494 relations: Aalborg, Achilles, Adıyaman, Adelsö, Adena culture, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Agriculture, Ahom kingdom, Alès, Albania, Alexander IV of Macedon, Alexander the Great, All Cannings, Altendorf, Upper Palatinate, Alyattes of Lydia, Amphipolis, Anak Tomb No. 3, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Anglo-Saxons, Ankara, Antiochus I Theos of Commagene, Antiquarian, Antoing, Anundshög, Apeldoorn, Appenwihr, Archaeology, Architecture, Aschaffenburg (district), Assam, Athaliah, Attila, Auleben, Avaldsnes, Østfold, České Budějovice, Žuráň, Baden-Württemberg, Baekje, Baiyue, Balochistan, Bank barrow, Battle of Austerlitz, Bavaria, Békés County, Békésszentandrás, BBC, ..., Beckdorf, Belas Knap, Bell barrow, Bell, Rhein-Hunsrück, Benon, Benther Berg, Beowulf, Berkshire, Bethel, Biblical archaeology, Biblical Archaeology Review, Björn at Haugi, Black Grave, Bohemia, Bonstorf, Bonstorf Barrows, Book of Jeremiah, Books of Chronicles, Books of Kings, Borre mound cemetery, Bougon, 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Aalborg, is Denmark's fourth largest city with an urban population of 136,000, including 22,000 in the twin city Nørresundby 600 meters across the Limfjord.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Adıyaman (Semsûr; Բերա; حصن منصور) is a city in southeastern Turkey, capital of the Adıyaman Province.
Adelsö is an island in the middle of Lake Mälaren in Sweden, near southern and northern Björkfjärden.
The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Ahom kingdom (1228–1826, also called Kingdom of Assam) was a kingdom in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam, India.
Alès (Alès) is a commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alexander IV (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Δ΄; 323–309 BC), erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus, was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
All Cannings (pronounced Allcannings) is a village and civil parish in the Vale of Pewsey in the English county of Wiltshire, about east of Devizes.
Altendorf is a municipality in the district of Schwandorf in Bavaria, Germany.
Alyattes reigned as king of Lydia from c.610 BC to 560 BC.
Amphipolis (Αμφίπολη - Amfipoli; Ἀμφίπολις, Amphípolis) is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen.
Anak Tomb No.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (Անտիոքոս Երվանդունի, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην, meaning Antiochos, a just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend of Greeks, c. 86 BC – 38 BC, ruled 70 BC – 38 BC) was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.
Antoing is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Hainaut.
Anundshög (also Anundshögen and Anunds hög) is a tumulus near Västerås in Västmanland, the largest in Sweden.
Apeldoorn is a municipality and city in the province of Gelderland in the centre of the Netherlands.
Appenwihr is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Aschaffenburg is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Athaliah (Γοθολία; Athalia) was queen consort of Judah as the wife of King Jehoram, a descendant of King David, and later queen regnant c. 841–835 BCE.
Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
Auleben is a village and a former municipality in the Goldene Aue district, in Thuringia, Germany.
Avaldsnes is a village in Karmøy municipality in Rogaland county, Norway.
Østfold is a county in southeastern Norway, bordering Akershus and southwestern Sweden (Västra Götaland County and Värmland), while Buskerud and Vestfold are on the other side of Oslofjord.
České Budějovice (Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, Budovicium) is a statutory city in the Czech Republic.
Žuráň (268 metres) is a small hill near the village of Podolí in the Czech Republic.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
A bank barrow, sometimes referred to as a barrow-bank, ridge barrow, or ridge mound, is a type of tumulus first identified by O.G.S. Crawford in 1938.
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Békés, is an administrative division (county or megye) in south-eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania.
Békésszentandrás is a village in Békés county, in the Southern Great Plain region of south-east Hungary.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beckdorf is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany.
Belas Knap is a neolithic, chambered long barrow situated on Cleeve Hill, near Cheltenham and Winchcombe, in Gloucestershire, England.
A bell barrow, sometimes referred to as a Wessex type barrow, campanulate form barrow, or a bermed barrow is a type of tumulus identified as such by both John Aubrey and William Stukeley.
