383 relations: A2 motorway (Netherlands), Abandoned Pennsylvania Turnpike, Abercynon, Adit, Air changes per hour, Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel, Allegheny Mountain Tunnel, Alpine Tunnel, Apennine Mountains, Aqueduct (bridge), Aqueduct (water supply), Asphyxia, Auburn Tunnel, Aurland, Austria-Hungary, Autopista de Circunvalación M-30, Avalanche, Øresund Bridge, Balvano train disaster, Barge, Berlin Wall, Bertha (tunnel boring machine), Big Dig, Birkenhead, Bjørvika Tunnel, Blue Mountain Tunnel, Bogotá, Bond (finance), Border Security Force, Borehole, Boroughs of New York City, Bosporus, Boston, Box Tunnel, Boyabat, Bridge, Burrow, Butterley Company, Butterley Tunnel, Caldecott Tunnel fire, Canal, Canary Wharf tube station, Canton of Glarus, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Cattle creep, Củ Chi tunnels, Central Pacific Railroad, Channel Tunnel, Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel, ..., Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Chicago metropolitan area, China, Chipmunk, Civil engineering, Clayton Tunnel rail crash, Closed-circuit television, Coal, Col de Tende Road Tunnel, Cold War, Colombia, Colorado, Combustion, Common Era, Concurrency (road), Condition monitoring, Continental Divide of the Americas, Contraband, Control room, Cost–benefit analysis, Critical path method, Cromford Canal, Cross section (geometry), Crown Street railway station, Dahuofang Water Tunnel, Death of Diana, Princess of Wales, Deformation (mechanics), Delaware Aqueduct, Derbyshire, Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, Diameter, Donner Pass, Double-track railway, Downtown Seattle, Drainage tunnel, Drawbridge, Drift mining, Drilling and blasting, Dudley, Dudley Canal, Dudley Tunnel, Durağan, East London line, Echo Arena Liverpool, Edge Hill railway station, Egypt, Eiksund Tunnel, Elbe Tunnel (1975), Elizabeth River (Virginia), Eminent domain, England, English Channel, Erdstall, Espionage, Essingeleden, Etymology, Eupalinos, Euphrates Tunnel, Eurasia Tunnel, European route E69, Exhaust gas, Farnworth railway station, Fenghuoshan Tunnel, Firefighter, Flood, Folly, Footbridge, France, Fréjus Rail Tunnel, Fritchley Tunnel, Furlo Pass, Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels, Gök River, Genoa, Geomechanics, George Stephenson, Geotechnical engineering, German Empire, Gerrards Cross Tunnel, Glasgow, Glasgow Subway, Glossary of rail transport terms, Gloucester, Gonabad, Gotthard Base Tunnel, Gotthard Tunnel, Greece, Ground freezing, Groundwater, Hamburg, Hampton Roads, Herrenknecht, Highway, Hindustan Times, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Hokkaido, Holland Tunnel, Hong Kong, Honningsvåg Tunnel, Honshu, HSL-Zuid, Hydraulic splitter, Hydroelectricity, Immersed tube, Intermodal container, Interstate 93, Iran, Irrigation, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Italy, Jack (device), James Henry Greathead, Jammu and Kashmir, Japan, Kızılırmak River, Kerala, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingsway Tunnel, Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel, Kuala Lumpur, La Línea (Road Pass), Laurel Hill Tunnel, Lava tube, Lærdal, Lærdal Tunnel, Lötschberg Base Tunnel, Lekamøya, Lincoln Tunnel, Line of Control, Linthal, Glarus, Linth–Limmern Power Stations, Lion Rock Tunnel, List of Schedule I drugs (US), Liverpool, Liverpool Lime Street railway station, Liverpool Riverside railway station, Liverpool Waters, London, London Overground, London Underground, Long Island, Maastricht, Malaysia, Manhattan, Marc Isambard Brunel, Marmaray, Mass, Massachusetts Route 3, Mattock, Megaproject, Megara, Mersey Railway, Merseyrail, Merthyr Tydfil, Metropolitan line, Michigan, Military engineering, Mining, Mittagong, Mittelwerk, Moffat Tunnel, Mont Blanc Tunnel, Montgomery Bell Tunnel, Mount Gibraltar, Narrow-gauge railway, National Fire Protection Association, Natural Tunnel State Park, Naval Station Norfolk, NDTV, New Austrian tunnelling method, New Jersey, New Kowloon, New South Wales, New York City, New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, Newcastle upon