373 relations: Acoustic liner, Aero L-159 Alca, Aerodynamics, Aeronautical Development Agency, Aerospace, Aerospace manufacturer, Afterburner, Air cooling, Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbreathing jet engine, Airbus A300, Airbus A310, Airbus A318, Airbus A320 family, Airbus A320neo family, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A350 XWB, Airbus A380, Aircraft, Aircraft engine, Aircraft on ground, Airframe, Airline, Airliner, Alan H. Epstein, Albany International, Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master, Allison Engine Company, Alloy, Antonov An-124 Ruslan, Antonov An-148, Antonov An-225 Mriya, Antonov An-72, Apollo program, Asheville, North Carolina, Asymptote, Auxiliary power unit, Aviadvigatel, Aviadvigatel PD-14, Aviadvigatel PS-90, Aviation, Avio, Avionics, Axial fan design, Beechcraft, Beriev Be-200, Boeing, Boeing 717, Boeing 737, ..., Boeing 737 MAX, Boeing 747, Boeing 747-8, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Boeing C-17 Globemaster III, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, Bombardier Challenger 300, Bombardier Challenger 600 series, Bombardier CRJ, Bombardier CSeries, Bombardier Global 7500, Bombardier Global Express, Brayton cycle, Bristol Siddeley, British Aerospace 146, Bypass ratio, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carbon-fiber tape, Cargo aircraft, Centrifugal force, Ceramic matrix composite, Cessna Citation Excel, Cessna Citation Hemisphere, Cessna Citation Mustang, Cessna Citation Sovereign, Cessna Citation X, Cessna CitationJet/M2, CFE CFE738, CFM International, CFM International CFM56, CFM International LEAP, Chengdu J-10, Chord (aeronautics), Cirrus Vision SF50, Clean Sky, Cleveland, Combustion chamber, Compressor, Compressor map, Compressor stall, Computational fluid dynamics, Crystallite, Daimler-Benz DB 007, Dassault Falcon 2000, Dassault Falcon 5X, Dassault Falcon 7X, Dassault Falcon 900, Dassault Mirage 2000, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Deformation (engineering), Distributed propulsion, Double-decker bus, Douglas DC-8, Ducted fan, Eastern Bloc, Eclipse 500, Electric aircraft, Embraer, Embraer E-Jet E2 family, Embraer E-Jet family, Embraer ERJ family, Embraer Legacy 500, Embraer Phenom 100, Embraer Phenom 300, End-face mechanical seal, Energy density, Engine Alliance, Engine Alliance GP7000, Engine pressure ratio, Epicyclic gearing, ETOPS, Eurofighter Typhoon, Eurojet EJ200, EuroJet Turbo GmbH, Exhaust gas, FADEC, Federal Aviation Administration, Fighter aircraft, Flex temp, Flightglobal, Fokker 100, Fokker 70, Foreign object damage, Garrett TFE731, Gas turbine, Gas Turbine Research Establishment, GE Aviation, GE Honda HF120, Geared turbofan, General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, General Electric, General Electric Catalyst, General Electric CF34, General Electric CF6, General Electric CF700, General Electric CJ805, General Electric F110, General Electric F404, General Electric F414, General Electric GE36, General Electric GE90, General Electric GE9X, General Electric GEnx, General Electric J79, General Electric J85, General Electric Passport, General Electric TF34, General Electric TF39, General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136, Germany, Glenn Research Center, Government of India, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri, Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corporation, Guizhou WS-13, Gulfstream G100, Gulfstream G200, Gulfstream G280, Gulfstream G500/G600, Gulfstream IV, Gulfstream V, HAL AMCA, HAL HJT-36 Sitara, HAL Tejas, Hawker Siddeley Harrier, Heat exchanger, Hispano-Suiza 12Y, Honda HA-420 HondaJet, Honeywell, Honeywell Aerospace, Honeywell HTF7000, Honeywell/ITEC F124, Huntsville, Alabama, IAE V2500, IHI Corporation, IHI Corporation F7, IHI Corporation XF5, Ilyushin Il-62, Ilyushin Il-76, Ilyushin Il-86, Ilyushin Il-96, Industria de Turbo Propulsores, Intercooler, International Aero Engines, Irkut MC-21, Ishikawajima-Harima F3, Isochoric process, Istres, Italy, Ivchenko-Progress, Japanese Aero Engine Corporation, Jet engine, Jet engine performance, Joint venture, Kawasaki P-1, Kawasaki T-4, Kh-35, Klimov, Klimov RD-33, Kuznetsov NK-25, Kuznetsov NK-32, Learjet 70/75, Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Lotarev D-36, Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, Lycoming ALF 502, Lycoming Engines, Market share, Materials science, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, McDonnell Douglas MD-90, Mechanical energy, Melting point, Metropolitan-Vickers F.2, Mikoyan MiG-29, Mikoyan MiG-31, Mikoyan MiG-35, Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany), Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin, MTU Aero Engines, Nacelle, Narrow-body aircraft, NASA, Nickel, Noise control, NPO Saturn AL-55, Overall pressure ratio, Panavia Tornado, Phoenix, Arizona, Physics Education, Portmanteau, PowerJet, PowerJet SaM146, Pratt & Whitney, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW500, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW800, Pratt & Whitney F100, Pratt & Whitney F119, Pratt & Whitney F135, Pratt & Whitney J57, Pratt & Whitney JT8D, Pratt & Whitney JT9D, Pratt & Whitney PW1000G, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, Pratt & Whitney PW6000, Pratt & Whitney TF30, Progress D-18T, Progress D-27, Progress D-436, Propelling nozzle, Propfan, Propulsive efficiency, Range (aeronautics), Raytheon, Recuperator, Regional jet, Reinforced carbon–carbon, Rolls-Royce AE 3007, Rolls-Royce BR700, Rolls-Royce