78 relations: Alas (geography), Alaska, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic Treaty System, Antipodean albatross, Antipodes Islands, Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, Arctic vegetation, Arctostaphylos alpina, Auckland Islands, Biodiversity, Biodiversity action plan, Biome, Bounty Islands, Brooks Range, Campbell Islands, Carbon dioxide, Colobanthus quitensis, Conservation movement, Corybas dienemus, Corybas sulcatus, Cyperaceae, Deschampsia antarctica, Ecoregion, Ecotone, Edmundo Pisano, Empetrum nigrum, Ericaceae, European Russia, Evapotranspiration, Fellfield, Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Habitat, Ice cap, Iceland, Köppen climate classification, Kerguelen Islands, Kildin Sami language, Krummholz, Lichen, List of tundra ecoregions, Macquarie Island, Magellanic moorland, Mammoth steppe, Marchantiophyta, Moss, Muskox, ..., National Geographic Society, Nature (journal), Nenets people, Nganasan people, Northern Hemisphere, Park Tundra, Patagonia, Permafrost, Physical geography, Phytogeography, Poaceae, Poikilotherm, Polar climate, Reindeer, Royal penguin, Russian language, Sami people, Sápmi, Scandinavia, Shrub, Siberia, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Subarctic climate, Taiga, Tree line, Vapor pressure, West Siberian Plain, World Wide Fund for Nature. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Alas (Алаас) is a shallow depression which occurs primarily in Yakutia, which is formed by subsidence of the Arctic permafrost due to repeated melting and refreezing.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
The Antipodean albatross (Diomedea antipodensis) is a large seabird in the albatross family.
The Antipodes Islands (from Greek αντίποδες - antipodes) are inhospitable and uninhabited volcanic islands in subantarctic waters to the south of – and territorially part of – New Zealand.
The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion, within the Tundra Biome, includes five remote island groups in the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand: the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands and Campbell Island groups of New Zealand, and Macquarie Island of Australia.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
The Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus), or polar rabbit, is a species of hare which is highly adapted to living in the Arctic tundra, and other icy biomes.
In the Arctic, the low tundra vegetation clothes a landscape of wide vistas, lit by the low-angle light characteristic of high latitudes.
Arctostaphylos alpina, with the common names alpine bearberry, mountain bearberry, or black bearberry is a dwarf shrub in the heather family Ericaceae.
The Auckland Islands (Māori: Motu Maha or Maungahuka) are an archipelago of New Zealand, lying south of the South Island.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The Bounty Islands are a small group of 13 uninhabited granite islets and numerous rocks, with a combined area of, in the south Pacific Ocean that are territorially part of New Zealand.
The Brooks Range (Athabaskan Gwazhał) is a mountain range in far northern North America stretching some from west to east across northern Alaska into Canada's Yukon Territory.
The Campbell Islands (or Campbell Island group) are a group of subantarctic islands, belonging to New Zealand.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort) is one of two native flowering plants found in the Antarctic region.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
Corybas dienemus, commonly known as the windswept helmet-orchid, is one of two helmet orchids endemic to Australia's subantarctic Macquarie Island, and the first orchid to be found there.
Corybas sulcatus, also known as the grooved helmet-orchid, is one of two helmet orchids endemic to Australia’s subantarctic Macquarie Island, and the second to be discovered.
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass) is one of two flowering plants native to Antarctica, the other being Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort).
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes.
Edmundo Pisano Valdés (19 May 1919 – 29 March 1997) was a Chilean plant ecologist, botanist and agronomist.
Empetrum nigrum, crowberry, black crowberry, or, in western Alaska, blackberry, is a flowering plant species in the heather family Ericaceae with a near circumboreal distribution in the northern hemisphere.
The Ericaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the heath or heather family, found most commonly in acid and infertile growing conditions.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
A fellfield or fell field comprises the environment of a slope, usually alpine or tundra, where the dynamics of frost (freeze and thaw cycles) and of wind give rise to characteristic plant forms in scree interstices.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kerguelen Islands (or; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen), also known as the Desolation Islands (Îles de la Désolation in French), are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two exposed parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau.
Kildin Saami (also known by its other synonymous names Saami, Kola Saami, Eastern Saami and Lappish), is a Saami language that is spoken on the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia that today is and historically was once inhabited by this group.
Krummholz or krumholtz (German: krumm, "crooked, bent, twisted" and Holz, "wood") — also called knieholz ("knee timber") — is a type of stunted, deformed vegetation encountered in subarctic and subalpine tree line landscapes, shaped by continual exposure to fierce, freezing winds.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
A list of tundra ecoregions from the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) includes.
Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54° 30' S, 158° 57' E.
Herschel Island, Cabo de Hornos National Park. The Magellanic moorland or Magellanic tundra (Tundra Magallánica) is an ecoregion on the Patagonian archipelagos south of latitude 48° S. It is characterized by high rainfall with a vegetation of scrubs, bogs and patches of forest in more protected areas.
During the Last Glacial Maximum, the mammoth steppe was the Earth’s most extensive biome.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.
The Nganasans (Nganasan: ӈәнә”са(нә”) ŋənəhsa(nəh), ня(”) ńæh) are an indigenous Samoyedic people inhabiting the Taymyr Peninsula in north Siberia.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Park tundra was a plant community that occurred in northwestern Europe after the last ice age ended.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
The royal penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli) is a species of penguin, which can be found on the sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island and adjacent islands.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Sápmi, in English commonly known as Lapland, is the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people, traditionally known in English as Lapps.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
The West Siberian Plain, also known as Zapadno-sibirskaya Ravnina, (За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east, and by the Altay Mountains on the southeast.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.