Bell (Hunsrück) is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Benon is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
The Benther Berg is a ridge, up to, in the Calenberg Land near Benthe in Hanover Region in the German state of Lower Saxony.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Berkshire (abbreviated Berks, in the 17th century sometimes spelled Barkeshire as it is pronounced) is a county in south east England, west of London and is one of the home counties.
Bethel (Ugaritic: bt il, meaning "House of El" or "House of God",Bleeker and Widegren, 1988, p. 257. בֵּית אֵל, also transliterated Beth El, Beth-El, or Beit El; Βαιθηλ; Bethel) was a border city described in the Hebrew Bible as being located between Benjamin and Ephraim and also a location named by Jacob.
Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible, be they from the Old Testament (Tanakh) or from the New Testament, as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions.
Biblical Archaeology Review is a bi-monthly magazine that seeks to connect the academic study of archaeology to a broad general audience seeking to understand the world of the Bible and the Near and Middle East (Syro-Palestine and the Levant).
Björn at Haugi ("Björn at the Barrow" from the Old Norse word haugr meaning mound), Björn på Håga, Björn II or Bern was according to Hervarar saga a Swedish king and the son of Erik Björnsson, and Björn ruled together in diarchy with his brother Anund Uppsale.
The Black Grave (translit) is the largest burial mound (kurgan) in Chernihiv, Ukraine.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bonstorf is a village in the municipality of Südheide in the north of Celle district on the Lüneburg Heath in central Germany.
The Bonstorf Barrows (Grabhügelfeld von Bonstorf) are the remains of a much larger barrow cemetery on the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany dating to the late neolithic or early bronze age.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles (commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament, often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
Borre mound cemetery (Norwegian: Borrehaugene from the Old Norse words borró and haugr meaning mound) forms part of the at Horten in Vestfold, Norway.
Bougon is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
Bourbriac (Gallo: Bólbriac) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Bow Hill is an elongated hill ridge, high, and running roughly from north to south in the South Downs, in the county of West Sussex, England.
A bowl barrow is a type of burial mound or tumulus.
Braives is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Brú na Bóinne (Palace of the Boyne or Mansion of the Boyne) or Boyne valley tombs, is an area in County Meath, Ireland, located in a bend of the River Boyne.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bukovac (Буковац) is a suburban settlement of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia.
The Burgstallkogel (458 m; also known as Grillkogel) is a hill situated near the confluence of the Sulm and the Saggau river valleys in Southern Styria in Austria, about 30 km south of Graz between Gleinstätten and Kleinklein.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
Bussy-le-Château is a commune in the Marne department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
Bygdøy or Bygdø is a peninsula situated on the western side of Oslo, Norway.
The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (11 MS 2) is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (circa 1050–1350 CE) directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri.
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carnac (Breton: Karnag) is a commune beside the Gulf of Morbihan on the south coast of Brittany in the Morbihan department in north-western France.
Côtes-d'Armor (Aodoù-an-Arvor), formerly known as Côtes-du-Nord, is a department in the north of Brittany, in northwestern France.
Celle is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Continental Greece (Στερεά Ελλάδα, Stereá Elláda; formerly Χέρσος Ἑλλάς, Chérsos Ellás), colloquially known as Roúmeli (Ρούμελη), is a traditional geographic region of Greece.
Cerveteri is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures.
Charaideo (Tai: Che Tam-Doi Meaning: Che.
Charente-Maritime is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente River.
Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.
Cheonmachong, formerly Tomb No.155 in South Korea, is a tumulus located in Gyeongju, South Korea.
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
The term Chinese pyramids refers to pyramidal shaped structures in China, most of which are ancient mausoleums and burial mounds built to house the remains of several early emperors of China and their imperial relatives.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Circumambulation (from Latin circum around and ambulātus to walk) is the act of moving around a sacred object or idol.
A cist (or; also kist; from κίστη or Germanic Kiste) is a small stone-built coffin-like box or ossuary used to hold the bodies of the dead.
Cloppenburg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Colmar (Alsatian: Colmer; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Countryfile is a British television programme which airs weekly on BBC One and reports on rural, agricultural, and environmental issues in the United Kingdom.
County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.
Courçon is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.
Court-Saint-Étienne is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
A damb is a type of archaeological mound (tumuli) found in the Baluchistan region of Iran and Pakistan.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Deux-Sèvres is a French department.
