171 relations: Adi Shamir, Alan Kay, Alan Perlis, Alan Turing, ALGOL, ALGOL W, Allen Newell, Amir Pnueli, Analysis of algorithms, Andrew Yao, APL (programming language), Artificial intelligence, Association for Computing Machinery, Automated theorem proving, Automatic programming, Barbara Liskov, Bletchley Park, Bob Kahn, Butler Lampson, Calculus of communicating systems, Carnegie Mellon University, Charles Bachman, Charles P. Thacker, Cliff Shaw, Communication complexity, Communications of the ACM, Compatible Time-Sharing System, Compiler, Computational complexity theory, Computer architecture, Computer graphics, Computer monitor, Computer network, Computer program, Computer programming, Computer science, Computer security, Concurrency (computer science), Cryptography, Dana Scott, Database, David Patterson (computer scientist), DBLP, Delay line memory, Dennis Ritchie, Denotational semantics, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, E. Allen Emerson, Edgar F. Codd, ..., Edmund M. Clarke, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Edward Feigenbaum, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, Euler (programming language), Exception handling, Fernando J. Corbató, Floating-point arithmetic, Formal verification, Fortran, Frances E. Allen, Fred Brooks, Google, Herbert A. Simon, IBM, IEEE John von Neumann Medal, Intel, International Data Group, Internet, Internet protocol suite, Internetworking, Ivan Sutherland, James H. Wilkinson, Jim Gray (computer scientist), John Backus, John Cocke, John Hopcroft, John L. Hennessy, John McCarthy (computer scientist), Joseph Sifakis, Judea Pearl, Juris Hartmanis, Ken Thompson, Kenneth E. Iverson, Kristen Nygaard, Leonard Adleman, Leslie Lamport, Leslie Valiant, Library (computing), Linear algebra, List of awards named after people, List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field, List of science and technology awards, List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation, Logic for Computable Functions, Manuel Blum, Martin Hellman, Marvin Minsky, Mathematics, Maurice Wilkes, McGraw-Hill Education, Michael O. Rabin, Michael Stonebraker, Millennium Technology Prize, ML (programming language), Model checking, Modula, Multics, Nevanlinna Prize, Niklaus Wirth, Nobel Prize, Nondeterministic finite automaton, NP-completeness, Numerical analysis, Object-oriented programming, Ole-Johan Dahl, Operating system, Operational semantics, Paris Kanellakis Award, Parsing, Pascal (programming language), Peter Naur, Probably approximately correct learning, Programming language, Pseudorandom number generator, Public-key cryptography, Raj Reddy, RAND Corporation, Reader (academic rank), Reduced instruction set computer, Relational database, Richard E. Stearns, Richard Hamming, Richard M. Karp, Robert Tarjan, Robert W. Floyd, Robin Milner, Rolf Schock Prizes, Ron Rivest, RSA (cryptosystem), Semantics, Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, Simula, Sketchpad, Smalltalk, Software engineering, Stephen Cook, Stephen Kettle, Temporal logic, The Art of Computer Programming, Theoretical computer science, Theory of computation, Tim Berners-Lee, Time-sharing, Tony Hoare, Transaction processing, Turing Lecture, Type inference, Type safety, United States, University of Manchester, Unix, Vint Cerf, Web browser, Whitfield Diffie, William Kahan, Word processor, Workstation, World Wide Web, Xerox Alto. Expand index (121 more) »

## Adi Shamir

Adi Shamir (עדי שמיר; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer.

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## Alan Kay

Alan Curtis Kay (born May 17, 1940 published by the Association for Computing Machinery 2012) is an American computer scientist.

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## Alan Perlis

Alan Jay Perlis (April 1, 1922 – February 7, 1990) was an American computer scientist and professor at Purdue University, Carnegie Mellon University and Yale University.

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## Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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## ALGOL

ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.

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## ALGOL W

ALGOL W is a programming language.

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## Allen Newell

Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.

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## Amir Pnueli

Amir Pnueli (אמיר פנואלי; April 22, 1941 – November 2, 2009) was an Israeli computer scientist and the 1996 Turing Award recipient.

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## Analysis of algorithms

In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them.

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## Andrew Yao

Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (born December 24, 1946) is a Chinese computer scientist and computational theorist.

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## APL (programming language)

APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.

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## Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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## Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

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## Automated theorem proving

Automated theorem proving (also known as ATP or automated deduction) is a subfield of automated reasoning and mathematical logic dealing with proving mathematical theorems by computer programs.

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## Automatic programming

In computer science, the term automatic programming identifies a type of computer programming in which some mechanism generates a computer program to allow human programmers to write the code at a higher abstraction level.