Conway, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Rolls-Royce Olympus, Rolls-Royce Pegasus, Rolls-Royce RB.183 Tay, Rolls-Royce RB.203 Trent, Rolls-Royce RB211, Rolls-Royce Spey, Rolls-Royce Trent, Rolls-Royce Trent 1000, Rolls-Royce Trent 500, Rolls-Royce Trent 700, Rolls-Royce Trent 800, Rolls-Royce Trent 900, Rolls-Royce Trent XWB, Rolls-Royce/SNECMA M45H, Russia, Safran, Safran Aircraft Engines, Safran Silvercrest, Saturn AL-31, Saturn AL-41, Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, Shenyang J-11, Shenyang WS-10, Silicon carbide, Single crystal, Sixth-generation jet fighter, Snecma M53, Snecma M88, Soloviev D-30, Soviet Union, Spain, Specific strength, Specific thrust, Speed of sound, Squash (sport), Stoichiometry, STOL, STOVL, Stress (mechanics), Structural system, Sukhoi Su-27, Sukhoi Su-30, Sukhoi Superjet 100, Superalloy, Supersonic speed, T-stage, Thermal barrier coating, Thermal efficiency, Thermodynamic cycle, Thermodynamics, Thermometer, Thrust, Thrust reversal, Thrust specific fuel consumption, Thrust vectoring, Tip clearance, Titanium, Tomahawk (missile), Transonic, Tupolev Tu-154, Tupolev Tu-204, Tupolev Tu-334, Turbine, Turbine engine failure, Turbine map, Turbo-Union RB199, Turbofan, Turbojet, Turboprop, Turboshaft, UEC Saturn, United Kingdom, United States Air Force, UTC Aerospace Systems, Variable cycle engine, Wide-body aircraft, Williams F107, Williams FJ33, Williams FJ44, Williams International, Xi'an Aero-Engine Corporation, Xi'an Y-20, Xian H-6, Xian WS-15, Yakovlev Yak-42, Zürich, Zero-stage, 3D composites, 3D printing. 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Aircraft engines, typically turbofans, use acoustic liners to damp engine noise.
The Aero L-159 ALCA is a light subsonic attack jet and advanced trainer developed in the single-seat L-159A and two-seat L-159B versions respectively, produced in the Czech Republic by Aero Vodochody.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
The Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) of India's Ministry of Defence was established at Bangalore, in 1984 to oversee the development of the nation's Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.
An afterburner (or a reheat) is a component present on some jet engines, mostly those used on military supersonic aircraft.
Air cooling is a method of dissipating heat.
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of affordable aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces.
An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range twin-engined wide-body jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus, then a consortium of European aerospace manufacturers.
The Airbus A318 is the smallest member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A320neo family (neo for new engine option) is a development of the A320 family of narrow-body airliners produced by Airbus, the original family is renamed A320ceo, for current engine option.
The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus.
The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus.
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Aircraft on Ground or AOG is a term in aviation maintenance indicating that a problem is serious enough to prevent an aircraft from flying.
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
Alan H. Epstein is a distinguished aeronautical engineer.
Albany International Corporation, originally the Albany Felt Company, is an industrial-goods company based in Rochester, New Hampshire, United States.
The Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master is a military twin-engine transonic trainer aircraft.
The Allison Engine Company was an American aircraft engine manufacturer.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The Antonov An-124 Ruslan (Антонов Ан-124 "Руслан") (NATO reporting name: Condor) is a strategic airlift jet aircraft.
The Antonov An-148 (Антонов Ан-148) is a regional jet designed and built by Antonov of Ukraine.
The Antonov An-225 Mriya (Антонов Ан-225, lit, NATO reporting name: "Cossack") is a strategic airlift cargo aircraft that was designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union during the 1980s.
The Antonov An-72 (NATO reporting name: Coaler) is a Soviet/Ukrainian transport aircraft, developed by Antonov.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States.
In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.
An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion.
Aviadvigatel OJSC (Russian: ОАО "Авиадвигатель", lit. Aeroengine) is a Russian developer and builder of aircraft engines, most notably jet engines for commercial and military aircraft.
The Aviadvigatel PD-14 (previously known as PS-14) is a turbofan being developed by Aviadvigatel to power the Irkut MC-21 twin-jet airliner.
The Aviadvigatel PS-90 is a Russian high-bypass commercial turbofan rated at 16000 kgf (157 kN, 35,300 lbf) thrust.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
Avio S.p.A. is an Italian company operating in the aerospace sector with its head office in Rivalta di Torino, Turin, Italy.
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
An axial fan is a type of fan that causes gas to flow through it in an axial direction, parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate.
Beechcraft is a brand of Textron Aviation since 2014.
The Beriev Be-200 Altair (Бериев Бе-200) is a multipurpose amphibious aircraft designed by the Beriev Aircraft Company and manufactured by Irkut.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market.