The Devil's Humps (also known as the Kings' Graves) are four Bronze Age barrows situated on Bow Hill on the South Downs near Stoughton, West Sussex.
The Devil's Jumps are a group of five large bell barrows situated on the South Downs south-east of Treyford in the county of West Sussex in southern England.
A dirge is a somber song or lament expressing mourning or grief, such as would be appropriate for performance at a funeral.
A disc barrow is a type of tumulus or round barrow, a variety of fancy barrow identified in English Heritage's Monument Class Descriptions.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands located in the northeastern part of the country.
The Drents Museum is an art and history museum in Assen in the province of Drenthe in the Netherlands.
Duggleby Howe (also known as Howe Hill, Duggleby) is one of the largest round barrows in Britain, located on the southern side of the Great Wold Valley in the district of Ryedale, and is one of four such monuments in this area, known collectively as the Great barrows of East Yorkshire.
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a ceremonial county in the North of England.
Eşme is a town and district of Uşak Province in the inner Aegean Region of Turkey.
Eberdingen is a municipality in the district of Ludwigsburg (Baden-Württemberg, Germany).
An effigy mound is a raised pile of earth built in the shape of a stylized animal, symbol, human, or other figure and generally containing one or more human burials.
Ekerö Municipality (Ekerö kommun) is a municipality in the province of Uppland in Stockholm County in east central Sweden.
Elbe-Elster is a Kreis (district) in the southern part of Brandenburg, Germany.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Landkreis Emsland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany named after the river Ems.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eslöv Municipality (Eslövs kommun) is one of 290 municipalities of Sweden, situated in Skåne County in southern Sweden.
Esslingen is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the centre of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Falkenberg is a town in the Elbe-Elster district, in southwestern Brandenburg, Germany.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
Flemish Brabant (Vlaams-Brabant, Brabant flamand) is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium.
Freising is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Bavaria, Germany.
Gabriel Barkay (sometimes spelled Barkai) is an Israeli archaeologist.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gard (Gard) is a department in southern France in the Occitanie region.
Gauting is a municipality in the district of Starnberg, in Bavaria, Germany with a population of approximately 20,000.
Gaya was a Korean confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River basin of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period.
Gödény-halom (Pelican mound) is a prehistoric mound situated near the village of Békésszentandrás in Békés County, in the Southern Great Plain region of south-east Hungary.
The Geats (gēatas; gautar; götar), sometimes called Goths, were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited italic ("land of the Geats") in modern southern Sweden.
George Petrie (1 January 1790 – 17 January 1866), was an Irish painter, musician, antiquary and archaeologist of the Victorian era.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
The Getae or or Gets (Γέται, singular Γέτης) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria and southern Romania.
De origine actibusque Getarum ("The Origin and Deeds of the Getae/Goths"), or the Getica,Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, translated by C. Mierow written in Late Latin by Jordanes (or Iordanes/Jornandes) in or shortly after 551 AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, which is now lost.
The Glasinac culture (Glasinačka kultura) or Glasinac group (Гласиначка група) was an Iron Age archaeological culture named after the Glasinac locality in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Glauberg is a Celtic oppidum in Hesse, Germany consisting of a fortified settlement and several burial mounds, "a princely seat of the late Hallstatt and early La Tène periods." Archaeological discoveries in the 1990s place the site among the most important early Celtic centres in Europe.
Glauburg is a municipality in the Wetteraukreis, in Hesse, Germany.
Gloppen is a municipality in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway.
Gloucestershire (formerly abbreviated as Gloucs. in print but now often as Glos.) is a county in South West England.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
The Gokstad Mound (Norwegian: Gokstadhaugen) is a large burial mound at Gokstad Farm in Sandefjord (formerly Sandar municipality) in Vestfold County, Norway.
The Gokstad ship is a 9th-century Viking ship found in a burial mound at Gokstad in Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.
A spectacular collection of furniture and wooden artifacts was excavated by the University of Pennsylvania at the site of Gordion (Latin: Gordium), the capital of the ancient kingdom of Phrygia in the early first millennium BC.
Gordium (Γόρδιον, Górdion; Gordion or Gordiyon) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia.
Grabau is a municipality in the district of Stormarn, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Graduate Group in the Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World (AAMW) is an interdisciplinary program for research and teaching of archaeology, particularly archaeology and art of the ancient Mediterranean (Greece and Rome), Egypt, Anatolia, and the Near East, based in the Penn Museum of the University of Pennsylvania.
