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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. [1]

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Ağrı Province

The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority. The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.

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Abaza language

The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a Northwest Caucasian language in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey.

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Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.

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Abidin Dino

Abidin Dino (March 23, 1913 – December 7, 1993) was a Turkish artist and a well-known painter.

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Abkhaz language

Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.

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Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate

The abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) on 1 November 1922 ended the Ottoman Empire, which had lasted since 1299.

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Accession of Turkey to the European Union

Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Acquis communautaire

The Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimes called the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union law.

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Acropolis

An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.

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Acts of the Apostles

Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.

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Adnan Coker

Adnan Coker (Adnan Çoker) (born 1927) in İstanbul) is a Turkish abstract artist.)))(English mention states "Turkish artists such as abstract masters Devrim Erbil and Adnan Coker") He graduated from Academy of Fine Arts Istanbul in 1951 and won European Concourt Prize in 1955. He went on to Paris on a scholarship from the Turkish state. He worked at the André Lhote, Henri Goetz and Hayter studios in Paris and the Emilio Vedova Studio at the International Salzburg Summer Academy., MİNE SANAT GALERİSİ, Retrieved February 3, 2010.

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Adnan Menderes

Adnan Menderes (1899 – 17 September 1961) or Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes was the Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960.

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Adyghe language

Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.

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Aegean Region

The Aegean Region is one of the 7 geographical regions of Turkey.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Aeolians

The Aeolians (Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians).

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Afrin, Syria

Afrin (translit; Efrîn or Afrîn; ܥܦܪܝܢ) is a district as well as a city in northern Syria.

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Afsharid dynasty

The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ahmet Davutoğlu

Ahmet Davutoğlu (born 26 February 1959) is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who was the Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from August 2014 to May 2016.

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Ahrar al-Sham

Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.

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Air superiority fighter

An air superiority fighter, also spelled air-superiority fighter, is a type of fighter aircraft designed for entering and seizing control of enemy airspace as a means of establishing complete dominance over the enemy's air force (air supremacy).

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Airbus A400M Atlas

The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.

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Airports Council International

Airports Council International (ACI) is the only global trade representative of the world’s airport authorities.

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Aizanoi

Aizanoi (Αἰζανοί), Latinized as Aezani was an Ancient Greek city in western Anatolia.

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Akbash dog

The Akbash Dog (from Akbaş 'white head') is native to Turkey, and it is primarily used as a livestock guardian dog or shepherd dog.

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Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant

The Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant (Akkuyu Nükleer Güç Santrali) is a nuclear power plant under development at Akkuyu, in Büyükeceli, Mersin Province, Turkey.

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Aksaray Malaklisi dog

The Aksaray Malaklısı, also known as the Turkish mastiff or Central Anatolian shepherd, is a large Turkish breed of Molosser-type guard dog.

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Aksiyon

Aksiyon (Action) was a Turkish news magazine.

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Al-Ahram Weekly

Al-Ahram Weekly is an English-language weekly broadsheet printed by the Al-Ahram Publishing House in Cairo, Egypt.

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Alanya

Alanya, formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort city and a component district of Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey, in the country's Mediterranean Region, east of the city of Antalya.

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Albanians in Turkey

Albanians in Turkey (Shqiptarët në Turqi, Türkiye'deki Arnavutlar) are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey.

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Alevism

Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alhambra Decree

The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.

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Aliyah

Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Alternative civilian service

Alternative civilian service is a form of national service performed in lieu of conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons.

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Ambassador

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.

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Anadolu Agency

Anadolu Agency (Anadolu Ajansı, abbreviated AA) is a state-run international news agency of the Turkish government headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.

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Anadolu Efes S.K.

Anadolu Efes Spor Kulübü (Anadolu Efes Sports Club), formerly known as Efes Pilsen, is a Turkish professional basketball team that is based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Anadolu University

Anadolu University (Turkish: Anadolu Üniversitesi) is a public university in Eskişehir, Turkey.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anatolian beyliks

Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.

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Anatolian languages

The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.

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Anatolian leopard

The Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana), also called the Asia Minor leopard, was proposed in the 19th century as a distinct leopard subspecies native to south-western Turkey.

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Anatolian peoples

Anatolians were Indo-European peoples of Anatolia identified by their use of the Anatolian languages.

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Anatolian rug

Anatolian rug is a term of convenience, commonly used today to denote rugs and carpets woven in Anatolia (or Asia minor) and its adjacent regions.

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Anatolian Shepherd

The Anatolian Shepherd Dog (Anadolu çoban köpeği) is a breed of dog which originated in the Anatolia region of central Turkey.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Angora goat

The Angora goat is a breed of domesticated goat, historically known as Angora.

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Angora rabbit

The Angora rabbit (Ankara tavşanı), which is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as Angora wool, that are gathered by shearing, combing, or plucking.

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Ani

Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.

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Ankara

Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.

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Ankara Agreement

The Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community (commonly known as the Ankara Agreement), is a treaty, signed in 1963, which provides for the framework for the co-operation between Turkey and the European Union (EU).

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Ankara Province

Ankara Province (Ankara ili) is the capital province of Turkey.

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Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway

The Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway (Ankara–İstanbul yüksek hızlı demiryolu), is a long high-speed railway currently running between Ankara and Pendik (a suburb of Istanbul), with the Pendik-Central İstanbul part under construction.

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Annan Plan for Cyprus

The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus reunification plan.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Antakya

Antakya (انطاكيا, Anṭākyā, previously أنطاكيّة (Anṭākīyyah) from ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ, Anṭiokia; Ἀντιόχεια, Antiócheia) is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey.

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Antalya

Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.

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Antioch

Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.

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Antiochian Greek Christians

Antiochian Greek Christians, also known as Rûm, are an Arabic-speaking ethnoreligious Christian group from the Levant region.

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Antiochus I Theos of Commagene

Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (Անտիոքոս Երվանդունի, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην, meaning Antiochos, a just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend of Greeks, c. 86 BC – 38 BC, ruled 70 BC – 38 BC) was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.

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Aphrodisias

Aphrodisias (Aphrodisiás) was a small ancient Greek Hellenistic city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey.

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Apostles

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Arabesque

The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements.

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Arabesque (Turkish music)

Arabesque or Arabesk (Arabesk) is a term created by Turkish musicologists for an Arabic style of music created in Turkey.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic literature

Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.