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## Barbara Liskov

Barbara Liskov (born November 7, 1939 as Barbara Jane Huberman) is an American computer scientist who is an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Ford Professor of Engineering in its School of Engineering's electrical engineering and computer science department.

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## Bletchley Park

Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.

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## Bob Kahn

Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.

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## Butler Lampson

Butler W. Lampson (born December 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist best known for his contributions to the development and implementation of distributed personal computing.

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## Calculus of communicating systems

The calculus of communicating systems (CCS) is a process calculus introduced by Robin Milner around 1980 and the title of a book describing the calculus.

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## Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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## Charles Bachman

Charles William Bachman III (Born on December 11, 1924 – July 13, 2017) was an American computer scientist, who spent his entire career as an industrial researcher, developer, and manager rather than in academia.

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## Charles P. Thacker

Charles Patrick "Chuck" Thacker (February 26, 1943 – June 12, 2017) was an American pioneer computer designer.

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## Cliff Shaw

John Clifford Shaw (1922–9 February 1991) was a systems programmer at the RAND Corporation.

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## Communication complexity

In theoretical computer science, communication complexity studies the amount of communication required to solve a problem when the input to the problem is distributed among two or more parties.

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## Communications of the ACM

Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

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## Compatible Time-Sharing System

The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.

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## Compiler

A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

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## Computational complexity theory

Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.

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## Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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## Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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## Computer monitor

A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.

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## Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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## Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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## Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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## Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

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## Concurrency (computer science)

In computer science, concurrency refers to the ability of different parts or units of a program, algorithm, or problem to be executed out-of-order or in partial order, without affecting the final outcome.

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## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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## Dana Scott

Dana Stewart Scott (born October 11, 1932) is the emeritus Hillman University Professor of Computer Science, Philosophy, and Mathematical Logic at Carnegie Mellon University; he is now retired and lives in Berkeley, California.

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## Database

A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

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## David Patterson (computer scientist)

David Andrew Patterson (born November 16, 1947) is an American computer pioneer and academic who has held the position of Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley since 1976.

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## DBLP

DBLP is a computer science bibliography website.

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## Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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## Dennis Ritchie

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.

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## Denotational semantics

In computer science, denotational semantics (initially known as mathematical semantics or Scott–Strachey semantics) is an approach of formalizing the meanings of programming languages by constructing mathematical objects (called denotations) that describe the meanings of expressions from the languages.

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## Donald Knuth

Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.

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## Douglas Engelbart

Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.

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## E. Allen Emerson

Ernest Allen Emerson (born June 2, 1954) is a computer scientist and endowed professor at the University of Texas, Austin, United States.

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## Edgar F. Codd

Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.

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## Edmund M. Clarke

Edmund Melson Clarke, Jr. (born July 27, 1945) is an American retired computer scientist and academic noted for developing model checking, a method for formally verifying hardware and software designs.

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## Edsger W. Dijkstra

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.

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## Edward Feigenbaum

Edward Albert "Ed" Feigenbaum (born January 20, 1936) is a computer scientist working in the field of artificial intelligence, and joint winner of the 1994 ACM Turing Award.

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## Electronic delay storage automatic calculator

The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.

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## Euler (programming language)

Euler is a programming language created by Niklaus Wirth and Helmut Weber, conceived as an extension and generalization of ALGOL 60.

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## Exception handling

Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.

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## Fernando J. Corbató

Fernando José "Corby" Corbató (born July 1, 1926) is a prominent American computer scientist, notable as a pioneer in the development of time-sharing operating systems.

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## Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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## Formal verification

In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.

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## Fortran

Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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## Frances E. Allen

Frances Elizabeth "Fran" Allen (born August 4, 1932) is an American computer scientist and pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers.

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## Fred Brooks

Frederick Phillips "Fred" Brooks Jr. (born April 19, 1931) is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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## Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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## IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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## IEEE John von Neumann Medal

The IEEE John von Neumann Medal was established by the IEEE Board of Directors in 1990 and may be presented annually "for outstanding achievements in computer-related science and technology." The achievements may be theoretical, technological, or entrepreneurial, and need not have been made immediately prior to the date of the award.

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## Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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## International Data Group

International Data Group, Inc. (IDG) is a Chinese-owned, American-based media, data and marketing services and venture capital organization.

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## Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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## Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

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## Internetworking

Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.

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## Ivan Sutherland

Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.

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## James H. Wilkinson

James Hardy Wilkinson FRS (27 September 1919 – 5 October 1986) was a prominent figure in the field of numerical analysis, a field at the boundary of applied mathematics and computer science particularly useful to physics and engineering.

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## Jim Gray (computer scientist)

James Nicholas Gray (19442007) was an American computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1998 "for seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation".

