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Turing machine

Index Turing machine

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. [1]

151 relations: Abstract machine, ACM SIGACT, Alan Turing, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Algorithm, Alonzo Church, Alphabet (formal languages), Analytical Engine, Andrew Hodges, ANSI C, Arithmetical hierarchy, Assembly language, Automatic Computing Engine, Automaton, Batch processing, Bekenstein bound, Binary search algorithm, Black box, BlooP and FlooP, Busy beaver, Cantor's diagonal argument, Central processing unit, Chaitin's constant, Charles Babbage, Charles Petzold, Christos Papadimitriou, Church–Turing thesis, Claude Shannon, Completeness (logic), Computability, Computability theory, Computable function, Computation, Computational complexity theory, Computer, Computer data storage, Computer science, Consistency, Conway's Game of Life, Counter machine, David Hilbert, Decidability (logic), Deterministic finite automaton, Digital infinity, Diophantine equation, Discrete mathematics, EDVAC, Effective method, Emil Leon Post, Entscheidungsproblem, ..., Enumeration, Enumerator (computer science), Finite-state machine, First-order logic, Gödel numbering, Gödel, Escher, Bach, George Stibitz, Goto, Halting problem, Hao Wang (academic), Hartley Rogers Jr., Harvard architecture, Heinrich Behmann, Hilbert's problems, Howard H. Aiken, Imperative programming, Input/output automaton, Interactivity, Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, Ivars Peterson, J. Barkley Rosser, Jack Copeland, Jan van Leeuwen, Jeffrey Ullman, John Hopcroft, Journal of the ACM, King's College, Cambridge, Konrad Zuse, Kurt Gödel, Lambda calculus, Langton's ant, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, Linear bounded automaton, Logarithm, Logic, Louis Couffignal, Martin Davis, Marvin Minsky, Mathematics, Max Newman, Memory management, Michael Sipser, Model of computation, Modified Harvard architecture, Multi-track Turing machine, Multitape Turing machine, Non-deterministic Turing machine, Nondeterministic finite automaton, Oracle machine, Out of memory, Oxford University Press, Partial function, Pascal (programming language), Paul Strathern, Percy Ludgate, Peter van Emde Boas, Philbert Maurice d'Ocagne, Post–Turing machine, Powerset construction, Princeton University Press, Probabilistic Turing machine, Programming language, Pushdown automaton, Quantum Turing machine, Random-access machine, Random-access memory, Random-access stored-program machine, Read-only right moving Turing machines, Recursively enumerable set, Register machine, Richard E. Stearns, Robin Gandy, Roger Penrose, Simon & Schuster, Stack (abstract data type), Stephen Cole Kleene, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Wolfram, Stored-program computer, Taylor Booth, The Emperor's New Mind, Theory of computation, Transition system, Tuple, Turing completeness, Turing machine examples, Turing switch, Turing tarpit, Turing's proof, Turmite, Unbounded nondeterminism, United Kingdom, Universal Turing machine, Unorganized machine, Unrestricted grammar, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiktionary, Wolfram Demonstrations Project, World War II, Zohar Manna. Expand index (101 more) »

Abstract machine

An abstract machine, also called an abstract computer, is a theoretical model of a computer hardware or software system used in automata theory.

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ACM SIGACT or SIGACT is the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory, whose purpose is support of research in theoretical computer science.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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Alan Turing: The Enigma

Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Alonzo Church

Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science.

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Alphabet (formal languages)

In formal language theory, a string is defined as a finite sequence of members of an underlying base set; this set is called the alphabet of a string or collection of strings.

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Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

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Andrew Hodges

Andrew Hodges (born 1949) is a British mathematician and author.

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ANSI C, ISO C and Standard C refer to the successive standards for the C programming language published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

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Arithmetical hierarchy

In mathematical logic, the arithmetical hierarchy, arithmetic hierarchy or Kleene–Mostowski hierarchy classifies certain sets based on the complexity of formulas that define them.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Automatic Computing Engine

The Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was an early electronic stored-program computer designed by Alan Turing.

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An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

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Batch processing

In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).

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Bekenstein bound

In physics, the Bekenstein bound is an upper limit on the entropy S, or information I, that can be contained within a given finite region of space which has a finite amount of energy—or conversely, the maximum amount of information required to perfectly describe a given physical system down to the quantum level.

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Binary search algorithm

In computer science, binary search, also known as half-interval search,logarithmic search, or binary chop, is a search algorithm that finds the position of a target value within a sorted array.