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Arabic music

Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.

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Arabs in Turkey

Arabs in Turkey (العرب في تركيا, Türkiye'deki Araplar) refers to citizens and residents of Turkey who are ethnically Arab.

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

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Aras (river)

The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.

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Architecture of Central Asia

The Architecture of Central Asia, which is generally considered as comprising Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan has been influenced by a diverse array of architectural traditions such as Russian architecture during the eras of tsarist and Soviet rule, Islamic architecture which came earlier, Persian architecture, and Chinese architecture.

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Arf invariant

In mathematics, the Arf invariant of a nonsingular quadratic form over a field of characteristic 2 was defined by Turkish mathematician when he started the systematic study of quadratic forms over arbitrary fields of characteristic 2.

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Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu

Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888 - 1982) was a Turkish architect best known for his work on the State Art and Sculpture Museum in Ankara, Turkey.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian architecture

Armenian architecture comprises architectural works with an aesthetic or historical connection to the Armenian people.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenian Genocide denial

Armenian Genocide denial is the act of denying the planned systematic genocide of 1.5 million Armenians during World War I, conducted by the Ottoman government.

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Armenian Highlands

The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.

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Armenians

Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Armenians in Turkey

Armenians in Turkey (Türkiye Ermenileri; Թուրքահայեր, also Թրքահայեր, "Turkish Armenians"), one of the indigenous peoples of Turkey, have an estimated population of 50,000 to 70,000, down from more than 2 million in 1914.

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Armistice of Mudros

The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.

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Arzawa

Arzawa in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC (roughly from late 15th century BC until the beginning of the 12th century BC) was the name of a region and a political entity (a "kingdom" or a federation of local powers) in Western Anatolia.

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ASELSAN

ASELSAN A.Ş., (ASELSAN, acronym: Askeri Elektronik Sanayi, Military Electronic Industries) is a Turkish corporation that produces tactical military radios and defense electronic systems for the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Asia Cooperation Dialogue

The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is an inter-governmental organization created on 18 June 2002 to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level and to help integrate separate regional organizations such as ASEAN, SAARC, the Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Eurasian Economic Union.

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Aspendos

Aspendos or Aspendus (Pamphylian: ΕΣΤϜΕΔΥΣ; Attic: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assumption of Mary

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven (often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Dormition)) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyrian genocide

The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Assyrians in Turkey

Assyrians/Syriacs in Turkey are an indigenous Semitic-speaking ethnic group and minority of Turkey (and also northern Iraq and northeast Syria) with a presence in the region dating to as far back as the 25th century BC, making them the oldest ethnic group in the nation.

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Atatürk University

Atatürk University (Atatürk Üniversitesi) is a land-grant university established in 1957 in Erzurum, Turkey.

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Atatürk's Reforms

Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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ATV (Turkey)

ATV (stylized as atv) is a nationwide TV channel in Turkey, began broadcasting in September 1993.

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Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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Autocracy

An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).

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Automotive industry in Turkey

The automotive industry in Turkey plays an important role in the manufacturing sector of the Turkish economy.

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Ayastefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı

Demolition of the Monument at San Stefano (Ayastefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı) is a 1914 Turkish documentary film directed by former army officer Fuat Uzkınay.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Aziz Sancar

Aziz Sancar (born 8September 1946) is a Turkish-American biochemist and molecular biologist specializing in DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and circadian clock.

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Çanakkale 1915 Bridge

The Çanakkale 1915 Bridge (Çanakkale 1915 Köprüsü) is a suspension bridge under construction situated at the western end of the Sea of Marmara between Gelibolu and Lapseki towns of Turkey's Çanakkale Province.

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Çatalhöyük

Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.

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Çırağan Palace

Çırağan Palace (Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.

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Ölüdeniz

Ölüdeniz (literally Dead Sea, due to its calm waters even during storms; official translation name Blue Lagoon) is a small village and beach resort in the Fethiye district of Muğla Province, on the Turquoise Coast of southwestern Turkey, at the conjunction point of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.

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İbrahim Şinasi

İbrahim Şinasi (5 August 1826 – 13 September 1871) was a pioneering Ottoman intellectual, author, journalist, translator, playwright, and newspaper editor.

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İlbank

Ilbank A.Ş., short for İller Bankası Anonim Şirketi, is a state-owned development and investment bank based in Ankara, Turkey.

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İsmail Kahraman

İsmail Kahraman (born 1940) is a Turkish politician from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who currently serves as the 27th Speaker of the Grand National Assembly since 22 November 2015.

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İsmet İnönü

Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.

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İstiklal Marşı

The İstiklal Marşı (Independence March) is the national anthem of the Republic of Turkey which was officially adopted on 12 March 1921 —two-and-a-half years before the 29 October 1923 establishment of the nation— both as a motivational musical saga for the troops fighting in the Turkish War of Independence, and as an aspirational anthem for a Republic that was yet to be established.

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İzmir

İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.

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İznik

İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.

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Şanlıurfa Province

Şanlıurfa Province (Şanlıurfa ili) or simply Urfa Province is a province in southeastern Turkey.

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Şırnak Province

The Şırnak Province (Şırnak ili, Parêzgeha Şirnex) is a Turkish province in Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak borders Iraq and Syria. Şırnak was legally separated from Siirt province on May 16, 1990. This law also attached several districts from neighboring provinces of Siirt and Mardin, making them part of Şırnak, including Cizre and Silopi. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The 2015–16 Şırnak clashes are ongoing in Şırnak City, and its districts Cizre, Idil and Silopi.

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B61 nuclear bomb

The B61 nuclear bomb is the primary thermonuclear gravity bomb in the United States Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War.

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BAE Systems

BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Baklava

Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.

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Baku

Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline

The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

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Balkan cuisine

Balkan cuisine may refer to.

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Balkan music

Balkan music is a type of music found in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Balyan family

The Balyan family (Western Պալեաններ; Balyan ailesi or Palyan ailesi) was a prominent Ottoman Armenian family of court architects in the service of Ottoman sultans and other members of the Ottoman dynasty during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Bar (dance)

Bar is a form of folk dance of Eastern Turkey.

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Bashar al-Assad

Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.

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Basilica of St. John

The Basilica of St.

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Basketball

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Basketball at the Mediterranean Games

Basketball has been played consistently at the Mediterranean Games since the year 1951 for men and since the year 1987 for women.