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range twinjet narrow-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States.
The Boeing 737 MAX is an American narrow-body aircraft series designed and produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes as the fourth generation of the Boeing 737, succeeding the Boeing 737 Next Generation (NG).
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft.
The Boeing F/A-18E and F/A-18F Super Hornet are twin-engine, carrier-capable, multirole fighter aircraft variants based on the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet.
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft.
The Challenger 300 is a range super-midsize business jet, developed by Bombardier Aerospace, announced in 1999 and introduced in 2004.
The Bombardier Challenger 600 series is a family of business jets.
The Bombardier CRJ (for Canadair Regional Jet) is a family of regional airliners manufactured by Bombardier.
The Bombardier CSeries or C Series is a family of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range jet airliners designed by Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace.
The Bombardier Global 7500 and Global 8000 are ultra long-range business jets under development by Bombardier Aerospace, announced in October 2010 and initially scheduled for introduction in 2016 for the 7500 and 2017 for the 8000.
The Bombardier Global Express is a large cabin, ultra long range business jet manufactured by Bombardier Aerospace in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle named after George Brayton who describes the workings of a constant-pressure heat engine.
Bristol Siddeley Engines Ltd (BSEL) was a British aero engine manufacturer.
The British Aerospace 146 (also BAe 146) is a short-haul airliner and a regional airliner that was manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace, later part of BAE Systems.
The normal definition for the bypass ratio (BPR) of a turbofan engine is the ratio between the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to the mass flow rate entering the core.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
Carbon-fiber tape is a flat material made of carbon fiber.
A cargo aircraft (also known as freight aircraft, freighter, airlifter or cargo jet) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is designed or converted for the carriage of cargo rather than passengers.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of ceramics.
The Cessna Citation Excel (Model 560XL) is a turbofan-powered, medium-sized business jet built by the Cessna Aircraft Company in Wichita, Kansas, United States.
The Cessna Citation Hemisphere is a range business jet project by Cessna, expected to fly in 2019 and announced at the 2015 National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) conference with the widest cabin in its class.
The Cessna Citation Mustang, Model 510, is a very light jet (VLJ) class business jet built by Cessna Aircraft Company at their Independence, Kansas production facility.
The Cessna Citation Sovereign (Model 680) is an American mid-size business jet developed by Cessna, between the smaller Citation Excel/XLS and the heavier Citation X, and is the basis of the roomier Citation Latitude.
The Cessna Citation X is an American long-range medium-sized business jet aircraft.
The Cessna CitationJet/M2/CJ series (Model 525) are light business jets part of the Cessna Citation family, built by the Cessna Aircraft Company.
The CFE738 is a small turbofan engine aimed at the business/commuter jet market manufactured by the CFE Company, and is used on the Dassault Falcon 2000.
CFM International is a joint venture between GE Aviation, a division of General Electric of the United States, and Safran Aircraft Engines (formerly known as Snecma), a division of Safran of France.
The CFM International CFM56 (U.S. military designation F108) series is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by CFM International (CFMI), with a thrust range of.
The CFM International LEAP is a high-bypass turbofan engine.
The Chengdu J-10 (simplified Chinese: 歼-10; traditional Chinese: 殲-10; NATO reporting name: Firebird is a lightweight multirole fighter aircraft capable of all-weather operation, configured with a delta wing and canard design, with fly-by-wire flight controls, and produced by the People's Republic of China's Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
In aeronautics, chord refers to the imaginary straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an aerofoil.
The Cirrus Vision SF50, also called the "Vision Jet", is a single-engine, low-wing, seven-seat, very light jet aircraft designed and produced by Cirrus Aircraft.
Clean Sky Joint Undertaking (CSJU) is a public-private partnership between the European Commission and the European aeronautics industry that coordinates and funds research activities to deliver significantly quieter and more environmentally friendly aircraft.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.
A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
A compressor map is a chart created for a compressor in a gas turbine engine.
A compressor stall is a local disruption of the airflow in a gas turbine or turbocharger compressor.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
The Daimler-Benz DB 007, (RLM (Reichsluftfahrtministerium - Reich Air Ministry) designation ZTL 109-007, company designation ZTL6001), was an early German jet engine design stemming from design work carried out by Karl Leist from 1939.
The Dassault Falcon 2000 is a French business jet and a member of Dassault Aviation's Falcon business jet line, and is a twin-engine, slightly smaller development of the Falcon 900 trijet, with transcontinental range.
The Dassault Falcon 5X is a large, long-range business jet that was under development by Dassault Aviation in France.
The Dassault Falcon 7X is a large-cabin, 5,950 nmi range business jet manufactured by Dassault Aviation, the largest of its Dassault Falcon line.
The Dassault Falcon 900 is a French-built corporate jet aircraft made by Dassault Aviation.
The Dassault Mirage 2000 is a French multirole, single-engine fourth-generation jet fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, charged with the military's research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India.
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
Distributed propulsion (DP) is a type of powered flight propulsion system for fixed-wing aircraft in which engines are distributed about a vessel.
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks.
The Douglas DC-8 (also known as the McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is an American four-engine long-range narrow-body jet airliner built from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company.