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Black box

In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.

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BlooP and FlooP

and are simple programming languages designed by Douglas Hofstadter to illustrate a point in his book Gödel, Escher, Bach.

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Busy beaver

The busy beaver game consists of designing a halting, binary-alphabet Turing machine which writes the most 1s on the tape, using only a limited set of states.

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Cantor's diagonal argument

In set theory, Cantor's diagonal argument, also called the diagonalisation argument, the diagonal slash argument or the diagonal method, was published in 1891 by Georg Cantor as a mathematical proof that there are infinite sets which cannot be put into one-to-one correspondence with the infinite set of natural numbers.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Chaitin's constant

In the computer science subfield of algorithmic information theory, a Chaitin constant (Chaitin omega number) or halting probability is a real number that, informally speaking, represents the probability that a randomly constructed program will halt.

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Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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Charles Petzold

Charles Petzold (born February 2, 1953, New Brunswick, New Jersey) is an American programmer and technical author on Microsoft Windows applications.

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Christos Papadimitriou

Christos Harilaos Papadimitriou (Greek: Χρήστος Χαρίλαος Παπαδημητρίου; born August 16, 1949) is a Greek theoretical computer scientist, and professor of Computer Science at Columbia University.

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Church–Turing thesis

In computability theory, the Church–Turing thesis (also known as computability thesis, the Turing–Church thesis, the Church–Turing conjecture, Church's thesis, Church's conjecture, and Turing's thesis) is a hypothesis about the nature of computable functions.

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Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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Completeness (logic)

In mathematical logic and metalogic, a formal system is called complete with respect to a particular property if every formula having the property can be derived using that system, i.e. is one of its theorems; otherwise the system is said to be incomplete.

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Computability is the ability to solve a problem in an effective manner.

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Computability theory

Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.

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Computable function

Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.

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Computation is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and non-arithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model, for example an algorithm.

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Computational complexity theory

Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.

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Conway's Game of Life

The Game of Life, also known simply as Life, is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970.

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Counter machine

A counter machine is an abstract machine used in formal logic and theoretical computer science to model computation.

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David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

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Decidability (logic)

In logic, the term decidable refers to the decision problem, the question of the existence of an effective method for determining membership in a set of formulas, or, more precisely, an algorithm that can and will return a boolean true or false value that is correct (instead of looping indefinitely, crashing, returning "don't know" or returning a wrong answer).

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Deterministic finite automaton

In the theory of computation, a branch of theoretical computer science, a deterministic finite automaton (DFA)—also known as a deterministic finite acceptor (DFA) and a deterministic finite state machine (DFSM) or a deterministic finite state automaton (DFSA)—is a finite-state machine that accepts or rejects strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.

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Digital infinity

Digital infinity is a technical term in theoretical linguistics.

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Diophantine equation

In mathematics, a Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values).

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Discrete mathematics

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers.

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Effective method

In logic, mathematics and computer science, especially metalogic and computability theory, an effective methodHunter, Geoffrey, Metalogic: An Introduction to the Metatheory of Standard First-Order Logic, University of California Press, 1971 or effective procedure is a procedure for solving a problem from a specific class.

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Emil Leon Post

Emil Leon Post (February 11, 1897 – April 21, 1954) was an American mathematician and logician.

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In mathematics and computer science, the Entscheidungsproblem (German for "decision problem") is a challenge posed by David Hilbert in 1928.

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An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection.

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Enumerator (computer science)

An enumerator is a Turing machine that lists, possibly with repetitions, elements of some set S, which it is said to enumerate.

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Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.

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First-order logic

First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.

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Gödel numbering

In mathematical logic, a Gödel numbering is a function that assigns to each symbol and well-formed formula of some formal language a unique natural number, called its Gödel number.

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Gödel, Escher, Bach

Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, also known as GEB, is a 1979 book by Douglas Hofstadter.

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George Stibitz

George Robert Stibitz (April 30, 1904 – January 31, 1995) was a Bell Labs researcher internationally recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer.

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GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.

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Halting problem

In computability theory, the halting problem is the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running (i.e., halt) or continue to run forever.

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Hao Wang (academic)

Hao Wang (20 May 1921 – 13 May 1995) was a logician, philosopher, mathematician, and commentator on Kurt Gödel.

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Hartley Rogers Jr.

Hartley Rogers Jr. (1926–2015) was a mathematician who worked in recursion theory, and was a professor in the Mathematics Department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Harvard architecture

The Harvard architecture is a computer architecture with physically separate storage and signal pathways for instructions and data.