Tyne, Norfolk, Virginia, North Aegean, North Shore Connector, North West England, Northern line, Norway, NRLA, Ontario, Park Lane railway goods station, Pennsylvania Turnpike, Pentrebach, Penydarren, People, Pipe ramming, Pipeline transport, Pittsburgh, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Portsmouth, Virginia, Project management, Punarjani Guha, Pythagoreion, Qanat, Qinghai–Tibet railway, Queens, Queens–Midtown Tunnel, Queensway Tunnel, Rail transport, Rainhill, Rapid transit, Rays Hill Tunnel, Rhyndaston Tunnel, Richard Trevithick, Ripley, Derbyshire, River Mersey, Rock (geology), Rodent, Roman roads, Roof, Rove Tunnel, Royal Imtech N.V., Ryfast, Saint-Gotthard Massif, Salem, Massachusetts, Samos, San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, Sanitary sewer, Sapperton Canal Tunnel, Sapperton Railway Tunnel, Sømna, Seattle, Secret passage, Seikan Tunnel, Semmering railway, Severn Tunnel, Sewerage, Sha Tin New Town, Shaft (civil engineering), Shanghai, Shanghai Yangtze River Tunnel and Bridge, Shildon, Shotcrete, Sideling Hill Tunnel, Siege, Sierra Nevada (U.S.), Siloam tunnel, Simplon Tunnel, Slurry wall, SMART Tunnel, Smuggling, Snow shed, SoDo, Seattle, South Coast railway line, New South Wales, South Lake Union, Seattle, South Pennsylvania Railroad, Southern Pacific Transportation Company, Spain, Spoil tip, St. Clair Tunnel, Stanwell Park, New South Wales, Stavanger, Steam Horse locomotive, Stockholm, Strength of materials, Stress (mechanics), Structure gauge, Submerged floating tunnel, Subway (underpass), Svalbard, Swindon, Swiss Alps, Switzerland, Tennessee Pass (Colorado), Tesco, Thames and Severn Canal, Thames Tunnel, The New York Times, The Railway Magazine, Thirlmere Aqueduct, Thomas Jefferson, Tool, Torghatten, Track (rail transport), Traffic, Tree tunnel, Trench, Trieste, Troll, Tsugaru Strait, Tunnel, Tunnel and Reservoir Plan, Tunnel boring machine, Tunnel network, Tunnel of Eupalinos, Tunnel warfare, Tunnelling companies of the Royal Engineers, Tunnelling shield, Tunnels in popular culture, Turin, Turkey, Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel, Tyne and Wear Metro, U.S. Route 1 in Massachusetts, Underground Railroad, Underwater diving, UniCredit, United Kingdom, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Navy, Utility tunnel, Ventilation (architecture), Ventilation shaft, Vespasian, Via Flaminia, Victoria Tunnel (Liverpool), Victorian era, Vienna, Virginia, Vole, Wales, Wapping Dock, Wapping Tunnel, Washington (state), Washington State Route 99, Water table, Waterloo Dock (Liverpool), Waterloo Tunnel, Weapon, Welwyn Tunnel rail crash, Western Scheldt Tunnel, Wildlife crossing, Williamson Tunnels, Work breakdown structure, World War I, Yerba Buena Island, Yerba Buena Tunnel, Zhongnanshan Tunnel, 1996 Channel Tunnel fire. 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The A2 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands.
The Abandoned Pennsylvania Turnpike is the common name of a stretch of the Pennsylvania Turnpike that was bypassed in 1968 when a modern stretch opened to ease traffic congestion in the tunnels.
Abercynon, is a village and community (and electoral ward) in the Cynon Valley within the unitary authority of Rhondda Cynon Taf, Wales.
An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level.
Air changes per hour, or air change rate, abbreviated ACH or ACPH, is a measure of the air volume added to or removed from a space (normally a room or house) divided by the volume of the space.
The Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel is a bored road tunnel that is under construction in the city of Seattle in the U.S. state of Washington.
The Allegheny Mountain Tunnel is a vehicular tunnel carrying the Pennsylvania Turnpike through the Allegheny Mountains.
Alpine Tunnel is a narrow gauge railroad tunnel located east of Pitkin, Colorado on the former Denver, South Park and Pacific Railroad route from Denver to Gunnison.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Auburn Tunnel was a 19th-century canal tunnel built for the Schuylkill Canal, near Auburn, Pennsylvania.