A grave is a location where a dead body (typically that of a human, although sometimes that of an animal) is buried.
Grønsalen or Grønjægers Høj is located near Fanefjord Church on the Danish island of Møn.
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary.
The Grianan of Aileach (Grianán Ailigh, sometimes anglicised as Greenan Ely or Greenan Fort) is a hillfort atop the high Greenan Mountain at Inishowen in County Donegal, Ireland.
Groß Berßen is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Groß Pankow (Prignitz) is a municipality in Prignitz district, Brandenburg, Germany.
Großmugl is a town in the district of Korneuburg in Lower Austria in Austria.
Gwanggaeto the Great (374–413, r. 391–413) was the nineteenth monarch of Goguryeo.
Gyeongju (경주), historically known as Seorabeol (서라벌), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea.
Gyges (Γύγης) was the founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings and reigned from 716 BC to 678 BC.
Hainaut (Hainaut,; Henegouwen,; Hinnot; Hénau) is a province of Belgium in the Walloon region.
, between 1665 and 1928 known as Frederikshald, is both a town and a municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hannut (Haneu) is a Walloon city and municipality in the Belgian province of Liege.
Hanover Region (Region Hannover) is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Haut-Rhin (Alsatian: Owerelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the river Rhine.
The Hérault (Erau) is a river of southern France.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henry Youle Hind (1 June 1823 – 8 August 1908) was a Canadian geologist and explorer.
Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, governed by Herefordshire Council.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
The Heuneburg is a prehistoric hillfort by the river Danube in Hundersingen near Herbertingen, between Ulm and Sigmaringen, Baden-Württemberg, in the south of Germany, close to the modern borders with Switzerland and Austria.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
Hildesheim is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Hill of Tara (Teamhair or Teamhair na Rí), located near the River Boyne, is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Ireland.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.
Hohenfelde is a municipality in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.
Horsens is a city in east Jutland region of Denmark.
is a town and municipality in Vestfold county, Norway—located along the Oslofjord.
Hov Dås (before 1948 spelled Hov Daas) is a large hill in Denmark of prehistoric and bronze age interest because it contains a couple of long barrows type of bronze and prehistoric burial types, and tumulus on top.
Huis van Hilde (Hilde's House) is the archaeology information centre and repository of the Dutch province North Holland, which was opened in Castricum early 2015.
Hundersingen is a village within the municipality of Herbertingen and is part of the administrative district of Sigmaringen in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Incourt is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Ipatovo kurgan refers to kurgan 2 of the Ipatovo Barrow Cemetery 3, a cemetery of kurgan burial mounds, located near the town of Ipatovo in Stavropol Krai, Russia, some northeast of Stavropol.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Iron Age Scandinavia (or Nordic Iron Age) refers to the Iron Age, as it unfolded in Scandinavia.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
The Israel Exploration Journal is a biannual academic journal which has been published by the Israel Exploration Society since 1950.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Itzehoe (Itzhoe) is a town in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jehoram of Judah or Joram (Ioram; Joram), was a king of Judah, and the son of Jehoshaphat.
Jelling is a village in Denmark with a population of 3,431 (1 January 2016), located in Jelling Parish approx.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Ji'an (formerly) is a county-level city in southwestern part of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.
John Aubrey (12 March 1626 – 7 June 1697) was an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer.
Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history later in life.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
The Kamenica Tumulus (Tuma e Kamenicës) is an important archaeological site in Kamenicë, Korçë District, Albania.
Karmøy is a municipality in Rogaland county, Norway.
The Kasta Tomb, also known as the Amphipolis Tomb (Τάφος της Αμφίπολης), is an ancient Macedonian tomb that was discovered inside the Kasta mound (or tumulus) near Amphipolis, Central Macedonia, in northern Greece in 2012 and first entered in August 2014.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kâhta (Kurdish: Kolîk, Syriac: ܓܟܬܝ/ Gakhti, Ottoman Turkish: کولک / Kölük) is a large district of Adıyaman Province of Turkey.
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.
The Kingdom of the East Angles (Ēast Engla Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens.
Klekkende Høj is a megalithic tomb on the island of Møn in Denmark.
are megalithic tombs or tumuli in Japan, constructed between the early 3rd century and the early 7th century AD.