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Batman Province

Batman Province (Batman ili, Parêzgeha Batmanê, Arabic: محافظة بطمان) is a Turkish province southeast of Anatolia.

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Battle of Chaldiran

The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.

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Battle of Köse Dağ

The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Sultanate of Rum ruled by the Seljuq dynasty and the Mongol Empire on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in modern northeastern Turkey; the Mongols achieved a decisive victory.

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Battle of Manzikert

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).

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Bülent Ecevit

Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (28 May 1925 – 5 November 2006) was a Turkish politician, poet, writer, scholar, and journalist, who served as the Prime Minister of Turkey four times between 1974 and 2002.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beşiktaş J.K. (men's basketball)

Beşiktaş Basketbol is a Turkish professional basketball team from the city of İstanbul.

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Bebek, Beşiktaş

Bebek (known in Greek as Χηλαί, Chelai) is a historic Istanbul neighbourhood that falls within the boundaries and administration of the Beşiktaş district.

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Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu

Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu (1911 in Görele – September 21, 1975 in İstanbul) was a Turkish painter and poet.

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Behçet's disease

Behçet's disease (BD) is a type of inflammatory disorder which affects multiple parts of the body.

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Beko

Beko (sometimes stylized as beko) is a Turkish domestic appliance and consumer electronics brand of Arçelik A.Ş. controlled by Koç Holding.

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Beylerbeyi Palace

The Beylerbeyi Palace (Beylerbeyi Sarayı), Beylerbeyi meaning "Lord of Lords", is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Üsküdar district in Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus.

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Beypazarı, Ankara

Beypazarı is a Turkish town and district of Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, approximately 100 km west of the city of Ankara.

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Bilkent University

Bilkent University (in Turkish, Bilkent Üniversitesi) is a private university located in Ankara, Turkey.

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BILSAT-1

BILSAT-1 was an earth observation satellite designed and developed by TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK UZAY) and produced in Turkey as part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) project in the context of a show-how program led by DMC International Imaging of Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL).

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Bingöl Province

Bingöl Province (Bingöl ili; Parêzgeha Bîngolê, Zazaki: Çewlîg, Northern Kurdish: Çewlîg; Ճապաղջուր Chapaghjur) is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was created in 1946 out of parts of Elazığ and Erzincan. The new province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1950. Its neighbouring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km² and has a population of 255,170. The main spoken languages are Turkish and Zazaki/Kurdish. The capital is Bingöl. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.

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Bitlis Province

Bitlis Province (Bitlis ili and Parêzgeha Peniyan) is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Black Sea Region

The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Block of Wikipedia in Turkey

On 29 April 2017, Turkish authorities blocked online access to all language editions of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia throughout Turkey.

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Blue Stream

Blue Stream is a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline that carries natural gas from Russia into Turkey.

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Boğaziçi University

Boğaziçi University (also known as Bosphorus University, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, "Boğaziçi" literally meaning Bosphorus in Turkish) is a major research university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.

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Bond credit rating

In investment, the bond credit rating represents the credit worthiness of corporate or government bonds.

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Bosniaks in Turkey

Bosniaks in Turkey refers to citizens of Turkey who are, or descend from, ethnic Bosniak people, originating in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak and other former Yugoslav republics.

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Bosnian language

The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

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Bosphorus Bridge

The Bosphorus Bridge (Boğaziçi Köprüsü), known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge (15 Temmuz Şehitler Köprüsü) and unofficially as the First Bridge (Birinci Köprü), is one of the three suspension bridges spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi) in Istanbul, Turkey, thus connecting Europe and Asia (alongside Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge).

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Bosporus

The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.

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Broadband

In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.

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Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Burhan Doğançay

Burhan C. Doğançay (11 September 1929 – 16 January 2013) was a Turkish-American artist.

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Bursa

Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.

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Byzantine architecture

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine–Sasanian wars

The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.

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Byzantium

Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

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Cahit Arf

Cahit Arf (11 October 1910 – 26 December 1997) was a Turkish mathematician.

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Cappadocia

Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.

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Cappadocian Greek

Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a mixed language spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey).

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Caria

Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.

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Carpathian Mountains

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Caspian tiger

The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.

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Caucasian grouse

The Caucasian grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is a large bird in the grouse family.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Caucasus mixed forests

The Caucasus mixed forests ecoregion, in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, of Eurasia in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Celâl Bayar

Mahmut Celâl Bayar (16 May 1883 – 22 August 1986) was a Turkish politician who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939.

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Cemal Tollu

Cemal Tollu (19 April 1899 – 26 July 1968) was a Turkish painter.

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Censorship in Turkey

Censorship in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation, the latter (in theory) taking precedence over domestic law, according to Article 90 of the Constitution of Turkey (so amended in 2004).

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey

The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, CBRT (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası, TCMB) is the central bank of Turkey and is founded as a joint stock company on 11 June 1930.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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CEV Women's Champions League

The Women's CEV Champions League, formerly known as CEV Champions Cup (from 1960 to 2000), is the top official competition for women's volleyball clubs of Europe and takes place every year.

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Ceyhan

Ceyhan is a city and a district in the Adana Province, in southern Turkey, east of Adana.

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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chatham House

The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.

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Christendom

Christendom has several meanings.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian emigration

The phenomenon of large-scale migration of Christians is the main reason why Christians' share of the population has been declining in many countries.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Turkey

Christianity has a long history in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and the Armenian Highlands (now part of Turkey), which is the birthplace of numerous Christian Apostles and Saints, such as Paul of Tarsus, Timothy, Nicholas of Myra, Polycarp of Smyrna and many others.

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Church of Saint Peter

The Church of Saint Peter (Aramaic: Knisset Mar Semaan Kefa, Turkish: Senpiyer Kilisesi, St. Peter's Cave Church, Cave-Church of St. Peter) near Antakya (Antioch), Turkey, is composed of a cave carved into the mountainside on Mount Starius with a depth of 13 m (42 ft.), a width of 9.5 m (31 ft.) and a height of 7 m (23 ft).

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Cimmerians

The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.

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Cinema of Turkey

Yeşilçam (literally means The Green Pine in Turkish language) is the sobriquet that refers to the Turkish film art and industry.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Circassians in Turkey

The Circassians in Turkey (East Circassian and West Circassian: Адыгэхэр Тырку, Adyghexer Tyrku; Türkiye'deki Çerkesler) are one of the largest ethnic minorities in Turkey, with a population between 130,000 and 2 million.