A ducted fan is a propulsion arrangement whereby a mechanical fan, which is a type of propeller, is mounted within a cylindrical shroud or duct.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eclipse 500 is a marketing name for the Eclipse Aerospace EA500, a small six-seat American business jet aircraft originally manufactured by Eclipse Aviation and later upgraded and sold by Eclipse Aerospace.
An electric aircraft is an aircraft powered by electric motors.
Embraer S.A. is a Brazilian aerospace conglomerate that produces commercial, military, executive and agricultural aircraft and provides aeronautical services.
The Embraer E-Jet E2 family are medium-range jet airliners developed by Embraer, succeeding the original E-Jet.
The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-body medium-range twin-engine jet airliners, carrying 66 to 124 passengers commercially, manufactured by Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer.
The Embraer ERJ family is a series of twin-engine regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company.
The Embraer Legacy 500/450 (EMB-550/EMB-545) are Brazilianmid-size business jets launched by Embraer in April 2008, the first of their size with a flat-floor stand-up cabin and fly-by-wire.
The Embraer EMB-500 Phenom 100 is a very light jet developed by Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer, type certificate is EMB-500.
The Embraer EMB-505 Phenom 300 is a light jet aircraft developed by the Brazilian aerospace manufacturer Embraer.
An end-face mechanical seal, or a mechanical end-face seal, also referred to as a mechanical face seal but usually simply as a mechanical seal, is a type of seal utilised in rotating equipment, such as pumps, mixers, blowers, and compressors.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
The Engine Alliance (EA) is an American aircraft engine manufacturer based in East Hartford, Connecticut.
The Engine Alliance GP7000 is a turbofan jet engine manufactured by Engine Alliance, a joint venture between General Electric and Pratt & Whitney.
The engine pressure ratio (EPR) is the total pressure ratio across a jet engine, measured as the ratio of the total pressure at the exit of the propelling nozzle divided by the total pressure at the entry to the compressor.
An epicyclic gear train (also known as planetary gear) consists of two gears mounted so that the center of one gear revolves around the center of the other.
ETOPS is an aviation acronym for Extended Operations.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.
The Eurojet EJ200 is a military 90 kN low bypass turbofan jet engine, used as the powerplant of the Eurofighter Typhoon.
EuroJet Turbo GmbH is a multi-national consortium, the partner companies of which are Rolls Royce of the United Kingdom, Avio of Italy, ITP of Spain and MTU Aero Engines of Germany.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
A full authority digital engine (or electronics) control (FADEC) is a system consisting of a digital computer, called an "electronic engine controller" (EEC) or "engine control unit" (ECU), and its related accessories that control all aspects of aircraft engine performance.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Flex temp is a technique used to reduce noise and engine wear in large airliners by performing take-off at less than full power.
Flightglobal is an online news and information website which covers the aviation and aerospace industries.
The Fokker 100 is a medium-sized, twin-turbofan jet airliner from Fokker, the largest such aircraft built by the company before its bankruptcy in 1996.
The Fokker 70 is a narrow-body, twin-engined, medium-range, turbofan regional airliner produced by Fokker as a smaller version of the Fokker 100.
In aviation, foreign object debris (FOD) is any article or substance, alien to an aircraft or system, which could potentially cause damage.
The Garrett TFE731 (now Honeywell TFE731) is a family of geared turbofan engines commonly used on business jet aircraft.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE) is a laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, Ohio, outside Cincinnati.
The GE Honda HF120 is a small turbofan for the light business jet market, the first engine to be produced by GE Honda Aero Engines.
The geared turbofan is a more efficient type of turbofan aircraft engine.
The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark was a supersonic, medium-range interdictor and tactical attack aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic nuclear bomber, aerial reconnaissance, and electronic-warfare aircraft in its various versions.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
The General Electric Catalyst (formerly Advanced Turboprop, or ATP) is a turboprop engine under development by GE Aviation.
The General Electric CF34 is a civilian turbofan developed by GE Aircraft Engines from its TF34 military engine.
The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation.
The General Electric CF700 (military designation TF37) is an aft-fan turbofan development of the CJ610 turbojet.
The General Electric CJ805 is a jet engine which was developed by GE Aviation in the late 1950s.
The General Electric F110 is an afterburning turbofan jet engine produced by GE Aviation.
The General Electric F404 and F412 are a family of afterburning turbofan engines in the class (static thrust).
The General Electric F414 is an afterburning turbofan engine in the 22,000-pound (98 kN) thrust class produced by GE Aviation.
The General Electric GE36 was an experimental aircraft engine, a hybrid between a turbofan and a turboprop, known as an Unducted Fan (UDF) or propfan.
The General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings from.
The General Electric GE9X is a high-bypass turbofan aircraft engine under development by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777X.
The General Electric GEnx (General Electric Next-generation) is an advanced dual rotor, axial flow, high-bypass turbofan jet engine in production by GE Aviation for the Boeing 787 and 747-8.
The General Electric J79 is an axial-flow turbojet engine built for use in a variety of fighter and bomber aircraft and a supersonic cruise missile.
The General Electric J85 is a small single-shaft turbojet engine.
The General Electric Passport is a turbofan developed by GE Aviation for large business jets.
The General Electric TF34 is a military turbofan engine used on the A-10 Thunderbolt II and S-3 Viking.
The General Electric TF39 is a high-bypass turbofan engine developed to power the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy.
