179 relations: Ad hoc, Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Albert Kesselring, Alexandria, Algeria, Allied Force Headquarters, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Alphonse Juin, Amphibious warfare, Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Arthur Coningham (RAF officer), Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, Atlas Mountains, Axis powers, Battle of El Guettar, Battle of Gazala, Battle of Hill 609, Battle of Kasserine Pass, Battle of Longstop Hill (1943), Battle of Medenine, Battle of Sedjenane, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Mareth Line, Battle of Wadi Akarit, Béja, Benghazi, Bernard Montgomery, Bizerte, Brian Horrocks, British Empire, Cap Serrat, Cape of Good Hope, Carl Spaatz, Casablanca Conference, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Walter Allfrey, Churchill tank, Desert Air Force, Division von Broich/von Manteuffel, Djedeida, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Egypt, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Enfidha, Ernest N. Harmon, Erwin Rommel, Federal government of the United States, First Army (Italy), ..., First Army (United Kingdom), First Battle of El Alamein, Force K, Fort Lesley J. McNair, François Darlan, French Committee of National Liberation, French protectorate of Tunisia, General (United Kingdom), George S. Patton, Giovanni Messe, Greece, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Henri Giraud, II Corps (United States), Indian Ocean, Italian Campaign (World War II), Italian invasion of Egypt, Italian Navy, IX Corps (United Kingdom), John Crocker, Joseph Goebbels, Karl Bülowius, Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer), Kingdom of Italy, Laurence S. Kuter, Libyan Coastal Highway, Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), List of World War II battles, Lloyd Fredendall, Lucian Truscott, Luftwaffe, Majaz al Bab, Major general (United States), Malta, Mareth Line, Mateur, Mediterranean Sea, Military history of France during World War II, Military history of Italy during World War II, Moroccan Goumier, Morocco, Nazi Germany, Nile, No. 1 Commando, North African Campaign, North Irish Horse, Northwest African Air Forces, Office of Public Sector Information, Omar Bradley, Operation Compass, Operation Crusader, Operation Flax, Operation Ochsenkopf, Operation Retribution (1943), Operation Roundup (1942), Operation Sledgehammer, Operation Sonnenblume, Operation Torch, Operations Vulcan and Strike, Panzer Army Africa, Poland, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Prisoner of war, Red Sea, Royal Air Force, Royal Hampshire Regiment, Royal Italian Army during World War II, Royal Navy, Sbeitla, Second Battle of El Alamein, Sicily, Siege of Tobruk, Sortie, Syria, Tabor (Morocco), Tebaga Gap, Tebourba, Tenth Army (Italy), Tobruk, Tripoli, Tunis, Tunisia, Tunisian Victory, Ukraine, United States, United States Army Center of Military History, V Corps (United Kingdom), Walther Nehring, Wehrmacht, Western Desert Force, Wolfgang Fischer, World War II, X Corps (United Kingdom), 10th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 128th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 131st Armoured Division Centauro, 138th (Lincoln and Leicester) Brigade, 139th (Sherwood Foresters) Brigade, 169th (3rd London) Brigade, 16th Infantry Division Pistoia, 18th Army Group, 19th Army Corps (France), 1st (United Kingdom) Division, 1st Armored Division (United States), 1st Fallschirm-Panzer Division Hermann Göring, 1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 1st Infantry Division (United States), 1st Infantry Division Superga, 1st Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom), 22nd Guards Brigade, 2nd New Zealand Division, 334th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 33rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 34th Infantry Division (United States), 36th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 4th Infantry Division (India), 4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 501st Heavy Panzer Battalion, 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division, 56th (London) Infantry Division, 5th Panzer Army, 6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41, 90th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht). Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alphonse Pierre Juin (16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963) was a senior officer of the British Royal Navy during the Second World War.
Air Marshal Sir Arthur "Mary" Coningham, (19 January 1895 – presumably 30 January 1948) was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.