Aurland is a municipality in the county of Sogn og Fjordane, Norway.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The M-30 orbital motorway circles the central districts of Madrid, the capital city of Spain.
An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.
The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Øresundsbroen,; Öresundsbron,; hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Sweden and Denmark.
The Balvano train disaster was the deadliest railway accident in Italian history and one of the worst railway disasters ever.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bertha was a tunnel boring machine built specifically for the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel project in Seattle.
The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), known unofficially as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93, the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 1.5-mile (2.4 km) Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel.
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England.
The Bjørvika Tunnel (Bjørvikatunnelen) is a motorway immersed tunnel on European Route E18 in the city center of Oslo, Norway.
The Blue Mountain Tunnel is one of two tunnels through Blue Mountain in Pennsylvania, located west of Newburg.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
The Border Security Force (BSF) is the primary border guarding force of India.
A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Box Tunnel is a railway tunnel in Western England, between Bath and Chippenham, dug through Box Hill, and is a significant structure on the Great Western Main Line (GWML).
Boyabat is a town and district of Sinop Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
The Butterley Company was an English manufacturing firm founded as Benjamin Outram and Company in 1790.
Butterley Tunnel is a one and three quarter mile long canal tunnel on the Cromford Canal below Ripley, in Derbyshire, England, opened to traffic in 1794.
The Caldecott Tunnel fire killed seven people in the third (then-northernmost) bore of the Caldecott Tunnel, on State Route 24 between Oakland and Orinda in the U.S. state of California, just after midnight on 7 April 1982.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Canary Wharf is a London Underground station in the Canary Wharf commercial estate; it is on the Jubilee line, between and.
The canton of Glarus, also canton of Glaris (ˈɡlarʊs) is a canton in east central Switzerland.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
A cattle creep is a small, field-to-field access for farm animals, usually to allow passage beneath an obstacle such as a road, canal, or railway embankment.
The tunnels of Củ Chi are an immense network of connecting underground tunnels located in the Củ Chi District of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam, and are part of a much larger network of tunnels that underlie much of the country.
The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America.
The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel (CBBT) is a bridge–tunnel crossing at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, the Hampton Roads harbor, and nearby mouths of the James and Elizabeth Rivers in the American state of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, next to Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units.
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area that includes the city of Chicago, Illinois, and its suburbs.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chipmunks are small, striped rodents of the family Sciuridae.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
The Clayton Tunnel rail crash occurred on Sunday 25 August 1861, five miles from Brighton on the south coast of England.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Portal on Italian side Col de Tende Road Tunnel is a 3182 metre long road tunnel running under Col de Tende between France and Italy.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical road bearing two or more different highway, motorway, or other route numbers.
Condition monitoring (or, colloquially, CM) is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery (vibration, temperature etc.), in order to identify a significant change which is indicative of a developing fault.
The Continental Divide of the Americas (also known as the Great Divide, the Continental Gulf of Division, or merely the Continental Divide) is the principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.
The word contraband, reported in English since 1529, from Medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item that, relating to its nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold.
A control room, operations center, or operations control center (OCC) is a room serving as a central space where a large physical facility or physically dispersed service can be monitored and controlled.
Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.
The critical path method (CPM), or critical path analysis (CPA), is an algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities.
The Cromford Canal ran from Cromford to the Erewash Canal in Derbyshire, England with a branch to Pinxton.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
Crown Street Station was a passenger railway terminal station located on Crown Street, Liverpool, England.
The Dahuofang Water Tunnel (Chinese), located in Liaoning Province, China is an tunnel eight meters in diameter which provides water from the Dahuofang Reservoir to the cities of Shenyang, Fushun, Liaoyang, Anshan, Panjin, Yingkou, and Dalian.
On 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died as a result of injuries sustained in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, France.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
The Delaware Aqueduct is the newest of the New York City aqueducts.
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.
The Detroit–Windsor Tunnel (French: Tunnel Detroit-Windsor), also known as the Detroit-Canada Tunnel, is a highway tunnel connecting Detroit, Michigan, in the United States, with Windsor, Ontario, in Canada.
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
Donner Pass (el.) is a mountain pass in the northern Sierra Nevada, above Donner Lake about west of Truckee, California.
A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.
Downtown is the central business district of Seattle, Washington.
A drainage tunnel is a tunnel dug under some region requiring drainage, either from lower elevation or from a location where a pumping station can be economically run.