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Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

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CNN

Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Coalition of the Gulf War

Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.

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Coast Guard Command (Turkey)

The Coast Guard Command (Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) is the coast guard service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Committee to Protect Journalists

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.

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Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

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Conglomerate (company)

A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.

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Conscientious objector

A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.

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Conscription in Turkey

In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty-one years of age.

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.

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Constantine VII

Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.

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Constantinople

Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitution of Turkey

The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.

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Constitutional Court of Turkey

The Constitutional Court of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi, sometimes abbreviated as AYM) is the highest legal body for constitutional review in Turkey.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Constitutional republic

A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.

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Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.

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Continental climate

Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.

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Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations

The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, also known as the Lausanne Convention, was an agreement between the Greek and Turkish governments signed by their representatives in Lausanne on 30 January 1923, in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.

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Convergence (economics)

The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Council of Higher Education (Turkey)

The Council of Higher Education (Yükseköğretim Kurulu, YÖK; also translated as Higher Education Board) is responsible for the supervision of universities in Turkey, in a capacity defined by articles 130 and 131 of the 1982 constitution.

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Council of State (Turkey)

The Council of State (Danıştay) is the highest administrative court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Court of Cassation (Turkey)

The Court of Cassation, also called Supreme Court of Appeals of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Yargıtay Başkanlığı – Yargıtay for short) which was founded in 1868 is the last instance for reviewing verdicts given by courts of criminal and civil justice.

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Credit rating

A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.

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Crucifixion of Jesus

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.

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Cultural Muslim

Cultural Muslims are religiously unobservant, secular or irreligious individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture or the religion due to family background, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up.

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Culture of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples.

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Cumhuriyet

Cumhuriyet (The Republic) is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper.

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Current account

In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (also known as the financial account).

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Cypriot Annan Plan referendums, 2004

A referendum on the Annan Plan was held in the Republic of Cyprus and the breakaway Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on 24 April 2004.

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Cyprus crisis (1955–64)

There was a period of political and violent conflict in Cyprus, also known as the Cyprus crisis and EOKA period, between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, between 1955 and 1964.

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Cyprus dispute

The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.

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D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation

The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organisation for development co-operation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Turkey.

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Daily Sabah

Daily Sabah (lit. "Daily Morning") is a Turkish pro-government daily published in Turkey.

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Dance music

Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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De Administrando Imperio

De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.

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Deadweight tonnage

Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load.

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Debt-to-GDP ratio

In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).

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Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.

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Defense News

Defense News is a global website and magazine about politics, business and technology of defense.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

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Democrat Party (Turkey, 1946–61)

The Democratic Party (Turkish: Demokrat Parti, DP for short) was a Turkish moderately right-wing political party, and the country's third legal opposition party, after the Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) established by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930, and the National Development Party (Milli Kalkınma Partisi) established by Nuri Demirağ in 1945.

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Demographic profile

Demographic profiling is a tool utilized by marketers so that they may be as efficient as possible with advertising products or services and identifying any possible gaps in their marketing strategy.

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DenizBank

DenizBank A.Ş. ("deniz" meaning sea in Turkish) is a large private bank in Turkey.

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Dervish

A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.

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Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.

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Directorate of Religious Affairs

In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, normally referred to simply as the Diyanet) is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.

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Diyarbakır Province

Diyarbakır Province (Diyarbakır ili, Parêzgeha Amed) is a province in southeastern Turkey. The province covers an area of 15,355 km² and its population is 1,528,958. The provincial capital is the city of Diyarbakır. It has been home to many civilisations and the surrounding area including itself is home to many Mesolithic era stone carvings and artifacts. The province has been ruled by the Akkadins, Hurrians, Mittani, Medes, Hittites, Armenians, Neo-Babylonians, Achaemenids, Greeks, Romans, Parthia, Byzantium, Sassanids, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, Safavid dynasty, Marwanids, and Ayyubids. The majority of the province's population today is Kurdish.

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Dolmabahçe Palace

Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).

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Doner kebab

Doner kebab (also döner kebab) (Turkish: döner or döner kebap) is a Turkish kebab, made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie.

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Dormition of the Mother of God

The Dormition of the Mother of God (Κοίμησις Θεοτόκου, Koímēsis Theotokou often anglicized as Kimisis; Slavonic: Успение Пресвятыя Богородицы, Uspenie Presvetia Bogoroditsi; Georgian: მიძინება ყოვლადწმიდისა ღვთისმშობელისა) is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches which commemorates the "falling asleep" or death of Mary the Theotokos ("Mother of God", literally translated as God-bearer), and her bodily resurrection before being taken up into heaven.

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Dry dock

A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.

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Duchy of Savoy

From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Earth observation satellite

Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East Thrace

East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.

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Eastern Anatolia Region

The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Eastern imperial eagle

The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey that breeds from southeastern Europe to western and central Asia.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.

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Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.

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Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Ecumenical council

An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.

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Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Eczacıbaşı

Eczacıbaşı Holding is a Turkish industrial group of companies founded in 1942.

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Eczacıbaşı VitrA

Eczacıbaşı VitrA is the women's volleyball department of Eczacıbaşı S.K., a Turkish sports club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Edirne

Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elazığ Province

Elâzığ Province (Elâzığ ili) is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elâzığ.

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Election threshold

The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.

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Electronica

Electronica encompasses a broad group of electronic-based styles such as techno, house, ambient, jungle and other electronic music styles intended not just for dancing.

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Emperor Wen of Sui

Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).

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Encyclopaedia Biblica

Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political and Religion History, the Archeology, Geography and Natural History of the Bible (1899), edited by Thomas Kelly Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black, is a critical encyclopedia of the Bible.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endangered language

An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.

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Energy industry

The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.

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Energy market

Energy markets are commodity markets that deal specifically with the trade and supply of energy.

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Energy policy of the European Union

Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European Union energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court.

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Energy security

Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.

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Enosis

Enosis (Ένωσις,, "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state.

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Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.

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EOKA B

EOKA-B was a Greek Cypriot paramilitary organisation formed in 1971 by General Georgios Grivas ("Digenis").

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Ephesus

Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.

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Episcopal see

The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

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Ergenekon (allegation)

Ergenekon was the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Ethnography Museum of Ankara

The Ethnography Museum of Ankara is a museum of ethnography dedicated to the cultures of Turkic civilizations.