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Heinrich Behmann

Heinrich Behmann (10 January 1891, in Bremen-Aumund – 3 February 1970, in Bremen-Aumund) was a German mathematician.

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Hilbert's problems

Hilbert's problems are twenty-three problems in mathematics published by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900.

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Howard H. Aiken

Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist and a pioneer in computing, being the original conceptual designer behind IBM's Harvard Mark I computer.

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Imperative programming

In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.

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Input/output automaton

Input/output automata provide a formal model, applicable in describing most types of asynchronous concurrent system.

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Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of the term "interactivity", although all are related to interaction with computers and other machines with a user interface.

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Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation

Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation is an influential computer science textbook by John Hopcroft and Jeffrey Ullman on formal languages and the theory of computation.

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Ivars Peterson

Ivars Peterson (born 4 December 1948) is an award-winning mathematics writer.

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J. Barkley Rosser

John Barkley Rosser Sr. (December 6, 1907 – September 5, 1989) was an American logician, a student of Alonzo Church, and known for his part in the Church–Rosser theorem, in lambda calculus.

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Jack Copeland

Brian Jack Copeland (born 1950) is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, and author of books on the computing pioneer Alan Turing.

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Jan van Leeuwen

Jan van Leeuwen (born December 17, 1946 in Waddinxveen) is a Dutch computer scientist and Emeritus professor of computer science at the Department of Information and Computing Sciences at Utrecht University.

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Jeffrey Ullman

Jeffrey David "Jeff" Ullman (born November 22, 1942) is an American computer scientist and professor at Stanford University.

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John Hopcroft

John Edward Hopcroft (born October 7, 1939) is an American theoretical computer scientist.

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Journal of the ACM

The Journal of the ACM is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering computer science in general, especially theoretical aspects.

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King's College, Cambridge

King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.

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Konrad Zuse

Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.

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Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

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Lambda calculus

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.

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Langton's ant

Langton's ant is a two-dimensional universal Turing machine with a very simple set of rules but complex emergent behavior.

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Leonardo Torres y Quevedo

Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936) was a Spanish civil engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Linear bounded automaton

In computer science, a linear bounded automaton (plural linear bounded automata, abbreviated LBA) is a restricted form of Turing machine.

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In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Louis Couffignal

Louis Pierre Couffignal (16 March 1902 – 4 July 1966) was a French mathematician and cybernetics pioneer, born in Monflanquin.

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Martin Davis

Martin David Davis (born March 8, 1928) is an American mathematician, known for his work on Hilbert's tenth problem.

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Marvin Minsky

Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Max Newman

Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, FRS, (7 February 1897 – 22 February 1984), generally known as Max Newman, was a British mathematician and codebreaker.

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Memory management

Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.

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Michael Sipser

Michael Fredric Sipser (born September 17, 1954) is a theoretical computer scientist who has made early contributions to computational complexity theory.

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Model of computation

In computer science, and more specifically in computability theory and computational complexity theory, a model of computation is a model which describes how a set of outputs are computed given a set of inputs.

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Modified Harvard architecture

The modified Harvard architecture is a variation of the Harvard computer architecture that allows the contents of the instruction memory to be accessed as if it were data.

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Multi-track Turing machine

A Multitrack Turing machine is a specific type of Multi-tape Turing machine.

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Multitape Turing machine

A multi-tape Turing machine is like an ordinary Turing machine with several tapes.

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Non-deterministic Turing machine

In theoretical computer science, a Turing machine is a theoretical machine that is used in thought experiments to examine the abilities and limitations of computers.

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Nondeterministic finite automaton

In automata theory, a finite state machine is called a deterministic finite automaton (DFA), if.

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Oracle machine

In complexity theory and computability theory, an oracle machine is an abstract machine used to study decision problems.

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Out of memory

Out of memory (OOM) is an often undesired state of computer operation where no additional memory can be allocated for use by programs or the operating system.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Partial function

In mathematics, a partial function from X to Y (written as or) is a function, for some subset X ′ of X.

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Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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Paul Strathern

Paul Strathern (born 1940) is a British writer and academic.

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Percy Ludgate

Percy Edwin Ludgate (2 August 1883 – 16 October 1922) was an accountant in Dublin and designer of an analytical engine.

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Peter van Emde Boas

Peter van Emde Boas (born 3 April 1945, Amsterdam) is a Dutch computer scientist and professor at the University of Amsterdam.