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## John Backus

John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist.

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## John Cocke

John Cocke (May 30, 1925 – July 16, 2002) was an American computer scientist recognized for his large contribution to computer architecture and optimizing compiler design.

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## John Hopcroft

John Edward Hopcroft (born October 7, 1939) is an American theoretical computer scientist.

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## John L. Hennessy

John Leroy Hennessy (born September 22, 1952) is an American computer scientist, academician, businessman and Chairman of Alphabet Inc..

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## John McCarthy (computer scientist)

John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.

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## Joseph Sifakis

Joseph Sifakis (Ιωσήφ Σηφάκης) is a Greek computer scientist with French citizenship,, Evangélia Moussouri, in Écarts d'identités n⁰95-96, ISSN 1252-6665, reprinting information from an interview of Joseph Sifakis in Des grecs, les grecs de Grenoble, Musée Dauphinois, laureate of the 2007 Turing Award, along with Edmund M. Clarke and E. Allen Emerson, for his work on model checking.

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## Judea Pearl

Judea Pearl (born September 4, 1936) is an Israeli-American computer scientist and philosopher, best known for championing the probabilistic approach to artificial intelligence and the development of Bayesian networks (see the article on belief propagation).

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## Juris Hartmanis

Juris Hartmanis (born July 5, 1928) is a prominent computer scientist and computational theorist who, with Richard E. Stearns, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award "in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory".

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## Ken Thompson

Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.

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## Kenneth E. Iverson

Kenneth Eugene Iverson (17 December 1920 – 19 October 2004) was a Canadian computer scientist noted for the development of the programming language APL.

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## Kristen Nygaard

Kristen Nygaard (27 August 1926 – 10 August 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist, programming language pioneer and politician.

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## Leonard Adleman

Leonard Adleman (born December 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist.

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## Leslie Lamport

Leslie B. Lamport (born February 7, 1941) is an American computer scientist.

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## Leslie Valiant

Leslie Gabriel Valiant http://royalsociety.org/DServe/dserve.exe?dsqIni.

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## Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.

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## Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

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## List of awards named after people

This is a list of prizes that are named after people.

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## List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field

This is a non-exhaustive list of prizes known as "the Nobel Prize of" a given field.

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## List of science and technology awards

A list of medals, prizes, and other awards in the fields of science, technology, engineering and social science.

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## List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation

The following list comprehensively shows Turing Award laureates by university affiliations since 1966 (as of 2018, 67 winners in total), grouped by their current and past affiliation to academic institutions.

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## Logic for Computable Functions

Logic for Computable Functions (LCF) is an interactive automated theorem prover developed at the universities of Edinburgh and Stanford by Robin Milner and others in 1972.

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## Manuel Blum

Manuel Blum (Caracas, 26 April 1938) is a Venezuelan computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1995 "In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking".

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## Martin Hellman

Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.

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## Marvin Minsky

Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.

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## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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## Maurice Wilkes

Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes (26 June 1913 – 29 November 2010) was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC), one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-program logic to operate the control unit of a central processing unit's circuits.

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## McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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## Michael O. Rabin

Michael Oser Rabin (מִיכָאֵל עוזר רַבִּין, born September 1, 1931) is an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.

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## Michael Stonebraker

Michael Ralph Stonebraker (born October 11, 1943) is a computer scientist specializing in database research.

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## Millennium Technology Prize

The Millennium Technology Prize (Millennium-teknologiapalkinto) is one of the world's largest technology prizes.

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## ML (programming language)

ML (Meta Language) is a general-purpose functional programming language.

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## Model checking

In computer science, model checking or property checking refers to the following problem: Given a model of a system, exhaustively and automatically check whether this model meets a given specification.

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## Modula

The Modula programming language is a descendant of the Pascal programming language.

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## Multics

Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.

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## Nevanlinna Prize

The Rolf Nevanlinna Prize (named in honor of Rolf Nevanlinna) is awarded once every 4 years at the International Congress of Mathematicians, for outstanding contributions in Mathematical Aspects of Information Sciences including.

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## Niklaus Wirth

Niklaus Emil Wirth (born 15 February 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering.

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## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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## Nondeterministic finite automaton

In automata theory, a finite state machine is called a deterministic finite automaton (DFA), if.

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## NP-completeness

In computational complexity theory, an NP-complete decision problem is one belonging to both the NP and the NP-hard complexity classes.

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## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

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## Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").

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## Ole-Johan Dahl

Ole-Johan Dahl (12 October 1931 – 29 June 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist.