The is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538 AD, following the Yayoi period.
Kranzberg is a municipality in the district of Freising in Bavaria in Germany.
In English, the archaeological term kurgan is a loanword from East Slavic languages (and, indirectly, from Turkic languages), equivalent to the archaic English term barrow, also known by the Latin loanword tumulus and terms such as burial mound.
L'Anse Amour is a small town on the Strait of Belle Isle in Labrador, a part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lake Marmara (Marmara Gölü) is a lake in Manisa Province, western Turkey, bordered by the district areas of Gölmarmara to the northwest, whose name itself is inspired by the lake, and in larger part by Salihli.
Landen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lemsahl-Mellingstedt is a quarter of Hamburg, Germany, in the borough Wandsbek.
The Leubingen tumulus (German: Fürstengrab von Leubingen) is an early bronze age "princely" grave of the Leubingen culture, (which, after further finds at Auntjetitz became known as Auntjetitz or Unetice culture), dating to about 1940 BC.
Liège (Lîdje; Luik,; Lüttich) is the easternmost province of Wallonia and Belgium.
The Liburnians (or Liburni) were an ancient Illyrian tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic between the rivers Arsia (Raša) and Titius (Krka) in what is now Croatia.
Lindholm Høje (Lindholm Hills, from Old Norse haugr, hill or mound) is a major Viking burial site and former settlement situated to the north of and overlooking the city of Aalborg in Denmark.
This is a list of Dutch exonyms for towns located in Belgium.
LMLK seals are ancient Hebrew seals stamped on the handles of large storage jars dating from reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) discovered mostly in and around Jerusalem.
The Locmariaquer megaliths are a complex of Neolithic constructions in Locmariaquer, Brittany.
Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean.
A long barrow is a rectangular or trapezoidal tumulus; that is, a prehistoric mound of earth and stones built over a grave or group of graves.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Landkreis Ludwigsburg is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Luxembourg (Luxembourg; Luxemburg; Luxemburg; Lëtzebuerg; Lussimbork) is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Maeshowe (or Maes Howe; Norse: Orkhaugr) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland.
Magdalenenberg is the name of an Iron Age tumulus near the city of Villingen-Schwenningen in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Maidams (Assamese language: মৈদাম moidam) are tumuli of the royalty and aristocracy of the medieval Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) in Assam.
Makran (مکران), (pronounced) is a semi-desert coastal strip in Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
Manasseh was a king of the Kingdom of Judah.
Manisa Province (Manisa ili) is a province in western Turkey. Its neighboring provinces are İzmir to the west, Aydın to the south, Denizli to the south east, Uşak to the east, Kütahya to the north east, and Balıkesir to the north. The seat of the province is the city of Manisa. Its provincial capital is the city of Manisa, the traffic code is 45.
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).
Marburg-Biedenkopf is a Kreis (district) in the west of Hesse, Germany.
The Maritime Archaic is a North American cultural complex of the Late Archaic along the coast of Newfoundland, the Canadian Maritimes and northern New England.
Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne (Matrona in Roman times) which flows through the department.
Mälaren, historically referred to as Lake Malar in English, is the third-largest freshwater lake in Sweden (after Vänern and Vättern).
Møn is an island in south-eastern Denmark.
Møre og Romsdal (Møre and Romsdal) is a county in the northernmost part of Western Norway.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
Mecklenburgische Seenplatte is a district in the southeast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Melrand is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Merzen is a municipality in the district of Osnabrück, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Merzig-Wadern is a Kreis (district) in the northwest of the Saarland, Germany.
Mesoamerican religion is grouping of the indigenous religions of Mesoamerica that were prevelant in pre-Columbian era like Aztec religion, Maya religion among others.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Ministry of Culture (Ministère de la Culture) is the ministry of the Government of France in charge of national museums and the monuments historiques.
The stories of J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contain references to numerous places.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.
* Monument historique is a designation given to some national heritage sites in France.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Morbihan (Mor-Bihan) is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France.
A mortuary enclosure is a term given in archaeology and anthropology to an area, surrounded by a wood, stone or earthwork barrier, in which dead bodies are placed for excarnation and to await secondary and/or collective burial.