The General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 was an advanced turbofan engine being developed by General Electric and Rolls-Royce plc for the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.
The GTRE GTX-35VS Kaveri is an afterburning turbofan project developed by the Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), a lab under the DRDO in Bangalore, India.
Guizhou Aviation Aircraft Co Ltd (GAC) is a Chinese aircraft manufacturer and military aircraft in Guizhou province.
The WS-13 (Chinese: 涡扇-13), codename Taishan, is a turbofan engine designed and manufactured by Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corporation to power the Pakistan-China jointly developed JF-17 Thunder light-weight multi-role fighter, and in the near future the Shenyang J-31 fifth generation stealth fighter currently under development.
The Gulfstream G100, formerly known as the IAI Astra SPX, is an Israel Aerospace Industries-manufactured twin-engine business jet, formerly produced for Gulfstream Aerospace.
The Gulfstream G200, formerly known as the IAI Galaxy, is a twin-engine business jet.
The Gulfstream G280 is a twin-engine business jet built under license by IAI in Israel for Gulfstream Aerospace.
The Gulfstream G500 and G600 (GVII) are twin-engine business jets designed and manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace.
The Gulfstream IV (or G-IV or GIV) and derivatives are a family of twinjet aircraft, mainly for private or business use.
The Gulfstream V (Model GV, pronounced Gee-5) is a long-range, large business jet aircraft produced by Gulfstream Aerospace, derived from the previous Gulfstream IV.
The HAL Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) is an Indian programme of a fifth-generation fighter aircraft.
The HAL HJT-36 Sitara (Sitārā: "star") is a subsonic intermediate jet trainer aircraft developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy.
The HAL Tejas is an Indian single-seat, single-jet engine, multirole light fighter designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force and Indian Navy.
The Hawker Siddeley Harrier, developed in the 1960s, was the first of the Harrier Jump Jet series of aircraft.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
The Hispano-Suiza 12Y was an aircraft engine produced by Hispano-Suiza for the French Air Force in the pre-WWII period.
Honda Aircraft Company's HondaJet HA-420 is the first aircraft developed by Honda Aircraft Company.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
Honeywell Aerospace is a manufacturer of aircraft engines and avionics, as well as a producer of auxiliary power units (APUs) and other aviation products.
The Honeywell HTF7000 is a turbofan engine produced by Honeywell Aerospace.
The Honeywell/ITEC F124 is a low-bypass turbofan engine derived from the civilian Honeywell TFE731.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
The IAE V2500 is a two-shaft high-bypass turbofan engine which powers the Airbus A320 family (A320, A321, A319 and the Airbus Corporate Jet), the McDonnell Douglas MD-90, and the Embraer KC-390.
, formerly known as, is a Japanese company which produces ships, aircraft engines, turbochargers for automobiles, industrial machines, power station boilers and other facilities, suspension bridges and other transport-related machinery.
The IHI Corporation F7 is a small turbofan engine developed specifically for the Kawasaki P-1 maritime patrol aircraft by IHI Corporation.
The Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) XF5 is a low bypass turbofan engine being developed in Japan by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries for the Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin (ATD-X).
The Ilyushin IL-62 (Илью́шин Ил-62; NATO reporting name: Classic) is a Soviet long-range narrow-body jet airliner conceived in 1960 by Ilyushin.
The Ilyushin Il-76 (Илью́шин Ил-76; NATO reporting name: Candid) is a multi-purpose four-engine turbofan strategic airlifter designed by the Soviet Union's Ilyushin design bureau.
The Ilyushin Il-86 (Илью́шин Ил-86; NATO reporting name: Camber) is a short/medium-range wide-body jet airliner.
The Ilyushin Il-96 (Илью́шин Ил-96) is a Russian four-engined long-haul wide-body airliner designed by Ilyushin in the former Soviet Union and manufactured by the Voronezh Aircraft Production Association in Russia.
ITP Aero is currently the ninth largest aircraft engine and components company in the world by revenue.
An intercooler is any mechanical device used to cool a fluid, including liquids or gases, between stages of a multi-stage compression process, typically a heat exchanger that removes waste heat in a gas compressor.
IAE International Aero Engines AG is a Zürich-registered joint venture manufacturing company founded in 1983 to develop an aircraft engine to address the 150-seat single aisle aircraft market.
The Irkut MC-21 (Иркут МС-21) is a Russian single-aisle twinjet airliner, developed by the Yakovlev Design Bureau and produced by its parent Irkut, a branch of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC).
The Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) F3 is a low bypass turbofan engine developed in Japan by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries for the Kawasaki T-4 jet trainer aircraft.
An isochoric process, also called a constant-volume process, an isovolumetric process, or an isometric process, is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant.
Istres (Occitan: Istre) is a commune in southern France, some 60 km (38 mi) northwest of Marseille.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivchenko-Progress ZMKB (Запорізьке машинобудівне конструкторське бюро «Прогрес» ім., Zaporizhia Machine-Building Design Bureau "Progress" State Enterprise named after Academician O.H.Ivchenko), formerly OKB-478 and Ivchenko Lotarev, is a state design bureau that creates drafts and plans for aircraft engines in Zaporizhia, Ukraine whose products are widely used in both civil and military aircraft, most notably by Antonov, Beriev, Ilyushin, Tupolev, Mil and Yakovlev.