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Philbert Maurice d'Ocagne

Philbert Maurice d'Ocagne (25 March 1862 – 23 September 1938) was a French engineer and mathematician.

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Post–Turing machine

A Post–Turing machine is a "program formulation" of an especially simple type of Turing machine, comprising a variant of Emil Post's Turing-equivalent model of computation described below.

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Powerset construction

In the theory of computation and automata theory, the powerset construction or subset construction is a standard method for converting a nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) into a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) which recognizes the same formal language.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Probabilistic Turing machine

In computability theory, a probabilistic Turing machine is a non-deterministic Turing machine which chooses between the available transitions at each point according to some probability distribution.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Pushdown automaton

In the theory of computation, a branch of theoretical computer science, a pushdown automaton (PDA) is a type of automaton that employs a stack.

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Quantum Turing machine

A quantum Turing machine (QTM), also a universal quantum computer, is an abstract machine used to model the effect of a quantum computer.

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Random-access machine

In computer science, random-access machine (RAM) is an abstract machine in the general class of register machines.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Random-access stored-program machine

In theoretical computer science the random-access stored-program (RASP) machine model is an abstract machine used for the purposes of algorithm development and algorithm complexity theory.

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Read-only right moving Turing machines

Read-only right moving Turing machines are a particular type of Turing machine.

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Recursively enumerable set

In computability theory, traditionally called recursion theory, a set S of natural numbers is called recursively enumerable, computably enumerable, semidecidable, provable or Turing-recognizable if.

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Register machine

In mathematical logic and theoretical computer science a register machine is a generic class of abstract machines used in a manner similar to a Turing machine.

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Richard E. Stearns

Richard Edwin Stearns (born July 5, 1936) is a prominent computer scientist who, with Juris Hartmanis, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award "in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory" (Hartmanis and Stearns, 1965).

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Robin Gandy

Robin Oliver Gandy (22 September 1919 – 20 November 1995) was a British mathematician and logician.

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Roger Penrose

Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Stack (abstract data type)

In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.

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Stephen Cole Kleene

Stephen Cole Kleene (January 5, 1909 – January 25, 1994) was an American mathematician.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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Stephen Wolfram

Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959) is a British-American computer scientist, physicist, and businessman.

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Stored-program computer

A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.

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Taylor Booth

Taylor Lockwood Booth (September 22, 1933 – October 20, 1986) was a mathematician known for his work in automata theory.

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The Emperor's New Mind

The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and The Laws of Physics is a 1989 book by mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose.

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Theory of computation

In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.

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Transition system

In theoretical computer science, a transition system is a concept used in the study of computation.

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In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.

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Turing completeness

In computability theory, a system of data-manipulation rules (such as a computer's instruction set, a programming language, or a cellular automaton) is said to be Turing complete or computationally universal if it can be used to simulate any Turing machine.

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Turing machine examples

The following are examples to supplement the article Turing machine.

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Turing switch

In theoretical network science, the Turing switch is a logical construction modeling the operation of the network switch, just as in theoretical computer science a Turing machine models the operation of a computer.

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Turing tarpit

A Turing tarpit (or Turing tar-pit) is any programming language or computer interface that allows for flexibility in function but is difficult to learn and use because it offers little or no support for common tasks.

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Turing's proof

Turing's proof is a proof by Alan Turing, first published in January 1937 with the title "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem." It was the second proof of the assertion (Alonzo Church's proof was first) that some decision problems are "undecidable": there is no single algorithm that infallibly gives a correct "yes" or "no" answer to each instance of the problem.

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In computer science, a turmite is a Turing machine which has an orientation as well as a current state and a "tape" that consists of an infinite two-dimensional grid of cells.

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Unbounded nondeterminism

In computer science, unbounded nondeterminism or unbounded indeterminacy is a property of concurrency by which the amount of delay in servicing a request can become unbounded as a result of arbitration of contention for shared resources while still guaranteeing that the request will eventually be serviced.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.

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Unorganized machine

An unorganized machine is a concept mentioned in a 1948 report in which Alan Turing suggested that the infant human cortex was what he called an "unorganised machine".

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Unrestricted grammar

In formal language theory, an unrestricted grammar is a formal grammar on which no restrictions are made on the left and right sides of the grammar's productions.

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Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.

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Von Neumann architecture

The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.

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Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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Wolfram Demonstrations Project

The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zohar Manna

Zohar Manna (born 1939) is a professor of computer science at Stanford University.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_machine

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