyd John Old (September 23, 1933 – November 28, 2011) was one of the founders and standard-bearers of the field of cancer immunology.

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Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.

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Lymphocyte

A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lymphotoxin

Lymphotoxin (previously known as tumor necrosis factor-beta) is a lymphokine cytokine.

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Lymphotoxin alpha

Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-α) or tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.

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Macrophage

Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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MAP3K1

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K1 gene.

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MAP3K10

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K10 gene.

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MAP3K11

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K11 gene.

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MAP3K7

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7), also known as TAK1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7 gene.

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Mark Mattson

Mark P. Mattson is Chief of the Laboratory of Neurosciences at the National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program National Institute on Aging.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK or MSKCC) is a cancer treatment and research institution in New York City, founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital.

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase

A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).

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Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Morpheein

Morpheeins are proteins that can form two or more different homo-oligomers (morpheein forms), but must come apart and change shape to convert between forms.

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Myokine

A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neutrophil

Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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NF-κB

NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.

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P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.

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Phagocytosis

In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Phosphorylation

In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Prostaglandin E2

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), also known as dinoprostone, is a naturally occurring prostaglandin which is used as a medication.

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Protein–protein interaction

Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Sepsis

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Septic shock

Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.

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Shock (circulatory)

Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Signal transducing adaptor protein

Signal transducing adaptor proteins are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway.

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SOD2

Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), also known as manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the SOD2 gene on chromosome 6.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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TNF inhibitor

A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response.

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TNF receptor superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) is a protein superfamily of cytokine receptors characterized by the ability to bind tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) via an extracellular cysteine-rich domain.

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TRADD

Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRADD gene.

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TRAF2

TNF receptor-associated factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRAF2 gene.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) and CD120a, is a ubiquitous membrane receptor that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) and CD120b, is a membrane receptor that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα).

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Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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Viral replication

Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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William Coley

William Bradley Coley (January 12, 1862 – April 16, 1936) was an American bone surgeon and cancer researcher best known for his early contributions to the study of cancer immunotherapy.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

ATC code L03AX11, ATCvet code QL03AX11, Cachectin, Cachexin, Receptors, tumor necrosis factor, type i, Receptors, tumor necrosis factor, type ii, Rs1800629, TNF (gene), TNF alpha, TNF-a, TNF-alpha, TNF-α, TNFA, TNFSF1A, TNFSF2, TNFa, TNFα, Tasonermin, Tnf alpha, Tnfa, Tumor necroses factor, Tumor necrosis factor a, Tumor necrosis factor α, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Tumor necrosis factor-α, Tumour necrosis factor alpha, Tumour necrosis factor α, Tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_necrosis_factor_alpha

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