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Ethnologue

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Ethnonym

An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.

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Etibank

Etibank A.Ş is a defunct Turkish bank.

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EU Battlegroup

An EU Battlegroup (EU BG) is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU).

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Euphrates

The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasia Tunnel

The Eurasia Tunnel (Avrasya Tüneli) is a road tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing underneath the Bosphorus strait.

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Eurasian sparrowhawk

The Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.

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Eurobarometer

Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.

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EuroBasket 2001

The 2001 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2001, was the 32nd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2002 FIBA World Championship, giving a berth to the top four (or five, depending on Yugoslavia reaching one of the top four places) teams in the final standings.

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EuroBasket Women 2011

The 2011 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called EuroBasket Women 2011, was the 33rd regional championship held by FIBA Europe.

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EuroBasket Women 2013

The 2013 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called EuroBasket Women 2013, was the 34th regional championship held by FIBA Europe.

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Eurocorps

The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.

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EuroLeague

The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.

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Euroleague Basketball

Euroleague Basketball is the private company that runs and operates the top two continental-wide men's professional club basketball competitions in Europe, the first-tier EuroLeague, and the second-tier EuroCup.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Charter of Local Self-Government

The European Charter of Local Self-Government was adopted under the auspices of the Congress of the Council of Europe (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union) and was opened for signature by the Council of Europe's member states on 15 October 1985.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Higher Education Area

The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European Union Customs Union

The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).

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European Union–Turkey Customs Union

On 31 December 1995, a 6 March 1995 Decision of the EC-Turkey Association Council, established by the Ankara Agreement, to implement a customs union (Gümrük Birliği) between Turkey and the European Union, came into effect.

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European Volleyball Confederation

The Confédération Européenne de Volleyball or CEV is the continental governing body for the sports of volleyball, beach volleyball and snow volleyball in Europe.

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European wildcat

The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is the nominate subspecies of the wildcat that inhabits forests of Western, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe up to the Caucasus Mountains.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests

The Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests ecoregion, in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, is located along the southern shore of the Black Sea.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Eyalet

Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.

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Facebook

Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge ("Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge"), also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F.S.M. Köprüsü or 2. Köprü), is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi).

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Fatwa

A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Fauna

Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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Federal Research Division

The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.

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Federalism

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.

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Felidae

The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.

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Fenerbahçe Basketball

Fenerbahçe Basketball (Fenerbahçe Basketbol Takımı), for sponsorship reasons Fenerbahçe Doğuş, commonly known as Fenerbahçe, is a professional basketball team and the men's basketball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fenerbahçe Women's Basketball

Fenerbahçe Women's Basketball is the women's basketball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball

Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball is the women's volleyball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Feriye Palace

The Feriye Palace (Feriye Sarayı) is a complex of Ottoman imperial palace buildings along the European shoreline of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Ferzan Özpetek

Ferzan Özpetek (born 3 February 1959, Turkey) is a Turkish-Italian film director and screenwriter, residing in Italy.

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FIBA EuroChallenge

FIBA EuroChallenge (called the FIBA Europe League in 2003–05, and FIBA EuroCup in 2005–08) was the 3rd tier level transnational men's professional club basketball competition in Europe, from 2003 to 2015.

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FIBA Korać Cup

The FIBA Korać Cup was an annual basketball club competition held by FIBA between the 1971–72 and 2001–02 seasons.

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FIBA Saporta Cup

The FIBA Saporta Cup was the name of the second-tier level European-wide professional club basketball competition, where the domestic National Cup winners, from all over Europe, played against each other.

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Fikret Mualla Saygı

Fikret Muallâ Saygı (1904 in Kadıköy, Istanbul, Turkey – July 20, 1967 in Reillanne, France) was a 20th-century avant-garde painter of Turkish descent.

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Filo

Filo or phyllo (φύλλο "leaf") is a very thin unleavened dough used for making pastries such as baklava and börek in Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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First Constitutional Era

The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.

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First Council of Constantinople

The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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First national architectural movement

The First national architectural movement (Birinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı), also referred to in Turkey as the National architectural Renaissance (Millî Mimari Rönesansı), or Turkish Neoclassical architecture was a period of Turkish architecture that was most prevalent between 1908 and 1930 but continued until the end of the 1930s.

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Fitch Ratings

Fitch Ratings Inc.

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Flag carrier

A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.

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Flora

Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

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Free verse

Free verse is an open form of poetry.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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Freedom of the Press (report)

Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.

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Freestyle wrestling

Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.

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French Development Agency

French Development Agency (Agence française de développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government.

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Fuat Uzkınay

Fuat Uzkınay (b. 1888 - İstanbul, d. 29 March 1956 - İstanbul) was the first Turkish filmmaker.

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Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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Gagauz language

The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.

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Galatasaray S.K. (football)

Galatasaray Spor Kulübü, also known simply as Galatasaray, is a Turkish football club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul.

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Galatasaray S.K. (men's basketball)

Galatasaray S.K., for sponsorship reasons Galatasaray Odeabank, is a professional basketball team based in the city of Istanbul in Turkey.

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Galatasaray S.K. (women's basketball)

Galatasaray is the women's basketball section of Galatasaray S.K., a major sports club in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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Gareth Porter

Gareth Porter (born June 18, 1942) is an American historian, investigative journalist, author and policy analyst specializing in U.S. national security policy.

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Garip

Garip (strange, peculiar / poor, forlorn) was a group of Turkish poets.

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Gaza flotilla raid

The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six civilian ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe, Turkish for "Potbelly Hill", is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.

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Göktürk-1

Göktürk-1 is a high resolution earth observation satellite (greater than 50 cm) designed and developed for the Turkish Ministry of National Defence by the Italian space service company Telespazio with technological input from Turkish Aerospace Industries (TUSAŞ) and Aselsan of Turkey.

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Göktürk-2

Göktürk-2 is an earth observation satellite designed and developed by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) and built by TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK UZAY) and Turkish Aerospace Industries (TUSAŞ) for the Turkish Ministry of National Defence.

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Göktürks

The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.

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Gendarmerie General Command

The Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) is a service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations.

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General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire

The General Assembly (Meclis-i Umumî or Genel Parlamento) of the Ottoman Empire was the first attempt at representative democracy at the imperial level in the Ottoman Empire.