A drawbridge or draw-bridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle and a number of towers, surrounded by a moat.
Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.
Dudley is a large town in the county of West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.
The Dudley Canal is a canal passing through Dudley in the West Midlands of England.
Dudley Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Dudley Canal Line No 1, England.
Durağan is a town and district of Sinop Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
The East London line is part of the London Overground, running north to south through the East, Docklands and South areas of London.
The Echo Arena Liverpool is a purpose-built entertainment venue for live music, comedy performances and sporting events.
Edge Hill railway station serves the district of Edge Hill in Liverpool, England.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eiksund tunnel (Eiksundtunnelen) is an undersea tunnel in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway, which runs under the Vartdalsfjorden connecting Ørsta Municipality and Ulstein Municipality.
The New Elbe Tunnel (Neuer Elbtunnel), often simply called Elbtunnel, is a subterranean Elbe river crossing in northern Germany located in Hamburg.
The Elizabeth River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
An erdstall is a type of tunnel found across Europe.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Essingeleden is a motorway that goes from Solna to Stockholm, Sweden, crossing the westmost parts of central Stockholm, by going over Kungsholmen, Lilla Essingen, and Stora Essingen.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Eupalinos (Εὐπαλῖνος) or Eupalinus of Megara was an ancient Greek engineer who built the Tunnel of Eupalinos on Samos Island in the 6th century BC.
The Euphrates Tunnel was allegedly a tunnel which was built under the Euphrates river to connect the two halves of the city of Babylon, in the old Mesopotamia.
The Eurasia Tunnel (Avrasya Tüneli) is a road tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing underneath the Bosphorus strait.
European route E 69 is an E-road between Olderfjord and North Cape in northern Norway.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
Farnworth railway station serves the Greater Manchester town of Farnworth, in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, England.
The Fenghuoshan Tunnel is the highest railway tunnel in the world.
A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
In architecture, a folly is a building constructed primarily for decoration, but suggesting through its appearance some other purpose, or of such extravagant appearance that it transcends the range of garden ornaments usually associated with the class of buildings to which it belongs.
A footbridge (also called a pedestrian bridge, pedestrian overpass, or pedestrian overcrossing) is a bridge designed for pedestrians and in some cases cyclists, animal traffic, and horse riders, instead of vehicular traffic.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Fréjus Rail Tunnel (also called Mont Cenis Tunnel) is a rail tunnel of length in the European Alps, carrying the Turin–Modane railway through Mount Cenis to an end-on connection with the Culoz–Modane railway and linking Bardonecchia in Italy to Modane in France.
Fritchley Tunnel is a disused railway tunnel at Fritchley in Derbyshire, England, which is believed to be the oldest surviving example in the world.
Entrance of the Roman tunnel. The Furlo Pass (Italian: Gola del Furlo or Passo del Furlo) is a gorge on the ancient Roman road Via Flaminia in the Marche region of central Italy, where it passes near the Candigliano river, a tributary of the Metauro.
The Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels are passages that have been dug under the Philadelphi Corridor, a narrow strip of land, 14 km (8.699 miles) in length, situated along the border between Gaza Strip and Egypt.
The Gök River or Gökırmak (Turkish for "Sky River"; Ancient Greek Amnias) is a tributary of the Kızılırmak in Turkey.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Geomechanics (from the Greek prefix geo- meaning "earth"; and "mechanics") involves the geologic study of the behavior of soil and rock.
George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Gerrards Cross Tunnel is a railway tunnel in Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, on the Chiltern Main Line.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Glasgow Subway is an underground metro line in Glasgow, Scotland.
Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Gonabad (گناباد, also Romanized as Gonābād; also known as Gūnābād; formerly Janābaz) is a city and capital of Gonabad County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran.
The Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT; Gotthard-Basistunnel, Galleria di base del San Gottardo, Tunnel da basa dal Son Gottard) is a railway tunnel through the Alps in Switzerland.
The Gotthard Tunnel (Gotthardtunnel, Galleria del San Gottardo) is a railway tunnel and forms the summit of the Gotthard Railway in Switzerland.
Ground freezing is a construction technique used in circumstances where soil needs to be stabilized so it will not collapse next to excavations, or to prevent contaminants spilled into soil from being leached away.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.
