252 relations: A15 phases, Abrasive, Acetylene hydratase, Acid, Aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase, Alkali, Allotropes of iron, Alloy, Alpha decay, Arc welding, Archaea, Atmospheric pressure, Atomic number, ATP-binding cassette transporter, ATPase, BBC News, Bergara, Biomolecule, Boiling point, Borosilicate glass, Brittleness, Brushed metal, Bullet, Calcium, Cancer, Cancer cluster, Carbide, Carbon, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Catalysis, Cathode ray tube, Cello, Celsius, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ceramic, Charcoal, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chicago, Chlorine, Circular saw, Cobalt, Coercivity, Conflict resource, Copper, Cosmic Ray Subsystem, Counterfeit, Covalent bond, Crystal habit, ..., Crystallinity, Cubic crystal system, Dartmoor, Darts, Deal–Grove model, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dense Inert Metal Explosive, Density, Depleted uranium, Dielectric, Dolly (tool), Drakelands Mine, Drawing (manufacturing), Ductility, Earthworm, Electric light, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrode, Electron microscope, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Extrusion, Fahrenheit, Fallon, Nevada, Fausto Elhuyar, Ferberite, Field emission gun, Fishing lure, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Fluorescent lamp, Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, Forging, Formate dehydrogenase, Formula One, Free element, Gas tungsten arc welding, General Electric, Georgius Agricola, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin), Gold, Gold bar, Grenade, Hacksaw, Hafnium, Half-life, Hardness, Haynes International, Hübnerite, Heating element, Heteropoly acid, High-speed steel, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, Hypoallergenic, Ingot, Integrated circuit, Intercalation (chemistry), Intraperitoneal injection, Iodine, Ion, Iron, Isotope, Jewellery, Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, John Hopkinson, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Juan José Elhuyar, Keggin structure, Kinetic energy penetrator, Lead, Leukemia, List of chemical element name etymologies, List of chemical elements naming controversies, London Metal Exchange, Lubricant, Magnesium, Mallory metal, Manganese, Mars Science Laboratory, Martensite, Median lethal dose, Melting point, Metal, Metal lathe, Metal matrix composite, Metalloprotein, Metalworking, Metastability, Milling (machining), Mineral, Mining, Missile, Molybdenum, Molybdenum cofactor, Molybdopterin, Nanoelectronics, Nanolithography, Nanowire, NASCAR, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nickel, Nitrogen oxide, Nordic countries, NOx, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear physics, Octahedron, Ore, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxidoreductase, Oxygen, Panasqueira, Periodic Videos, Permease, Petroleum, Phosphorus, Phosphotungstic acid, Plastic, Platinum, Polyoxometalate, Popular Science, Precious metal, Projectile, Prokaryote, ProSieben, Pterin, Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrolysis, Pyrophoricity, Radiation protection, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Radiopharmaceutical, Real Sociedad Bascongada de Amigos del País, Receptor antagonist, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Remanence, Reproduction, Ring (jewellery), Rivet, Rocket engine, Rocket engine nozzle, Scheelite, Scintillator, Selective catalytic reduction, Shot (pellet), Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silicon nanowire, Sintering, Sodium tungstate, Sodium tungsten bronze, Stable isotope ratio, Standard enthalpy of reaction, Steel, Stellite, Sublimation (phase transition), Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Superalloy, Superconductivity, Swedish language, Tanning (leather), Technetium, Tetrathiomolybdate, Thermal expansion, Thermal oxidation, Thermococcus, Thermococcus litoralis, Tin, Tonne, Torbern Bergman, Toughness, Transition metal, Tungstate, Tungsten carbide, Tungsten disulfide, Tungsten hexachloride, Tungsten hexafluoride, Tungsten oxide, Tungsten trioxide, Tungstic acid, Turbine, UGM-27 Polaris, Ultimate tensile strength, United Kingdom, United States Geological Survey, Uranium, Urine, Vacuum tube, Vapor pressure, Voyager program, William D. Coolidge, Wolframite, World War I, World War II, X-ray, X-ray tube, Xanthine dehydrogenase. Expand index (202 more) » « Shrink index
The A15 phases (also known as β-W or Cr3Si structure types) are series of intermetallic compounds with the chemical formula A3B (where A is a transition metal and B can be any element) and a specific structure.
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.