In archaeology and anthropology a mortuary house is any purpose-built structure, often resembling a normal dwelling in many ways, in which a dead body is buried.
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris.
Nemrut or Nemrud (Nemrut Dağı; Çiyayê Nemrûdê; Նեմրութ լեռ) is a mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.
Mrčajevci is a small town in the municipality of Čačak, Serbia.
The Muldentalkreis is a former district in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
Nennig is a village in the Saarland, Germany, part of the municipality of Perl.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nettetal is a municipality in the district of Viersen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Neuhausen ob Eck is a town in the district of Tuttlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Niederhollabrunn is a town in the district of Korneuburg in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.
Nordhausen is a city in Thuringia, Germany.
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age, or Scandinavian Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
The Nordic Stone Age refers to the Stone Age of Scandinavia.
The North Jutland Region (Region Nordjylland), on one official website alterated to North Denmark Region, is an administrative region of Denmark established on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties ("amter") and set up five larger regions.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Oberhofen am Irrsee is a municipality in the district of Vöcklabruck in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
The district of Oldenburg (German: Landkreis Oldenburg, not to be confused with the cities of Oldenburg and Oldenburg in Holstein) is a district in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
The Oseberg ship (Norwegian: Osebergskipet) is a well-preserved Viking ship discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Osnabrück is a district (Landkreis) in the southwest of Lower Saxony, Germany.
An oval barrow is the name given by archaeologists to a type of prehistoric burial tumulus of roughly oval shape.
Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from Oxonium, the Latin name for Oxford) is a county in South East England.
The Panagyurishte Treasure (Панагюрско златно съкровище) is a Thracian treasure.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
A simple passage tomb in Carrowmore near Sligo in Ireland A passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or passage tomb consists of a narrow passage made of large stones and one or multiple burial chambers covered in earth or stone.
In Greek mythology, as recorded in Homer's Iliad, Patroclus (Πάτροκλος, Pátroklos, "glory of the father") was the son of Menoetius, grandson of Actor, King of Opus.
The Pazyryk culture is a nomadic Iron Age archaeological culture (c. 6th to 3rd centuries BC) identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans found in the Siberian permafrost, in the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and nearby Mongolia.
Pöcking is a municipality in the district of Starnberg in Bavaria in Germany.
Pepin I (also Peppin, Pipin, or Pippin) of Landen (c. 580 – 27 February 640), also called the Elder or the Old, was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia under the Merovingian king Dagobert I from 623 to 629.
Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
A platform mound is any earthwork or mound intended to support a structure or activity.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Polatlı (formerly Ancient Greek: Γορδιον, Gòrdion and Latin: Gordium) is a city and a district in Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, 80 km west of the Turkish capital Ankara, on the road to Eskişehir.
A pond barrow is a burial mound, circular in shape, well formed, and with an embanked rim made of the earth taken from the depression made in the ground.
Populonia or Populonia Alta (Etruscan: Pupluna, Pufluna or Fufluna, all pronounced Fufluna; Latin: Populonium, Populonia, or Populonii) today is a frazione of the comune of Piombino (Tuscany, central Italy).
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Prignitz is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Brandenburg, Germany.
Prissé-la-Charrière is a former commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in western France.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.
The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Turkic languages.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
A pyre (πυρά; pyrá, from πῦρ, pyr, "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution.
Rakni's Mound (Raknehaugen) in Ullensaker is the largest free-standing prehistoric monument in Norway and one of the largest barrows in Northern Europe.
Ramillies is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant.
Ravna Gora (Равна Гора) is a highland in central Serbia, at the mountain of Suvobor.
Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis is a district (Kreis) in the middle of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A rijksmonument is a national heritage site of the Netherlands, listed by the agency Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (RCE) acting for the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
The Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (English: National Museum of Antiquities) is the national archaeological museum of the Netherlands.
A ring cairn (also correctly termed a ring bank enclosure, but sometimes wrongly described as a ring barrow) is a circular or slightly oval, ring-shaped, low (maximum 0.5 metres high) embankment, several metres wide and from 8 to 20 metres in diameter.
Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Bronze age up to about the year 1000.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Rodney Stuart Young (born August 1, 1907, in Bernardsville, New Jersey, – died October 25, 1974, in Chester Springs, Pennsylvania) was an American Near Eastern archaeologist.