Herrenknecht AG is a German manufacturer of tunnel boring machines, headquartered in Allmannsweier, Schwanau, Baden-Württemberg.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
is a major Japanese industrial and engineering corporation.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
The Holland Tunnel is a vehicular tunnel under the Hudson River.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Honningsvåg Tunnel (Honningsvågtunnelen) is a road tunnel on the island of Magerøya in Nordkapp Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
The HSL-Zuid (Hogesnelheidslijn Zuid, High-speed Line South), is a 125 kilometres-long (78 miles) Dutch high-speed railway line running between the Amsterdam metropolitan area and the Belgian border, with a branch to Breda, North Brabant.
The hydraulic splitter, also known as rock splitter and darda splitter, is the first type of portable hydraulic tool that is used in demolition jobs which involve breaking large blocks of concrete and rocks.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
An immersed tube is a kind of underwater tunnel composed of segments, constructed elsewhere and floated to the tunnel site to be sunk into place and then linked together.
An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo.
Interstate 93 (I-93) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th-century engineering giants", and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
A jack, screwjack or jackscrew is a mechanical device used as a lifting device to lift heavy loads or to apply great forces.
James Henry Greathead (6 August 1844 – 21 October 1896) was a civil engineer renowned for his work on the London Underground railway.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Kızılırmak (Turkish for "Red River"), also known as the Halys River (Ἅλυς), is the longest river entirely within Turkey.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingsway Tunnel (or Wallasey Tunnel) is a toll road tunnel under the River Mersey between Liverpool and Wallasey.
The Kittatinny Mountain Tunnel is a tunnel through Kittatinny Mountain in Franklin County, Pennsylvania.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
La Línea (The Line) is a highway tunnel currently under construction between the cities of Calarcá, Quindío and Cajamarca, Tolima in Colombia.
Laurel Hill Tunnel is one of three original tunnels on the Pennsylvania Turnpike which were abandoned (this one in 1964) after two massive realignment projects.
A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow.
Lærdal is a municipality in the southeastern part of Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway.
The Lærdal Tunnel (Lærdalstunnelen) is a long road tunnel connecting Lærdal and Aurland in Sogn og Fjordane, Norway and located approximately north-east of Bergen.
The Lötschberg Base Tunnel (LBT) is a half-completed railway base tunnel on the BLS AG's Lötschberg line cutting through the Bernese Alps of Switzerland some below the existing Lötschberg Tunnel.
Lekamøya is a mountain in the municipality of Leka in Trøndelag county, Norway.
The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately tunnel under the Hudson River, consisting of three vehicular tubes.
The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.
Linthal is a village, and former municipality, in the municipality of Glarus Süd and canton of Glarus in Switzerland.
The Linth–Limmern Power Stations are a system of hydroelectric power stations located south of Linthal in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland.
The Lion Rock Tunnel, the first major road tunnel in Hong Kong, is a twin-bored toll tunnel, connecting Sha Tin in the New Territories and New Kowloon near Kowloon Tong.
This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Liverpool Lime Street is a terminus railway station, and the main station serving the city centre of Liverpool.
Liverpool Riverside was a railway station owned by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board and located at Liverpool's Pier Head ocean liner terminal.
Liverpool Waters is a large scale £5.5bn development that has been proposed by the Peel Group in the Vauxhall area of Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
London Overground (also known simply as the Overground) is a suburban rail network serving London and its environs.
The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (25 April 1769 – 12 December 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in England.
Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Route 3 is a southward continuation of U.S. Route 3, connecting Cambridge, Massachusetts with Cape Cod.
A mattock is a versatile hand tool, used for digging and chopping, similar to the pickaxe.
A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment project.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
The Mersey Railway was a passenger railway that connected the communities of Liverpool and Birkenhead, England, which lie on opposite banks of the River Mersey, via the Mersey Railway Tunnel from 1886 to 1948.
Merseyrail is both a train operating company (TOC) and a commuter rail network in and around Liverpool City Region, England.
Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful) is a large town in Wales, with a population of about 63,546, situated approximately north of Cardiff.
The Metropolitan line (colloquially known as the Met) is a London Underground line that runs between in the City of London and and in Buckinghamshire, with branches to in Hertfordshire and in the western London Borough of Hillingdon.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mittagong is a town located in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in Wingecarribee Shire.
Mittelwerk (German for "Central Works") was a German World War II factory built underground in the Kohnstein to avoid Allied bombing.
The Moffat Tunnel is a railroad and water tunnel that cuts through the Continental Divide in north-central Colorado.
The Mont Blanc Tunnel is a highway tunnel in Europe, under the Mont Blanc mountain in the Alps.