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General Directorate of Security (Turkey)

The General Directorate of Security (Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü) are the civilian police force responsible for law enforcement in Turkey.

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Genocide

Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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Geographical regions of Turkey

The geographical regions of Turkey comprise seven regions (bölge) which were originally defined at the country's First Geography Congress in 1941.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgians in Turkey

Georgians in Turkey (ქართველები თურქეთში) refers to citizens and denizens of Turkey who are, or descend from, ethnic Georgians who originate in Georgia.

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Geothermal power in Turkey

Geothermal energy is thermal energy which is derived from the earth's internal heat.

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Germany and weapons of mass destruction

Although Germany is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, since World War II it has generally refrained from using this technology to outfit its own armed forces with weapons of mass destruction (WMD), although it participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering nuclear weapons.

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Gezi Park protests

A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.

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Global Peace Index

Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.

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Golden Bear

The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.

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Golden eagle

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Gordium

Gordium (Γόρδιον, Górdion; Gordion or Gordiyon) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia.

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Gospel

Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".

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Government budget

A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.

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Government budget balance

A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

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Government of the Grand National Assembly

The Government of the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti), commonly known as the Ankara Government (Ankara Hükûmeti), was the name given to the provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) and during the final years of the Ottoman Empire.

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Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.

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Grand National Assembly of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.

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Grand Post Office

The Istanbul Grand Post Office, aka Istanbul Main Post Office, (Büyük Postane) is an office building for postal services located at Sirkeci quarter of Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Great Eastern Crisis

The Great Eastern Crisis of 1875–78 began in the Ottoman Empire's territories on the Balkan peninsula in 1875, with the outbreak of several uprisings and wars that resulted in the meddling of international powers, and was ended with the Treaty of Berlin in July 1878.

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Greco-Persian Wars

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Greco-Roman wrestling

Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek Cypriots

Greek Cypriots (Ελληνοκύπριοι, Kıbrıs Rumları or Kıbrıs Yunanları) are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community.

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Greek genocide

The Greek genocide, including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922).

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

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Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch

The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Greeks in Turkey

The Greeks in Turkey (Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Gökçeada and Bozcaada).

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Gulf of İzmit

Gulf of İzmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Gymnasium (ancient Greece)

The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.

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Habertürk

Habertürk (literally: "News Turkish"), abbreviated as HT, is a high-circulation Turkish newspaper.

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Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).

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Hacı Ömer Sabancı

Hacı Ömer Sabancı (1 January 1906 in Kayseri – 2 February 1966 in İstanbul) was a Turkish entrepreneur, who founded a number of companies, which later formed the second largest industrial and financial conglomerate of Turkey, the Sabancı Holding.

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Hakkâri Province

Hakkâri Province (Hakkâri ili), is a province in the south east corner of Turkey. The administrative centre is located in the city of Hakkâri (Colemêrg). The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and has a population of 251,302 (2010 est). The province had a population of 236,581 in 2000. The province was created in 1936 out of part of Van Province. Its adjacent provinces are Şırnak to the west and Van to the north. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.

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Halay

Halay is a regional category of folk dance styles in central and southeastern Anatolia.

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Halil Pasha (painter)

Halil Pasha (c.1857, Istanbul - August, 1939, Istanbul), was a Turkish painter and art teacher.

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Halk Bankası

Halk Bankası ("People's Bank"), or Halkbank, is a large Turkish state-owned bank.

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Hamidian massacres

The Hamidian massacres (Համիդյան ջարդեր, Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1892–1896.

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Hanafi

The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Harran

Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

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Hatay State

Hatay State (Hatay Devleti, État du Hatay, دولة خطاي Dawlat Khaṭāy), also known informally as the Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that existed from September 7, 1938, to June 29, 1939, in the territory of the Sanjak of Alexandretta of the French Mandate of Syria.

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Hattians

The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia.

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Hattusa

Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age.

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HAVELSAN

HAVELSAN is a Turkish software and systems company having business presence in the defence and IT sectors.

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Hértevin language

No description.

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Hürriyet

Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.

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Hürriyet Daily News

The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Headscarf rights in Turkey

Turkey has been a secular state since it was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Hellenization

Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.

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Hierapolis

Hierapolis (Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia.

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High-speed rail in Turkey

The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed railways in 2003.

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Hijab

A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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Historic Areas of Istanbul

The Historic Areas of Istanbul is a group of sites in the capital district of Fatih in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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History of Modern Turkish painting

The history of modern Turkish painting can be traced back to the modernization efforts in the Ottoman Empire during the Tanzimat period, in the 19th century.

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History of the Jews in Turkey

The history of the Jews in Turkey (Türkiye Yahudileri, Turkish Jews; יהודים טורקים Yehudim Turkim, Djudios Turkos) covers the 2,400 years that Jews have lived in what is now Turkey.

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History of the Russo-Turkish wars

The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.

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History of Turkey

The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey).

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Hittite language

Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.

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Hittites

The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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Holy League (1538)

The Holy League of 1538 was a short-lived alliance of Christian states arranged by Pope Paul III at the urging of the Republic of Venice.

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Holy League (1571)

The Holy League (Liga Sancta, Liga Santa, Lega Santa), of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean except France.

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Holy League (1684)

The Holy League (Latin: Sacra Ligua) of 1684 was an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War.

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Holy League (1717)

The Holy League of 1717 was one of many coalitions organised by the Papal States to deal with the Ottoman threat.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Home appliance

Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.

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Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Homshetsi dialect

No description.

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Hora (dance)

Hora, also known as horo and oro, is a type of circle dance originating in the Balkans but also found in other countries.

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Horon (dance)

Horon (Greek) or khoron (horon), which is related to Modern Greek χορός (chorós), refers to a group of a circle folk dances from the Black Sea region of Turkey.

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House of the Virgin Mary

The House of the Virgin Mary (Turkish: Meryemana Evi or Meryem Ana Evi, "Mother Mary's House") is a Catholic and Muslim shrine located on Mt.

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Hulusi Behçet

Hulusi Behçet (Constantinople, 20 February 1889 – 8 March 1948) was a Turkish dermatologist and scientist.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Human rights in Turkey

Human rights in Turkey are protected by a variety of international law treaties, which take precedence over domestic legislation, according to Article 90 of the 1982 Constitution.

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Hungarians

Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hurrians

The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.