The Japanese Aero Engines Corporation is a consortium of large Japanese companies (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) that was established in 1981.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
In fixed-wing aircraft driven by one or more jet engines, certain aspects of performance such as thrust relate directly to the safe operation of the aircraft whereas other aspects of the engine operation such as noise and engine emissions affect the environment.
A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance.
The Kawasaki P-1 (previously P-X, XP-1) is a Japanese maritime patrol aircraft developed and manufactured by Kawasaki Aerospace Company.
The Kawasaki T-4 is a Japanese subsonic intermediate jet trainer aircraft used by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.
The Zvezda Kh-35 ('Star',., AS-20 'Kayak') is a Russian turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile.
The Joint Stock Company Klimov (or JSC Klimov) presently manufactures internationally certified gas turbine engines, main gearboxes and accessory drive gearboxes for transport category aircraft.
The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan jet engine for a lightweight fighter jet that is the primary engine for the Mikoyan MiG-29 and CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder.
The Kuznetsov NK-25 is a turbofan aircraft engine used in the Tupolev Tu-22M strategic bomber.
The Kuznetsov NK-32 is an afterburning 3-spool low bypass turbofan jet engine which powers the Tupolev Tu-160 supersonic bomber, and was fitted to the later model Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic transport.
The Learjet 70/75 is a light business jet airplane manufactured by the Learjet division of Canadian aircraft manufacturer Bombardier Aerospace.
The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a large military transport aircraft originally designed and built by Lockheed, and now maintained and upgraded by its successor, Lockheed Martin.
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company.
The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.
The Ivchenko Progress D-36 (also known as Lotarev D-36) is a three-shaft high bypass ratio turbofan currently produced by the Ukrainian Motor Sich company.
The Bell Aerosystems Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) was a Project Apollo era program to build a simulator for the Moon landings.
The Lycoming ALF 502 is a geared turbofan engine produced by Lycoming Engines, AlliedSignal and then Honeywell Aerospace.
Lycoming Engines is a major American manufacturer of aircraft engines.
Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas.
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) to gain and maintain air supremacy in all aspects of aerial combat.
The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).
The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American three-engine medium- to long-range wide-body jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The McDonnell Douglas MD-90 is a twin-engine, short- to medium-range, single-aisle commercial jet airliner.
In physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
The Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 was an early turbojet engine and the first British design to be based on an axial-flow compressor.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan MiG-31 (Микоян МиГ-31; NATO reporting name: Foxhound) is a supersonic interceptor aircraft developed for use by the Soviet Air Forces.
The Mikoyan MiG-35 (Микоян МиГ-35; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum-F) is a Russian multirole fighter that is designed by Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG, or Mikoyan.
The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938 The Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium), abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933–45).
The Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin (formerly the ATD-X) is a Japanese experimental aircraft for testing advanced stealth fighter aircraft technologies.
MTU Aero Engines AG is a German aircraft engine manufacturer.
A nacelle is a housing, separate from the fuselage, that holds engines, fuel, or equipment on an aircraft.
A narrow-body aircraft or single-aisle aircraft is an airliner arranged along a single aisle permitting up to 6-abreast seating in a cabin below of width.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors.
The NPO Saturn AL-55 is a high performance turbofan engine manufactured by NPO Saturn Russia, for powering advanced trainers, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and light attack aircraft.
In aeronautical engineering, overall pressure ratio, or overall compression ratio, is the ratio of the stagnation pressure as measured at the front and rear of the compressor of a gas turbine engine.
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing multirole combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Physics Education is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the teaching of physics at the secondary school and introductory undergraduate levels.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
PowerJet is a Franco-Russian 50-50 joint venture created in 2004 by aeronautical engine manufacturers Snecma (Safran) and NPO Saturn.
The PowerJet SaM146 is a turbofan engine produced by the PowerJet joint venture between Snecma (Safran) of France and NPO Saturn of Russia.
Pratt & Whitney is an American aerospace manufacturer with global service operations.
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 series is a family of turbofan jet engines developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada specifically for business jet applications.
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW500 is a series of medium thrust turbofan engines designed specifically for business jet applications.
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600 series is a family of very small turbofan engines developed by Pratt & Whitney Canada for use in very light jets.
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PW800 is a turbofan engine in the thrust class, under development by Pratt & Whitney Canada.
The Pratt & Whitney F100 (company designation JTF22) is an afterburning turbofan engine manufactured by Pratt & Whitney which powers the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon.
The Pratt & Whitney F119, company designation PW5000, is an afterburning turbofan engine developed by Pratt & Whitney for the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor advanced tactical fighter.
The Pratt & Whitney F135 is an afterburning turbofan developed for the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, a single-engine strike fighter.
The Pratt & Whitney J57 (company designation: JT3C) is an axial-flow turbojet engine developed by Pratt & Whitney in the early 1950s.
The Pratt & Whitney JT8D is a low-bypass (0.96 to 1) turbofan engine, introduced by Pratt & Whitney in February 1963 with the inaugural flight of the Boeing 727.
The Pratt & Whitney JT9D engine was the first high bypass ratio jet engine to power a wide-body airliner.
The Pratt & Whitney PW1000G is a high-bypass geared turbofan engine family, currently selected as the exclusive engine for the Bombardier CSeries, Mitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ), and Embraer's second generation E-Jets, and as an option on the Irkut MC-21 and Airbus A320neo.