The Montgomery Bell Tunnel, also known as the Patterson Forge Tunnel, is a historic water diversion tunnel in Harpeth River State Park in Cheatham County, Tennessee.
Mount Gibraltar (Aboriginal: Bowrell) is a mountain with an elevation of that is located in the Southern Highlands region, between Bowral and Mittagong, in New South Wales, Australia.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a United States trade association, albeit with some international members, that creates and maintains private, copyrighted standards and codes for usage and adoption by local governments.
Natural Tunnel State Park is a Virginia state park, centered on the Natural Tunnel, a massive naturally formed cave that is so large it is used as a railroad tunnel.
Naval Station Norfolk, is a United States Navy base in Norfolk, Virginia.
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.
The New Austrian tunneling method (NATM), also known as sequential excavation method (SEM), is a method of modern tunnel design and construction.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Kowloon is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong, bounded in the south by Boundary Street, and in the north by the ranges of the Lion Rock, Beacon Hill, Tate's Cairn and Kowloon Peak.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New York City Water Tunnel No.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The North Aegean (Περιφέρεια Βορείου Αιγαίου) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece.
The North Shore Connector is a light-rail extension opened in 2012 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
The Northern line is a London Underground line that runs from south-west to north-west London, with two branches through central London and three in the north.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The New Railway Link through the Alps (NRLA) (Neue Eisenbahn-Alpentransversale, NEAT, nouvelle ligne ferroviaire à travers les Alpes, NLFA, Nuova ferrovia transalpina, NFTA), is a Swiss construction project for faster north-south rail links across the Swiss Alps.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Park Lane was the world's first goods terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway serving the south end Liverpool Docks.
The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
Pentrebach (sometimes written Pentre-Bach, literally: small village) is a village in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough, Wales and is formed from the original settlements of Lower Pentrebach, Tai-bach and Duffryn.
Penydarren (Penydarren) is a community in Merthyr Tydfil County Borough in Wales.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
Pipe ramming (sometimes also called pipe jacking) is a trenchless method for installation of steel pipes and casings.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the United States, New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress.
Portsmouth is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time.
Punarjani Guha is a 150-metre natural tunnel in a rocky cliff situated in Thiruvilwamala in Thrissur District of Kerala state.
The Pythagoreion is the archaeological site of the ancient town of Samos in Samos, Greece.
A qanāt (قنات) is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking.
The Qinghai–Tibet railway or Qingzang railway (མཚོ་བོད་ལྕགས་ལམ།, mtsho bod lcags lam), is a high-elevation railway that connects Xining, Qinghai Province, to Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
The Queens–Midtown Tunnel (known as the Midtown Tunnel) is a toll tunnel underneath the East River in New York City.
The Queensway Tunnel is a road tunnel under the River Mersey, in the north west of England, between Liverpool and Birkenhead.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rainhill is a large village and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of St Helens, in Merseyside, England.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rays Hill Tunnel is one of three original Pennsylvania Turnpike tunnels which were abandoned (this one in 1968) after two massive realignment projects.
The Rhyndaston Tunnel is a 955-metre-long, 1-in-40-grade (2.5%) railway tunnel in southern Tasmania.
Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833) was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England.
Ripley is a town in the Amber Valley borough of Derbyshire, England.
The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A roof is part of a building envelope.
The Rove Tunnel is a canal tunnel in France that connected Marseille to the Rhône river.
Royal Imtech N.V. was a European technical services provider in the fields of electrical solutions, ICT (information and communication technology) and mechanical solutions.
Ryfast is a sub-sea tunnel system under construction in Norway.
The Saint-Gotthard Massif (German: Gotthardmassiv or Sankt-Gotthard-Massiv) is a mountain range in the Alps in Switzerland, located at the border of four cantons: Valais, Ticino, Uri and Graubünden.
Salem is a historic, coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts' North Shore.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, known locally as the Bay Bridge, is a complex of bridges spanning San Francisco Bay in California.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
The Sapperton Canal Tunnel is a tunnel on the Thames and Severn Canal near Cirencester in Gloucestershire, England.
The Sapperton Railway Tunnel, named after the nearby village of Sapperton (near Cirencester, Gloucestershire) carries the Golden Valley Line from Stroud to Swindon through the Cotswold escarpment.
Sømna is a municipality in Nordland county, Norway.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Secret passages, also commonly referred to as hidden passages or secret tunnels, are hidden routes used for stealthy travel, escape, or movement of people and goods.