Rogaland is a county in Western Norway, bordering Hordaland, Telemark, Aust-Agder, and Vest-Agder counties.
The Rogozen Treasure (Рогозенско съкровище), called the find of the century, is a Thracian treasure.
Rolvsøy is a village, an island, and a former municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
Romerike is a traditional district located north-east of Oslo, in what is today south-eastern Norway.
Rostock (Landkreis Rostock) is a district in the north of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
A round barrow is a type of tumulus and is one of the most common types of archaeological monuments.
Rujm (رجم, rûjm; p. rûjûm) is a word that appears as an element in numerous place names.
Rujm el-Hiri (رجم الهري, Rujm al-Hīrī; גִּלְגַּל רְפָאִים Gilgal Refā'īm or Rogem Hiri) is an ancient megalithic monument consisting of concentric circles of stone with a tumulus at center.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saint-Nazaire (Gallo: Saint-Nazère/Saint-Nazaer) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany.
Salihli is a large town and district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey.
Salweyn, also known as Salwine, is an archaeological site in the northern Sanaag province of Somalia.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
is the most populous city and municipality in Vestfold County, Norway.
Saul (meaning "asked for, prayed for"; Saul; طالوت, Ṭālūt or شاؤل, Ša'ūl), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Sömmerda is a town near Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany, on the Unstrut river.
Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England.
Schlaitdorf is a town in the district of Esslingen in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
Schwalm-Eder-Kreis is a Kreis (district) in the north of Hesse, Germany.
Schwalmstadt is the largest town in the Schwalm-Eder district, in northern Hesse, Germany.
Schwandorf is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the eastern part of Bavaria, Germany.
Schwarzwald-Baar is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the south of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Seuthopolis (Ancient Greek: Σευθόπολις) was an ancient hellenistic-type city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III between 325-315 BC and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
A ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
Shum-gora, August 2013, as viewed from the North-East Shum Gora (Шум-гора: "Noise Hill") is a massive kurgan (tumulus) situated in Peredolskaya Volost, near the bank of the Luga River, Batetsky District, Novgorod Oblast, northwestern Russia, about 60 km west of Novgorod.
Sigmaringen is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the south of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.
The Six Hills are a collection of Roman barrows situated alongside the old Great North Road on Six Hills Common in Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England.
Skåne County (Skåne län), sometimes referred to as Scania County in English, is the southernmost county or län, of Sweden, basically corresponding to the traditional province Skåne.
Slavkov u Brna (i.e. Slavkov by Brno; historically known as Austerlitz) is a country town east of Brno in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sogn og Fjordane (English: Sogn and Fjordane) is a county in western Norway, bordering Møre og Romsdal, Oppland, Buskerud, and Hordaland.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Sonian Forest or Sonian Wood (Zoniënwoud, Forêt de Soignes) is a forest at the southeast edge of Brussels, Belgium.
Soulton Hall is a country house in Shropshire, England, located two miles east of the town of Wem, on the B5065.
The South Downs are a range of chalk hills that extends for about across the south-eastern coastal counties of England from the Itchen Valley of Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, near Eastbourne, East Sussex, in the east.
Spiro Mounds (34 LF 40) is a major Northern Caddoan Mississippian archaeological site located in present-day Eastern Oklahoma.
St Neots is a town and civil parish in the non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire, England, within the historic county of Huntingdonshire, next to the Bedfordshire county border.
Stade is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Staraya Ladoga (p); Vanha Laatokka; Aldeigjuborg) is a rural locality (a selo) in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, north of the town of Volkhov, the administrative center of the district. It used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 8th and 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus'. For that reason, it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia.
Steinburg is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.
Stormarn is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England.
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.
Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries.
Taber Hill also spelled Tabor Hill is a Wyandot (Huron) burial mound in Toronto, Ontario.
Tønsberg is a city and municipality in Vestfold county, southern Norway, located around south-southwest of Oslo on the western coast of the Oslofjord near its mouth onto the Skagerrak.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River.
Thisted is a town in Thisted municipality of Region Nordjylland, in Denmark.
The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (Казанлъшка гробница, Kazanlǎška grobnica) is a vaulted-brickwork "beehive" (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria.
The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari (Свещарска гробница, Sveštarska grobnica) is 2.5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, Razgrad Province, which is 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in northeast Bulgaria.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Tienen or Thienen (Tirlemont) is a city and municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, Belgium.