The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Battle of El Guettar was a battle that took place during the Tunisia Campaign of World War II, fought between elements of the Army Group Africa under General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, along with Italian First Army under General Giovanni Messe, and U.S. II Corps under Lieutenant General George Patton in south-central Tunisia.
The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.
The Battle of Hill 609 took place at Djebel Tahent in northwestern Tunisia during the Tunisia Campaign.
The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II that took place in February 1943.
The 2nd Battle of Longstop Hill or the Capture of Longstop Hill took place in Tunisia during the Tunisia Campaign from 21 to 23 April 1943.
The Battle of Medenine, also known as Operation Capri (Unternehmen Capri), was an Axis spoiling attack at Medenine in Tunisia on 6 March 1943.
Sedjenane is a town in northern Tunisia, on the railway line to Mateur and the port of Bizerta.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Mareth Line or the Battle of Mareth was an attack in the Second World War by the British Eighth Army (General Bernard Montgomery) in Tunisia, against the Mareth Line held by the Italo-German 1st Army (General Giovanni Messe).
The Battle of Wadi Akarit (Operation Scipio) was an Allied attack from 6–7 April 1943, to dislodge Axis forces from positions along the Wadi Akarit in Tunisia (also known as the Akarit Line) during the Tunisia Campaign of the Second World War.
Beja (باجة) is a city in Tunisia.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.
Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (7 September 1895 – 4 January 1985) was a British Army officer, chiefly remembered as the commander of XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden and other operations during the Second World War.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Cap Serrat (رأس سيراط) is a cape situated in the North West Tunisia region, between the cities of Sejnane and Tabarka.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Carl Andrew Spaatz (born Spatz; June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974), nicknamed "Tooey", was an American World War II general.
The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Lieutenant General Sir Charles Walter Allfrey, (24 October 1895 – 2 November 1964) was a senior British Army officer who served in both the world wars, most notably during the Second World War as General Officer Commanding of V Corps in North Africa and Italy from 1942 to 1944.
The Tank, Infantry, Mk IV (A22) Churchill was a British heavy infantry tank used in the Second World War, best known for its heavy armour, large longitudinal chassis with all-around tracks with multiple bogies, its ability to climb steep slopes, and its use as the basis of many specialist vehicles.
The Desert Air Force (DAF), also known chronologically as Air Headquarters Western Desert, Air Headquarters Libya, the Western Desert Air Force, and the First Tactical Air Force (1TAF), was an Allied tactical air force created from No. 204 Group under RAF Middle East Command in North Africa in 1941 to provide close air support to the British Eighth Army.
Division von Broich was a German provisional infantry division active in 1942-43 in North Africa named after its notable commander Friedrich von Broich, created on 15 November 1942 by renaming the Schützen-Brigade (Rifle Brigade) von Broich, a provisional unit formed from Ortskommandeur II/960 on 10 November.
Djedeida is a town and commune in the Manouba Governorate, Tunisia.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
Enfidha (or Dar-el-Bey, دار البي) is a town in north-eastern Tunisia with a population of approximately 10,000.
Major General Ernest Nason Harmon (February 26, 1894 – November 13, 1979) was a senior officer of the United States Army.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Italian First Army was an Italian army formation, in World War I, facing Austro-Hungarian and German forces, and in World War II, fighting on the North African front.
The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
Force K was the name of three British Royal Navy task forces during the Second World War.
Fort Lesley J. McNair is a United States Army post located on the tip of Greenleaf Point, the peninsula that lies at the confluence of the Potomac River and the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. To the peninsula's west is the Washington Channel, while the Anacostia River is on its south side.
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.
The French Committee of National Liberation (Comité français de Libération nationale) was a provisional government of Free France formed by the French generals Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle to provide united leadership, organize and coordinate the campaign to liberate France from Nazi Germany during World War II.
The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Giovanni Messe (10 December 1883 – 18 December 1968) was an Italian general, politician, and field marshal (Maresciallo d'Italia).
Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 – 1 September 1962) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 11 March 1949) was a French general who was captured in both World Wars, but escaped both times.
The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
The Italian Navy (Marina Militare, "Military Navy"; abbreviated as MM) is the maritime defence force of the Italian Republic.
IX Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that existed during World War I and World War II.
General Sir John Tredinnick Crocker, (4 January 1896 – 9 March 1963) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both world wars.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Karl Robert Max Bülowius (2 March 1890 – 27 March 1945) was a German Army officer who served during the First World War and the Second World War.
General Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson, (25 December 1891 – 29 April 1959) was a senior British Army officer who saw service in both world wars.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
General Laurence Sherman Kuter (May 28, 1905 – November 30, 1979) was a Cold War-era U.S. Air Force general and former commander of the North American Air Defence Command (NORAD).
The Libyan Coastal Highway (الطريق الساحلي الليبي), formerly the Litoranea Balbo, is a highway that is the only major road that runs along the entire east-west length of the Libyan Mediterranean coastline.
Lieutenant general (Lt Gen), formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.
This is a list of World War II battles.
Lieutenant General Lloyd Ralston Fredendall (December 28, 1883 – October 4, 1963) was a senior officer of the United States Army who fought during World War II.
General Lucian King Truscott Jr. (January 9, 1895 – September 12, 1965) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer, who saw distinguished active service during World War II.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Majaz al Bab (مجاز الباب), also known as Medjez el Bab, or as Membressa under the Roman Empire, is a town in northern Tunisia.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by France in southern Tunisia, prior to World War II.
Mateur (ماطر) is a town in northern Tunisia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The military history of France during World War II covers three periods.
The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.
The Moroccan Goumiers (Les Goumiers Marocains) were indigenous soldiers who served in auxiliary units attached to the French Army of Africa, between 1908 and 1956.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The North Irish Horse is a yeomanry unit of the British Territorial Army raised in the northern counties of Ireland in the aftermath of the Second Boer War.
Northwest African Air Forces (NAAF) was a component of the Allied Mediterranean Air Command (MAC) during February–December 1943.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941.
Operation Flax was a Western Allied air operation executed during the Tunisia Campaign, as part of the larger North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Unternehmen Ochsenkopf (Operation Ox Head) also known as the Battle of Sidi Nsir, and the Battle of Hunts Gap was an Axis offensive operation in Tunisia from 1943, during the Tunisia Campaign of the Second World War.
During the Second World War, Operation Retribution was the air and naval blockade designed to prevent the seaborne evacuation of Axis forces from Tunisia to Sicily.
Operation Roundup was the codename for a 1942 plan for an invasion of Northern France by Allied forces during World War II.
Operation Sledgehammer was a World War II Allied plan for a cross-Channel invasion of Europe, as the first step in helping to reduce pressure on the Soviet Red Army by establishing a Second Front.
Operation Sonnenblume (Unternehmen Sonnenblume/Operation Sunflower) was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
Operation Vulcan (22 April–6 May 1943) and Operation Strike (6–12 May 1943) were the final ground attack by the Allied forces against the Italian and German forces in Tunis, Cap Bon, and Bizerte, the last Axis toeholds in North Africa, during the Tunisia Campaign of the Second World War.
As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the enlarged Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command and a succession of commands were created to manage Axis forces in Africa.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Hampshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, created as part of the Childers Reforms in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot and the 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot.
This article is about the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which participated in World War II.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Sbeitla or Sufetula (Sbitla or Seftula, سبيطلة) is a city in north-central Tunisia.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tabor was the designation given to an irregular unit of indigenous infantry and cavalry recruited in Morocco during the period of French intervention and occupation (1908-56).
The Tebaga Gap of southern Tunisia is a low mountain pass located in rough rocky broken country giving entry to the inhabitable and inhabited coastal plain to the north and east from much less hospitable desert dominated terrain in southern and south-western Tunisia.