In enzymology, an acetylene hydratase is a rare example of an enzyme containing tungsten.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In enzymology, an aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Iron represents perhaps the best-known example for allotropy in a metal.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bergara (Vergara) is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
A piece of brushed aluminium A collection of brushed stainless steel Breville small appliances A DeLorean DMC-12 featuring non-structural brushed stainless steel panels The Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri Brushed or dull polished metal is metal with a unidirectional satin finish.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A cancer cluster is a disease cluster in which a high number of cancer cases occurs in a group of people in a particular geographic area over a limited period of time.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A circular saw is a power-saw using a toothed or abrasive disc or blade to cut different materials using a rotary motion spinning around an arbor.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
In electrical engineering and materials science, the coercivity, also called the magnetic coercivity, coercive field or coercive force, is a measure of the ability of a ferromagnetic material to withstand an external magnetic field without becoming demagnetized.
Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS, or Cosmic Ray System) is an instrument aboard the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft of the NASA Voyager program, and it is an experiment to detect cosmic rays.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England.
Darts is a sport in which small missiles/torpedoes/arrows/darts are thrown at a circular dartboard fixed to a wall.
The Deal–Grove model mathematically describes the growth of an oxide layer on the surface of a material.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Dense Inert Metal Explosive (DIME) is an experimental type of explosive that has a relatively small but effective blast radius.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
A 'dolly' is the name given to a category of tools used in shaping sheet metal.
Drakelands Mine, formerly known as Hemerdon Mine or the Hemerdon Ball or Hemerdon Bal Mine, is a tungsten and tin mine.
Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).
Fallon is a city in Churchill County, Nevada, United States.
Fausto de Elhuyar (11 October 1755 – 6 February 1833) was a Spanish chemist, and the joint discoverer of tungsten with his brother Juan José Elhuyar in 1783.
Ferberite is the iron endmember of the manganese - iron wolframite solid solution series.
A field emission gun is a type of electron gun in which a sharply pointed Müller-type emitter is held at several kilovolts negative potential relative to a nearby electrode, so that there is sufficient potential gradient at the emitter surface to cause field electron emission.
A fishing lure is a type of artificial fishing bait which is designed to attract a fish's attention.
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) or Folin's phenol reagent or Folin–Denis reagent, also called the gallic acid equivalence method (GAE), is a mixture of phosphomolybdate and phosphotungstate used for the colorimetric in vitro assay of phenolic and polyphenolic antioxidants.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
Formate dehydrogenases are a set of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, donating the electrons to a second substrate, such as NAD+ in formate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (EC 18.104.22.168) or to a cytochrome in formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase (EC 22.214.171.124).
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
In chemistry, a free element is a chemical element that is not combined with or chemically bonded to other elements.
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
In enzymology, a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, H2O, and oxidized ferredoxin, whereas its 3 products are 3-phospho-D-glycerate, H+, and reduced ferredoxin.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold bar, also called gold bullion or a gold ingot, is a quantity of refined metallic gold of any shape that is made by a bar producer meeting standard conditions of manufacture, labeling, and record keeping.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and mainly made for cutting metal.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Haynes International, Inc., headquartered in Kokomo, Indiana, is one of the world’s largest producers of high‑performance nickel‑ and cobalt-based alloys in flat product form such as sheet, coil and plate forms; it also manufactures alloys in seamless and welded tubulars, and in slab, bar, billet and wire forms.
Hübnerite or hubnerite is a mineral consisting of manganese tungsten oxide (chemical formula: MnWO4, it isn't a tungstate).
A heating element converts energy into heat through the process of resistive or Joule heating.
A heteropoly acid is a class of acid made up of a particular combination of hydrogen and oxygen with certain metals and non-metals.
High-speed steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels, commonly used as cutting tool material.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into materials with layered structures.
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (11 July 1709 – 16 November 1785) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
John Hopkinson, FRS, (27 July 1849 – 27 August 1898) was a British physicist, electrical engineer, Fellow of the Royal Society and President of the IEE (now the IET) twice in 1890 and 1896.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905.
Juan José Elhuyar Lubize (15 June 1754 – 20 September 1796) was a Spanish chemist and mineralogist, who is best known for being first to isolate tungsten with his brother Fausto Elhuyar in 1783.
Keggin structure is the best known structural form for heteropoly acids.
A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
This is the list of etymologies for all chemical element names.