The Pratt & Whitney PW4000 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines with certified thrust ranging from 52,000 to 99,040 lbf (230 to 441 kN).
The Pratt & Whitney PW6000 is a high-bypass turbofan jet engine designed for the Airbus A318 with a design thrust range of 18,000–24,000 lbf (82–90 kN).
The Pratt & Whitney TF30 (company designation JTF10A) is a military low-bypass turbofan engine originally designed by Pratt & Whitney for the subsonic F6D Missileer fleet defense fighter, but this project was cancelled.
The Progress D-18T (or Lotarev D-18T) is a three-spool, high-bypass turbofan engine rated at more than of thrust and designed to power very large transport aircraft.
The Progress D-27 is a three-shaft propfan engine developed by Ivchenko Progress.
The Progress D-436 is a three-shaft high by-pass turbofan engine developed by the Ukrainian company Ivchenko-Progress.
A propelling nozzle is a nozzle that converts a gas turbine or gas generator into a jet engine.
A propfan or open rotor engine is a type of aircraft engine related in concept to both the turboprop and turbofan, but distinct from both.
In aircraft and rocket design, overall propulsive efficiency \eta is the efficiency with which the energy contained in a vehicle's propellant is converted into kinetic energy of the vehicle, to accelerate it, or to replace losses due to aerodynamic drag or gravity.
The maximal total range is the maximum distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.
A recuperator is a special purpose counter-flow energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the waste heat.
A regional jet (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
The Rolls-Royce AE 3007 (US military: F137) is a high-bypass turbofan engine produced by Rolls-Royce North America, sharing a common core with the Rolls-Royce T406 (AE 1107) and AE 2100.
The Rolls-Royce BR700 family of turbofan engines powers regional jets and corporate jets.
The Rolls-Royce RB.80 Conway was the first turbofan in the world to enter service.
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.
The Rolls-Royce Olympus (originally the Bristol B.E.10 Olympus) was the world's first two-spool axial-flow turbojet aircraft engine design, dating from November 1946, although not the first to run or enter service.
The Rolls-Royce Pegasus, formerly the Bristol Siddeley Pegasus, is a turbofan engine originally designed by Bristol Siddeley.
The Rolls-Royce RB.183 Tay is a turbofan engine, developed from the RB.183 Mk 555 Spey core and using a fan scaled directly from the Rolls-Royce RB.211-535E4 to produce versions with a bypass ratio of 3.1:1 or greater.
The Rolls-Royce RB.203 Trent was a British medium-bypass turbofan engine of around 10,000lb thrust designed for production in the late 1960s, bearing no relation to the earlier Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent turboprop or the later high bypass Rolls-Royce Trent turbofan.
The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a British family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc.
The Rolls-Royce Spey (company designations RB.163 and RB.168 and RB.183) is a low-bypass turbofan engine originally designed and manufactured by Rolls-Royce that has been in widespread service for over 40 years.
Rolls-Royce Trent is a British family of three spool, high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc.
The Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 is a British turbofan engine, developed from earlier Trent series engines.
The Rolls-Royce Trent 500 is a high-bypass turbofan aircraft engine, developed from the Rolls-Royce RB211 and is a member of the Trent family of engines.
The Rolls-Royce Trent 700 is a three spool high bypass turbofan aircraft engine, developed from the RB211, and is the first variant of the family of Trent engines.
The Rolls-Royce Trent 800 is a high-bypass turbofan aircraft engine, developed from the RB211 and is one of the family of Trent engines.
The Rolls-Royce Trent 900 is a British series of turbofan engines, developed from the RB211 and is one of the family of Trent engines.
The Rolls-Royce Trent XWB is a British series of turbofan jet engines developed from the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000, exclusively powering the Airbus A350 XWB.
The Rolls-Royce/SNECMA M45H was a medium bypass ratio turbofan produced specifically for the twin-engined VFW-Fokker 614 aircraft in the early 1970s.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Safran S.A. is a French multinational aircraft engine, rocket engine, aerospace-component and defense company.
Safran Aircraft Engines (previously Snecma) is a French aerospace engine manufacturer headquartered in Courcouronnes, France.
The Safran Silvercrest is a French turbofan currently under development which will be manufactured by Safran Aircraft Engines.
The Saturn AL-31 is a family of military turbofan engines.
The AL-41F is a designation for two different Russian military turbofan engine variants.
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation or Shenyang Aerospace Corporation is a Chinese civilian and military aircraft manufacturer located in Shenyang, a subsidiary of AVIC.
The Shenyang J-11 (Chinese: 歼-11), with NATO reporting name Flanker B+, is a twin-engine jet fighter, whose airframe is based on the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27 air superiority fighter.
The Shenyang WS-10, codename Taihang, is a turbofan engine designed and built by the People's Republic of China.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
A sixth-generation jet fighter is a conceptualized class of fighter aircraft design more advanced than the fifth-generation jet fighters that are currently in service in and in development in several countries, including China, United States, Russia, France, Japan, United Kingdom and Germany.
The SNECMA M53 is an afterburning turbofan engine developed for the Dassault Mirage 2000 fighter by Snecma.
The Snecma M88 is a French afterburning turbofan engine developed by Snecma for the Dassault Rafale fighter.