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Iğdır Province

Iğdır Province (Iğdır ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km² and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993. Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is in Iğdır, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey, cotton can be grown in Iğdır. Iğdır is where Noah is said to have thrived following the flood. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River. The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, with Azerbaijanis making up the remainder.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ihlamur Palace

Ihlamur Palace (Ihlamur Kasrı), is a former imperial Ottoman summer palace located in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Iliad

The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Illiberal democracy

An illiberal democracy, also called a partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty democracy, or hybrid regime, is a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties.

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Imam

Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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Incirlik Air Base

Incirlik Air Base (İncirlik Hava Üssü) is a Turkish air base of slightly more than 3320 ac (1335 ha), located in the İncirlik quarter of the city of Adana, Turkey.

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Index of Turkey-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Turkey include.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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INOGATE

INOGATE was an international energy co-operation programme between the European Union (EU), the littoral states of the Black and Caspian seas and their neighbouring countries.

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International airport

An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Security Assistance Force

The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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Internet censorship

Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.

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Internet in Turkey

The Internet in Turkey has been available to the public since 1993, although experimentation at Ege University started in 1987.

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Interventionism (politics)

Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.

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Investment

In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.

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Ionia

Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.

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Ionians

The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.

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Ipsos

Ipsos Group S.A. is a global market research and a consulting firm with worldwide headquarters in Paris, France.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian architecture

Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Irreligion in Turkey

Irreligion in Turkey is uncommon.

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Ishbara Qaghan

Ishbara Qaghan (Old Turkic:, Ϊšbara qaγan, 沙缽略可汗/沙钵略可汗, Pinyin: shābōlüè kěhàn, Wade-Giles: sha-po-lüeh, alternative names: Shapolo, full name: Il Kül Shad Bagha Ishbara Qaghan 伊利俱盧設莫何始波羅可汗/伊利俱卢设莫何始波罗可汗, personal name: 阿史那攝圖/阿史那摄图, āshǐnà shètú, a-shih-na she-t'u) (before 540 – 587) was the first son of Issik Qaghan, grandson of Bumin Qaghan, and the fifth khagan of the first Eastern Turkic Khaganate (581–587) The first son of Kelo, grandson of Bumin Khagan, fifth khagan of the Göktürk Empire, he was appointed to the throne by the high council as the legal resolution to the crisis created by his uncle Taspar Qaghan who had bequeathed the title of khagan to his nephew Talopien (son of Muqan Qaghan).

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Turkey

Islam in Turkey, The established presence of Islam in the region that now constitutes modern Turkey dates back to the latter half of the 11th century, when the Seljuks started expanding into eastern Anatolia.

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Islamic art

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.

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Islamic culture

Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Islamization

Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.

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Ismail I

Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han

The Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han is a historical large office building located at Eminönü quarter of Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey and owned by the Foundations Administration (Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü).

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Istanbul Atatürk Airport

Istanbul Atatürk Airport (İstanbul Atatürk Havalimanı) is the main international airport serving Istanbul, and the biggest airport in Turkey by total number of passengers, destinations served and aircraft movements.

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Istanbul Metro

The Istanbul Metro (İstanbul Metrosu) is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul New Airport

Istanbul New Airport (İstanbul Yeni Havalimanı) is an international airport under construction in the Arnavutköy district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul pogrom

The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events (Septemvriana, "Events of September";, "Events of September 6–7"), were organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.

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Istanbul Technical University

Istanbul Technical University (Turkish İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ITU or Technical University) is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Istanbul University

Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.

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Italian law codes

The Italian law codes constitute the codified law of Italy.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jews

Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jihad

Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Jimmy Wales

Jimmy Donal Wales (born August 7, 1966), also known by the online moniker Jimbo, is an American Internet entrepreneur, best known as the co-founder of the online non-profit encyclopedia Wikipedia, and the for-profit web hosting company Wikia.

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John the Apostle

John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.

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Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judge

A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.

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Judicial system of Turkey

The judicial system of Turkey is defined by Articles 138 to 160 of the 1982 Constitution.

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Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kabardian language

Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.

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Kanal D

Kanal D is a nationwide television channel in Turkey and part of Doğan Media Group owned by the Turkish media tycoon Aydın Doğan.

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Kangal dog

The Kangal is a breed of large livestock guardian dog originating from the Sivas province of Turkey.

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Kanto (music)

Kanto (Kanto, Κάντο) is a popular genre of Turkish music.

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Kars Province

Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.

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Karsilamas

Karsilamas (From karşılama, in Greek: καρσιλαμάς), is a folk dance spread all over Northwest Turkey and carried to Greece by Greek refugees.

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Köroğlu Mountains

The Köroğlu Mountains (Turkish: Köroğlu Dağları) are a mountain range situated in the northern Turkey, north of Ankara.

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Küçüksu Palace

Küçüksu Palace or Küçüksu Pavilion, a.k.a. Göksu Pavilion, (Küçüksu Kasrı) is a summer palace in Istanbul, Turkey, situated in the Küçüksu neighborhood of Beykoz district on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus between Anadoluhisarı and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge.

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Kırklareli Province

Kırklareli Province (Kırklareli ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey on the west coast of the Black Sea. The province neighbours Bulgaria to the north along a long border. It borders the province of Edirne to the west and the province of Tekirdağ to the south and province of Istanbul to the southeast. Kırklareli is the capital city of the province. The province's and its central city's name means "the land of the forties" in Turkish and it may refer either to the forty Ottoman ghazis sent by the sultan Murad I to conquer the city for the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century or to the forty churches reported to be situated in the region before the Ottoman conquest, as attested by the former name of Kırklareli (Kırk Kilise in Turkish; Σαράντα Εκκλησιές, Saranta Eklesies in Greek). There is a memorial on a hilltop in Kırklareli city, called "Kırklar Anıtı" (the Memorial of the Forties in Turkish) to honor the Ottoman conquerors (For more on the name's origins, see Kırklareli). The province is bisected by the Yıldız (Istranca) mountain range. The north and northeastern parts of the province are among the least populated and under developed parts of Turkey. The districts to the south and west are more populated because the land is better suited for agriculture and industrial development. The north and eastern parts of the province are dominated by forests. Therefore, forestry is an important means of living in these areas. Fishing is done along the Black Sea coast.

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Kırkpınar

Kırkpınar is a Turkish oil-wrestling (yağlı güreş) tournament.