The is a 53.85 km (33.46 mi) dual gauge railway tunnel in Japan, with a 23.3 km (14.5 mi) long portion under the seabed.
The Semmering railway (Semmeringbahn) in Austria, which starts at Gloggnitz and leads over the Semmering to Mürzzuschlag was the first mountain railway in Europe built with a standard gauge track.
The Severn Tunnel (Twnnel Hafren) is a railway tunnel in the United Kingdom, linking South Gloucestershire in the west of England to Monmouthshire in south Wales under the estuary of the River Severn.
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.
Shatin New Town is one of the new towns in Hong Kong.
In civil engineering a shaft is an underground vertical or inclined passageway.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai Yangtze River Tunnel and Bridge is a bridge–tunnel complex across the south fork of the Yangtze River near the river mouth in Shanghai.
Shildon is a town in County Durham, in England.
Shotcrete, gunite or sprayed concrete is concrete or mortar conveyed through a hose and pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface, as a construction technique.
Sideling Hill Tunnel is one of three original Pennsylvania Turnpike tunnels abandoned (this one in 1968) after two massive realignment projects.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Sierra Nevada (snowy saw range) is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin.
The Siloam Tunnel (נקבת השילוח, Nikbat HaShiloah), also known as Hezekiah's Tunnel, is a water tunnel that was carved underneath the City of David in Jerusalem in ancient times.
The Simplon Tunnel is a railway tunnel on the homonymous line that connects Brig, Switzerland and Domodossola, Italy, through the Alps, providing a shortcut under the Simplon Pass route.
A slurry wall is a civil engineering technique used to build reinforced concrete walls in areas of soft earth close to open water, or with a high groundwater table.
The Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel (SMART Tunnel),, is a storm drainage and road structure in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and a major national project in the country.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
A snow shed, snow bridge or avalanche gallery is a type of rigid snow-supporting structure for avalanche control (avalanche defense) or to maintain passage in areas where snow removal becomes almost impossible.
SoDo, alternatively SODO, is a neighborhood in Seattle, Washington, that makes up part of the city's Industrial District.
The South Coast railway line (also known as the Illawarra railway line) is a commuter and goods railway line in New South Wales, Australia.
South Lake Union (sometimes SLU) is a neighborhood in Seattle, Washington, so named because it is at the south tip of Lake Union.
The South Pennsylvania Railroad is the name given to two proposed but never completed Pennsylvania railroads in the nineteenth-century.
The Southern Pacific (or Espee from the railroad initials- SP) was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
Stanwell Park is a picturesque coastal village and northern suburb of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
Stavanger is a city and municipality in Norway.
The Steam Horse was constructed by the Butterley Company in Derbyshire in 1813 by William Brunton (1777–1851).
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
The structure gauge, also called the minimum clearance outline, is the minimum height and width of tunnels and bridges as well as the minimum height and width of the doors that allow a rail siding access into a warehouse.
A submerged floating tunnel (SFT), also called a suspended tunnel or Archimedes bridge, is a proposed design for a tunnel that floats in water, supported by its buoyancy (specifically, by employing the hydrostatic thrust, or Archimedes' principle).
In the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong and Commonwealth countries such as India, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, a subway is normally an underpass for pedestrians and/or cyclists beneath a road or railway, allowing them to reach the other side in safety.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Swindon is a large town in Wiltshire, South West England, between Bristol, to the west, and Reading, the same distance east.
The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tennessee Pass elevation is a high mountain pass in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado in the United States.
Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.
The Thames and Severn Canal is a canal in Gloucestershire in the south of England, which was completed in 1789.
The Thames Tunnel is an underwater tunnel, built beneath the River Thames in London, connecting Rotherhithe and Wapping.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Railway Magazine is a monthly British railway magazine, aimed at the railway enthusiast market, that has been published in London since July 1897.
The Thirlmere Aqueduct is a 95.9-mile-long (154.3-kilometre-long) pioneering section of water supply system built by the Manchester Corporation Water Works between 1890 and 1925.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
Torghatten is a granite mountain on Torget island in Brønnøy municipality in Nordland county, Norway.
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.
A tree tunnel is a road, lane or track where the trees on each side form a more or less continuous canopy overhead, giving the effect of a tunnel.
A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide (as opposed to a wider gully, or ditch), and narrow compared with its length (as opposed to a simple hole).