Tebourba (طبربة) is a town in Tunisia, located about 20 miles (30 km) from the capital Tunis, former ancient city (Thuburbo Minus) and bishopric, now a Latin Catholic titular see.
The Italian Tenth Army was an Italian Army which fought in World War I and in Italian North Africa during World War II.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tunisian Victory is a 1944 Anglo-American propaganda film about the victories in the North Africa Campaign.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
V Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II.
Walther Nehring (15 August 1892 – 20 April 1983) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the Afrika Korps.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Desert Force (WDF) was a British Army formation active in Egypt during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
Wolfgang Fischer (11 December 1888 – 1 February 1943) was an officer in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X Corps was a corps of the British Army that served in the First World War on the Western Front before being disbanded in 1919.
The 10th Panzer Division was a formation of the German Army during World War II.
The 128th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army.
The 131st Armoured Division Centauro (in 131ª Divisione Corazzata "Centauro") was an armoured division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 138th (Lincoln and Leicester) Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in World War I with the 46th (North Midland) Division.
The 139th (Sherwood Foresters) Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in World War I with the 46th (North Midland) Division.
The 169th (3rd London) Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service in both the First and the Second World Wars.
The 16th Infantry Division Pistoia was an auto-transportable infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 18th Army Group was an Allied formation in the Second World War.
The French 19th Army Corps (19e Corps d'Armée) was formed in 1873.
The 1st (United Kingdom) Division, formerly known as the 1st Armoured Division, is a division of the British Army, currently the only British division to be stationed in Germany.
The 1st Armored Division—nicknamed "Old Ironsides"—is a combined arms division of the United States Army.
The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1.
The 1st Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army with a very long history.
The 1st Infantry Division is a combined arms division of the United States Army, and is the oldest continuously serving in the Regular Army.
1st Infantry Division Superga was a mountain infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 1st Parachute Brigade was an airborne forces brigade formed by the British Army during the Second World War.
The 22nd Guards Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II.
The 2nd New Zealand Division, initially the New Zealand Division, was an infantry division of the New Zealand Military Forces (New Zealand's army) during the Second World War.
The 334th Infantry Division (German: 334. Infanteriedivision) was a German Army infantry division in World War II.
The 33rd Infantry Division (33.) was a German Army infantry division active in World War II.
The 34th Infantry Division is an infantry division of the United States Army, part of the National Guard, that participated in World War I, World War II and multiple current conflicts.
The 36th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of British Army that fought in World War I, as part of 12th (Eastern) Division, on the Western Front.
The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed "The Rock of the Marne)" is an Infantry division of the United States Army based at Fort Stewart, Georgia.
The 46th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army raised in 1939 that saw distinguished service during World War II, fighting in the Battle of France and the Battle of Dunkirk where it was evacuated and later in North Africa, Italy and Greece.
The 4th Indian Infantry Division, also known as the Red Eagle Division, is the infantry division name the Indian Army retained after the present India adopted its entire rank and structure from its parent Army, the British Army.
The 4th Infantry Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War.
The 501st Heavy Panzer Battalion ("schwere Panzerabteilung 501"; abbreviated: "s PzAbt 501") was a German heavy Panzer Abteilung (an independent battalion-sized unit) equipped with heavy tanks.
The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw distinguished service in the Second World War.
The 56th (London) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army, which served under several different titles and designations.
The 5th Panzer Army, also known as Panzer Group West and Panzer Group Eberbach (German: 5.Panzer-Armee, Panzergruppe West, Panzergruppe Eberbach) was a panzer army which saw action in the Western Front and North Africa.
The 6th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army, created in September 1940 during the Second World War.
The 78th Infantry Division, also known as the Battleaxe Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, raised during World War II that fought, with great distinction, in Tunisia, Sicily and Italy from late 1942–1945.
The 7th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II, where its exploits in the Western Desert Campaign gained it the Desert Rats nickname.
The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
The 90th Light Infantry Division was a light infantry division of the German Army during World War II that served in North Africa as well as Sardinia and Italy.