The Soloviev D-30 (PS-30) is a Soviet two-shaft low-bypass turbofan engine, officially referred to as a "bypass turbojet." A supersonic afterburner version, the D-30F6, is used in the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31 interceptor, while the non-afterburning civilian versions, the D-30Kp and D-30KU are used in the Ilyushin Il-62M and Tupolev Tu-154M airliners, and in the Ilyushin Il-76MD, TD heavy cargo aircraft.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The specific strength is a material's strength (force per unit area at failure) divided by its density.
Specific thrust is a term used in gas turbine engineering to show the relative thrust per air mass flowrate of a jet engine (e.g. turbojet, turbofan, etc.) and is defined as the ratio: net thrust/total intake airflow.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
STOL is an acronym for a short takeoff and landing aircraft, which have short runway requirements for takeoff and landing.
A short take-off and vertical landing aircraft (STOVL aircraft) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is able to take off from a short runway (or take off vertically if it does not have a heavy payload) and land vertically (i.e. with no runway).
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to the load-resisting sub-system of a building or object.
The Sukhoi Su-27 (Сухой Су-27; NATO reporting name: Flanker) is a twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi.
The Sukhoi Su-30 (Сухой Су-30; NATO reporting name: Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation.
The Sukhoi Superjet 100, also known by its abbreviation SSJ100, is a fly-by-wire twin-engine regional jet with 8 (VIP) to 108 (all economy) passenger seats.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
T-stages, sometimes called booster stages, are mounted on the low pressure (LP) shaft of some turbofan engines directly behind the fan.
Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are advanced materials systems usually applied to metallic surfaces, such as on gas turbine or aero-engine parts, operating at elevated temperatures, as a form of exhaust heat management.
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
A thermodynamic cycle consists of a linked sequence of thermodynamic processes that involve transfer of heat and work into and out of the system, while varying pressure, temperature, and other state variables within the system, and that eventually returns the system to its initial state.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
Thrust reversal, also called reverse thrust, is the temporary diversion of an aircraft engine's thrust so that it is directed forward, rather than backward.
Thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) is the fuel efficiency of an engine design with respect to thrust output.
Thrust vectoring, also thrust vector control or TVC, is the ability of an aircraft, rocket, or other vehicle to manipulate the direction of the thrust from its engine(s) or motor(s) in order to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle.
Tip clearance is the distance between the tip of a rotating airfoil and a stationary part.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations.
In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air through which the vehicle is traveling.
The Tupolev Tu-154 (Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev.
The Tupolev Tu-204 (Туполев Ту-204) is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
The Tupolev Tu-334 (Туполев Ту-334) was a Russian short-to-medium range airliner project that was developed to replace the ageing Tu-134s and Yak-42s in service around the world.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
A turbine engine failure occurs when a turbine engine in an aircraft unexpectedly stops producing thrust or power production due to a malfunction other than fuel exhaustion, although the term "turbine engine failure" can also apply to failure of any turbine engine, such as ground-based turbines used in power plants, turbine-engined vessels (i.e. CODAG) and vehicles, etc.
Each turbine in a gas turbine engine has an operating map.
The Turbo-Union RB199 is an aircraft turbofan jet engine designed and built in the early 1970s by Turbo-Union, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce, MTU and FiatAvio.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, typically used in aircraft.
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.
A turboshaft engine is a form of gas turbine that is optimized to produce shaft power rather than jet thrust.
UEC NPO Saturn, PJSC (ОДК-Сатурн НПО) is a Russian aircraft engine manufacturer, formed from the mergers of Rybinsk Motors and Lyul'ka-Saturn (after Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka) in 2001.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
UTC Aerospace Systems (UTAS) is one of the world’s largest suppliers of aerospace and defence products, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
A variable cycle engine (VCE) is an aircraft jet engine that is designed to operate efficiently under mixed flight conditions, such as subsonic, transonic and supersonic.
A wide-body aircraft is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles, also known as twin-aisle aircraft, with seven or more seats abreast.
The Williams F107 (company designation WR19) is a small turbofan engine made by Williams International.
The Williams FJ33 is a family of turbofan jet engines intended for use in very light jet aircraft.
The Williams FJ44 is a family of small, two-spool, turbofan engines produced by Williams International/Rolls-Royce for the light business jet market.
Williams International is an American manufacturer of small gas turbine engines based in Commerce Township, Michigan, United States.
Xi'an Aero-Engine Corporation (XAEC) is one of the major aircraft engine designers and manufacturers in China, originally established in 2001.
The Xi'an Y-20 is a large military transport aircraft.
The Xian H-6 is a licence-built version of the Soviet Tupolev Tu-16 twin-engine jet bomber, built for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force.
The WS-15, codename Emei, is a Chinese afterburning turbofan engine designed by the Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute and manufactured by the Xi'an Aero-Engine Corporation, used to power China's Chengdu J-20 fighter, which would be able to achieve supercruise.
The Yakovlev Yak-42 (Яковлев Як-42; NATO reporting name: "Clobber") is a 100/120-seat three-engined mid-range passenger jet.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Jet engines and other gas turbine engines are often uprated by adding a zero-stage, sometimes written '0' stage, to the front of a compressor.
Three-dimensional composites utilize fiber preforms constructed from yarns or tows arranged into complex three-dimensional structures.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).
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