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## Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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## Operational semantics

Operational semantics is a category of formal programming language semantics in which certain desired properties of a program, such as correctness, safety or security, are verified by constructing proofs from logical statements about its execution and procedures, rather than by attaching mathematical meanings to its terms (denotational semantics).

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## Paris Kanellakis Award

The Paris Kanellakis Theory and Practice Award is granted yearly by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to honor "specific theoretical accomplishments that have had a significant and demonstrable effect on the practice of computing".

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## Parsing

Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

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## Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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## Peter Naur

Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.

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## Probably approximately correct learning

In computational learning theory, probably approximately correct learning (PAC learning) is a framework for mathematical analysis of machine learning.

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## Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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## Pseudorandom number generator

A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of sequences of random numbers.

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## Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

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## Raj Reddy

Dabbala Rajagopal "Raj" Reddy (born June 13, 1937) is an Indian-American computer scientist and a winner of the Turing Award.

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## RAND Corporation

RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.

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## Reader (academic rank)

The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.

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## Reduced instruction set computer

A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).

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## Relational database

A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.

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## Richard E. Stearns

Richard Edwin Stearns (born July 5, 1936) is a prominent computer scientist who, with Juris Hartmanis, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award "in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory" (Hartmanis and Stearns, 1965).

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## Richard Hamming

Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was an American mathematician whose work had many implications for computer engineering and telecommunications.

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## Richard M. Karp

Richard Manning Karp (born January 3, 1935) is an American computer scientist and computational theorist at the University of California, Berkeley.

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## Robert Tarjan

Robert Endre Tarjan (born April 30, 1948) is an American computer scientist and mathematician.

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## Robert W. Floyd

Robert W (Bob) Floyd (June 8, 1936 – September 25, 2001) was a computer scientist.

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## Robin Milner

Arthur John Robin Gorell Milner (13 January 1934 – 20 March 2010), known as Robin Milner or A. J. R. G. Milner, was a British computer scientist, and a Turing Award winner.

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## Rolf Schock Prizes

The Rolf Schock Prizes were established and endowed by bequest of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933–1986).

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## Ron Rivest

Ronald Linn Rivest (born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.

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## RSA (cryptosystem)

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.

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## Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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## Shafi Goldwasser

Shafrira Goldwasser (שפרירה גולדווסר; born 1959) is an American-Israeli computer scientist and winner of the Turing Award in 2012.

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## Silvio Micali

Silvio Micali (born October 13, 1954) is an Italian computer scientist at MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and a professor of computer science in MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science since 1983.

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## Simula

Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.

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## Sketchpad

Sketchpad (a.k.a. Robot Draftsman) was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis, for which he received the Turing Award in 1988, and the Kyoto Prize in 2012.

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## Smalltalk

Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.

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## Software engineering

Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.

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## Stephen Cook

Stephen Arthur Cook, (born December 14, 1939) is an American-Canadian computer scientist and mathematician who has made major contributions to the fields of complexity theory and proof complexity.

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## Stephen Kettle

Stephen Kettle (born 12 July 1966, in Castle Bromwich, Warwickshire, England) is a British sculptor who works exclusively with slate.

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## Temporal logic

In logic, temporal logic is any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time.

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## The Art of Computer Programming

The Art of Computer Programming (sometimes known by its initials TAOCP) is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth that covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis.

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## Theoretical computer science

Theoretical computer science, or TCS, is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on more mathematical topics of computing and includes the theory of computation.

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## Theory of computation

In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.

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## Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.

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## Time-sharing

In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.

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## Tony Hoare

Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (born 11 January 1934), is a British computer scientist.

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## Transaction processing

Transaction processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions.

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## Turing Lecture

The BCS / IET Turing Lecture is an annual lecture given by a noted speaker on the subject of Computer Science.

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## Type inference

Type inference refers to the automatic detection of the data type of an expression in a programming language.

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## Type safety

In computer science, type safety is the extent to which a programming language discourages or prevents type errors.

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## United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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## University of Manchester

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.

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## Unix

Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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## Vint Cerf

Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.

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## Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.

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## Whitfield Diffie

Bailey Whitfield 'Whit' Diffie (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle.

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## William Kahan

William "Velvel" Morton Kahan (born June 5, 1933) is a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1989 for "his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis", was named an ACM Fellow in 1994, and inducted into the National Academy of Engineering in 2005.

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## Word processor

A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.

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## Workstation

A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.

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## World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.

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## Xerox Alto

The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.

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## Redirects here:

A M Turing Award, A. M. Turing Award, A.M. Turing Award, ACM Turing Award, Acm Turing award, Alan turing award, List of Turing Award laureates, Turing Award Laureate, Turing Award laureates, Turing Awards, Turing Prize, Turing award.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_Award