Tirzah (תרצה, variant "Thirza") is a Hebrew word meaning "she is my delight".
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
The Tumulus culture (Hügelgräberkultur) dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1600 to 1200 BC).
The Tune ship (Tuneskipet) is a Viking ship exhibited in the Viking Ship Museum (Vikingskipshuset på Bygdøy) in Bygdøy, Oslo.
Tune is a former municipality in Østfold county, Norway.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Coat of arms Tuttlingen is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the south of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Uşak (Uşak ili) is a province in western Turkey.
is the commercial and administrative centre of the municipality (kommune) of Ulstein in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Únětice culture (Czech Únětická kultura, German Aunjetitzer Kultur, Polish Kultura unietycka) is an archaeological culture at the start of the Central European Bronze Age, dated roughly to about 2300–1600BC.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Unterallgäu is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
The Unterlinden Museum (officially Musée Unterlinden) is located in Colmar, France, in the Alsace region.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
An urn is a vase, often with a cover, that usually has a somewhat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
In Norse mythology, Valhalla (from Old Norse Valhöll "hall of the slain")Orchard (1997:171–172).
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Västerås is a city in central Sweden, located on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province Västmanland, some west of Stockholm.
Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.
Veii (also Veius, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
The Veluwe is a forest-rich ridge of hills (1100 km2) in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vergina (Βεργίνα) is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia.
Vestfold is a county in Norway, on the western shore of the Oslofjord.
Vetulonia, formerly called Vetulonium (Etruscan Vatluna), was an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, the site of which is probably occupied by the modern village of Vetulonia, which up to 1887 bore the name of Colonnata and Colonna di Buriano: the site is currently a frazione of the comune of Castiglione della Pescaia, with some 400 inhabitants.
Viersen is a Kreis (district) in the west of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
The Viking Ship Museum (Norwegian: Vikingskipshuset på Bygdøy) is located at Bygdøy in Oslo, Norway.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by the Etruscan civilization.
Villingen-Schwenningen is a town in the Schwarzwald-Baar district in southern Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Vitín is a small village and municipality in southern Bohemia, having around 250 inhabitants.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
The Vorstengraf (grave of the king) in Oss is one of the largest burial mounds in the Netherlands and Belgium.
Walhain (Walloon: Walin) is a Walloon municipality of Belgium located in the province of Walloon Brabant.
Walloon Brabant (Brabant wallon, Dutch:, Roman Payis) is a province of Belgium, located in Wallonia.
Wandsbek is the second-largest of seven boroughs that make up the city of Hamburg, Germany.
Waremme (Borgworm) is a Walloon municipality located in the province of Liège, in Belgium.
Wasdow is a village and a former municipality in the district of Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Watson Brake is an archaeological site in present-day Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, from the Archaic period.
Wayland's Smithy is a Neolithic long barrow and chamber tomb site located near the Uffington White Horse and Uffington Castle, at Ashbury in the English county of Oxfordshire.
The West Kennet Long Barrow is a Neolithic tomb or barrow, situated on a prominent chalk ridge, near Silbury Hill, one-and-a-half miles south of Avebury in Wiltshire, England.
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove) to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, and to the south the English Channel.
The Wetteraukreis is a Kreis (district) in the middle of Hesse, Germany.
Wildeshausen (Low Saxon: Wilshusen) is a town and the capital of the Oldenburg district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 – September 19, 1971) was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, philologist, and expert on ceramics.
William Stukeley (7 November 1687 – 3 March 1765) was an English antiquarian, physician, and Anglican clergyman.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yding Skovhøj in Horsens municipality, Jutland is one of Denmark's highest points.
Ynglinga saga is a legendary saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225.
Zedekiah, also written Tzidkiyahu, originally called Mattanyahu or Mattaniah, was a biblical character, the last king of Judah before the destruction of the kingdom by Babylon.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zschadraß is a village and a former municipality in the Leipzig district in Saxony, Germany.
Barrow (archaeology), Barrow burial, Barrow-mound, Burial Mounds, Burial mound, Burial mounds, Fancy barrow, Grave mound, Grave mounds, Hügelgrab, Hügelgräber, Indian burial mounds, Mound burial, Tumuli, Tumulus barrow.