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore.
The is a strait between Honshu and Hokkaido in northern Japan connecting the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
The Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (abbreviated TARP and more commonly known as the Deep Tunnel Project or the Chicago Deep Tunnel) is a large civil engineering project that aims to reduce flooding in the metropolitan Chicago area, and to reduce the harmful effects of flushing raw sewage into Lake Michigan by diverting storm water and sewage into temporary holding reservoirs.
A tunnel boring machine (TBM), also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata.
In transport, tunnels can be connected together to form a tunnel network.
The Tunnel of Eupalinos or Eupalinian aqueduct (in Greek: Efpalinion orygma - Ευπαλίνιον όρυγμα) is a tunnel of length in Samos, Greece, built in the 6th century BC to serve as an aqueduct.
Tunnel warfare is a general name for war being conducted in tunnels and other underground cavities.
Royal Engineer tunnelling companies were specialist units of the Corps of Royal Engineers within the British Army, formed to dig attacking tunnels under enemy lines during the First World War.
A tunnelling shield is a protective structure used during the excavation of large, man-made tunnels.
Mysterious tunnels or "secret passages" are a common element of the local folklore tradition in Europe.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tuscarora Mountain Tunnel is one of four original Pennsylvania Turnpike tunnels still in active use.
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as simply The Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in the Tyne and Wear region.
In the U.S. state of Massachusetts, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) is a major north–south highway through Boston.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.
UniCredit S.p.A. is an Italian global banking and financial services company.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
A utility tunnel, utility corridor, or utilidor is a passage built underground or above ground to carry utility lines such as electricity, steam, water supply pipes, and sewer pipes.
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.
In subterranean civil engineering, ventilation shafts, also known as airshafts or vent shafts, are vertical passages used in mines and tunnels to move fresh air underground, and to remove stale air.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
The Via Flaminia was an ancient Roman road leading from Rome over the Apennine Mountains to Ariminum (Rimini) on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and due to the ruggedness of the mountains was the major option the Romans had for travel between Etruria, Latium, Campania, and the Po Valley.
The Victoria Tunnel in Liverpool, England is a long rail tunnel.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
A vole is a small rodent.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wapping Dock is a dock on the River Mersey, England, and part of the Port of Liverpool.
Wapping or Edge Hill Tunnel in Liverpool, England, was designed by George Stephenson and was constructed between 1826 and 1829 to enable goods services to operate between Liverpool docks and Manchester, as part of the planned Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
State Route 99 (SR 99), also known as the Pacific Highway, is a state highway in the Seattle metropolitan area, part of the U.S. state of Washington.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
Waterloo Dock is a dock on the River Mersey, England, and part of the Port of Liverpool.
The Waterloo Tunnel in Liverpool, England, is a former railway tunnel, long, which opened in 1849.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
The Welwyn Tunnel rail crash took place in Welwyn North Tunnel, north of Welwyn (now Welwyn North) station on the Great Northern Railway, on 9 June 1866.
Western Scheldt Tunnel (Westerscheldetunnel) is a tunnel in the Netherlands that carries highway N62 under the Western Scheldt estuary between Ellewoutsdijk and Terneuzen.
Wildlife crossings are structures that allow animals to cross human-made barriers safely.
The Williamson Tunnels comprise a labyrinth of tunnels in the Edge Hill area of Liverpool, England, which were built under the direction of the eccentric businessman Joseph Williamson between 1810 and 1840.
A work-breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering, is a deliverable-oriented breakdown of a project into smaller components.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yerba Buena Island sits in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland, California.
The Yerba Buena Tunnel, also known as the Yerba Buena Island Tunnel, is a highway tunnel in San Francisco, California.
Zhongnanshan Tunnel, or Qinling Zhongnanshan Tunnel in Shaanxi province, China, is the longest two-tube road tunnel in China.
The Channel Tunnel fire of 18 November 1996 occurred on a train carrying Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) and their drivers through the Channel Tunnel from France to the United Kingdom (UK).
Clay-kickers, Clay-kicking, Cut and cover, Cut-and-cover, Cut-and-cover tunnel, Diversion Tunnel, Pilot tunnel, Rail tunnel, Railroad tunnel, Railway Tunnel, Railway tunnel, Road tunnel, Subterranean excavation, Tunnel Ventilation, Tunnel fire, Tunnels, Tunnels and Underground Excavations, Under pass, Underground tunnel, Underpass, Vehicular tunnel.