The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element.
The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Mallory metal is proprietary name for an alloy of tungsten, with other metallic elements added to improve machining.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metal lathe or metalworking lathe is a large class of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials.
A metal matrix composite (MMC) is composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal necessarily, the other material may be a different metal or another material, such as a ceramic or organic compound.
Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
Milling is the machining process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece by advancing (or feeding) the cutter into the workpiece at a certain direction.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Molybdenum cofactor has two meanings, which are sometimes used interchangeably.
Molybdopterins are a class of cofactors found in most molybdenum (Mo) and all tungsten (W) enzymes.
Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components.
Nanolithography is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between 1 and 1,000 nm.
A nanowire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometer (10−9 meters).
National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is an American auto racing sanctioning and operating company that is best known for stock-car racing.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Minas da Panasqueira or Mina da Panasqueira (Panasqueira Mine) is the generic name for a set of mining operations between Cabeço do Pião (Fundão Municipality) and the village of Panasqueira (Covilhã Municipality), which operated in a technically integrated manner and continue practically since its discovery.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permeases are membrane transport proteins, a class of multipass transmembrane proteins that allow the diffusion of a specific molecule in or out of the cell in the direction of a concentration gradient, a form of facilitated diffusion.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphotungstic acid (PTA), tungstophosphoric acid (TPA), is a heteropoly acid with the chemical formula 31240.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
In chemistry, a polyoxometalate (abbreviated POM) is a polyatomic ion, usually an anion, that consists of three or more transition metal oxyanions linked together by shared oxygen atoms to form closed 3-dimensional frameworks.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
ProSieben (sieben is German for seven) is a commercial television station in Germany.
Pterin is a heterocyclic compound composed of a pteridine ring system, with a keto group and an amino group on positions 4 and 2 respectively.
Pyrococcus furiosus is an extremophilic species of Archaea.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.
The Royal Basque Society of Friends of the Country (in Basque Euskalerriaren Adiskideen Elkartea and in Spanish Real Sociedad Bascongada de Amigos del País), also known as La Bascongada or Bascongada Society, was founded in the mid-18th century to encourage the scientific, cultural and economic development of the Basque Country.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Remanence or remanent magnetization or residual magnetism is the magnetization left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
A ring is a round band, usually of metal, worn as an ornamental piece of jewellery around the finger, or sometimes the toe; it is the most common current meaning of the word "ring".
A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities.
Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, and water.
Shot is a collective term for small balls or pellets, often made of lead.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicon nanowires, also referred to as SiNWs, are a type of nanowire most often formed from a silicon precursor by etching of a solid or through catalyzed growth from a vapor or liquid phase.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Sodium tungstate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2WO4.
Sodium tungsten bronze is a form of insertion compound with the formula NaxWO3, where x is equal to or less than 1.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
The standard enthalpy of reaction (denoted ΔHr⊖) is the enthalpy change that occurs in a system when matter is transformed by a given chemical reaction, when all reactants and products are in their standard states.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stellite is a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear resistance.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Tetrathiomolybdate, also spelled tiomolibdate (USAN), is the anion of the following salts.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
In microfabrication, thermal oxidation is a way to produce a thin layer of oxide (usually silicon dioxide) on the surface of a wafer.
In taxonomy, Thermococcus is a genus of extreme thermophiles in the family the Thermococcaceae.
Thermococcus litoralis (T. litoralis) is a species of Archaea that is found around deep-sea hydrothermal vents as well as shallow submarine thermal springs and oil wells.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Torbern Olaf (Olof) Bergman (KVO) (20 March 17358 July 1784) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables ever published.
In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
In chemistry, a tungstate is a compound that contains an oxoanion of tungsten or is a mixed oxide containing tungsten.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Tungsten disulfide is the chemical compound with the formula WS2.
Tungsten hexachloride is the chemical compound of tungsten and chlorine with the formula WCl6.
Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6.
Tungsten has several oxidation states, and therefore oxides.
Tungsten(VI) oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten.
Tungstic acid refers to hydrated forms of tungsten trioxide, WO3.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
William David Coolidge (October 23, 1873 – February 3, 1975) was an American physicist and engineer, who made major contributions to X-ray machines.
Wolframite, (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and hübnerite (Mn2+ rich).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Xanthine dehydrogenase, also known as XDH, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XDH gene.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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