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Kemal Derviş

Kemal Derviş (born 10 January 1949) is a Turkish economist and politician, and former head of the United Nations Development Programme.

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Kemalism

Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.

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Khazars

The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.

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Kingdom of Commagene

The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.

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Kingdom of Naples

The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.

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Knights Hospitaller

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.

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Koç Holding

Koç Holding A.Ş. (pronounced: Coach with a short syllable) is the largest industrial conglomerate in Turkey, and that country's only entry on the Fortune Global 500 list.

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Koç University

Koç University (Koç Üniversitesi) is a non-profit private university in Istanbul, Turkey.

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KONDA Research and Consultancy

KONDA Research and Consultancy (Turkish: KONDA Araştırma ve Danışmanlık) is an anonymous company in Turkey that specialises in public opinion polling and consultancy.

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Konya

Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.

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Konya Plain

The Konya Plain is a plain in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, associated with the Konya Province.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Kosovo Force

The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Kurdish rebellions in Turkey

Kurdish rebellions in Turkey refer to Kurdish nationalist uprisings in Turkey, beginning with the Turkish War of Independence and the consequent transition from the Ottoman Empire into the modern Turkish state and lasting until present with the ongoing Kurdish-Turkish conflict.

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Kurdistan Workers' Party

The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.

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Kurds in Turkey

Kurds in Turkey refers to people born in or residing in Turkey who are of Kurdish origin.

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L'Arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat

L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat (translated from French into English as The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station, Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat (US) and The Arrival of the Mail Train, and in the United Kingdom the film is known as Train Pulling into a Station) is an 1896 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière.

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Laïcité

Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.

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Lake Van

Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.

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Languages of Turkey

The languages of Turkey, apart from the only official language Turkish, include the widespread Kurmanji, the moderately prevalent minority languages Arabic and Zazaki and a number of less common minority languages, some of which are guaranteed by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Launch vehicle

A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).

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Law in Europe

The law of Europe is diverse and changing fast today.

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Law of France

In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").

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Law of Germany

The Law of Germany (Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern German legal system (Deutsches Rechtssystem), is a system of civil law which is founded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of the most important laws, for example most regulations of the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or BGB) were developed prior to the 1949 constitution.

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Laz language

The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.

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Laz people

The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.

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Laz people in Turkey

The Laz people in Turkey refers to an ethnic group who are native to eastern Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey, and their descendants.

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Legislation

Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.

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Legislature

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Lesser spotted eagle

The lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Lezginka

The Lezginka is the collective name originally given by Russians to all Caucasian dances united by fast 6/8 rhythm.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lifestyle (sociology)

Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.

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List of airports in Turkey

This is a list of airports in Turkey, sorted by location.

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List of arrested journalists in Turkey

Many journalists in Turkey are being persecuted and kept in jail all over the country.

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List of Asian cuisines

This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region.

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List of banks in Turkey

As of September 2006, the size of the banking industry is 88.2% of total financial sector in Turkey.

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List of busiest airports by passenger traffic

The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of Chiefs of the Turkish General Staff

This list includes Chiefs of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Genelkurmay Başkanı), who were, in their time of service, nominal heads of the Turkish Armed Forces (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri).

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

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List of countries by motor vehicle production

This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2016 and earlier.

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List of countries with overseas military bases

This is a list of overseas military bases by country.

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List of designated terrorist groups

This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.

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List of dishes from the Caucasus

The cuisine of the Caucasus includes the traditional cuisines of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and parts of Russia such as Chechnya, Circassian, Tatar, etc.

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List of districts in Turkey

The 81 provinces of Turkey are divided into 957 districts (ilçeler; sing. ilçe).

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List of largest cities and towns in Turkey

This is a list of cities and towns in Turkey by population, which includes cities and towns that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 7,001.

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List of national parks of Turkey

National parks in Turkey are one of the five protected areas in the country.

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List of newspapers in Turkey

Below is a list of national printed newspapers published in Turkey.

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List of political parties in Turkey

Turkey is a parliamentary democracy with a multi-party system.

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List of Presidents of Turkey

The following is a complete list of Presidents of Turkey, consisting of the twelve heads of state and one Executive President of Turkey since the inception of the republican period in 1923, following the Turkish War of Independence.

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List of prisons in Turkey

The list of prisons in Turkey is based on official data provided by the Ministry of Justice in Turkey (as of December 2008).

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List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.

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List of transcontinental countries

This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.

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List of Turkic dynasties and countries

The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.

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List of Turkish Airlines destinations

Turkish Airlines flies to 47 domestic and 230 international destinations in 119 countries, excluding those only served by Turkish Airlines Cargo.

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List of universities in Turkey

This is a list of universities in Turkey.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey (Tentative list)

Below is the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey.

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Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II

The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Luwian language

Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Luxury yacht

A Luxury yacht (also super-yacht, large yacht and mega-yacht) is a very expensive, privately owned, professionally crewed sailing or motor yacht.

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Lycia

Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.

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Lydia

Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.

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Machine industry

The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy.

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Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

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Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

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Makarios III

Makarios III (Μακάριος Γ΄; III.; 13 August 1913 – 3 August 1977) was a Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician, who served as the Archbishop and Primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first President of Cyprus (1960–1977).

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Malatya Plain

The Malatya Plain is a plain in Eastern Turkey, associated with the Malatya Province.

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Manbij

Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.

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Mardin

Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.

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Mardin Province

Mardin Province (ܡܪܕܐ, Mardin ili, Parêzgeha Mêrdînê, Arabic: ماردين), is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017. The population was 835,173 in 2000. The capital of the Mardin Province is Mardin (ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ "Mardin" in related Semitic language Arabic: ماردين, Mardīn). Located near the traditional boundary of Anatolia and Mesopotamia, it has a diverse population, composed of Kurdish, Arab and Assyrian people, with Kurds forming the majority of the province's population.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Marmara Region

The Marmara Region (Turkish: Marmara Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Marmaray

Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.

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Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation

The Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation (Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu or MKEK or Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi or MKE for short), established in 1950, is a reorganization of government-controlled group of factories in Turkey that supplied the Turkish Armed Forces with military products.

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Medes

The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

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Medieval Armenia

Western Armenia had been under Byzantine control since the partition of the Kingdom of Armenia in AD 387, while Eastern Armenia had been under the occupation of the Sassanid Empire starting 428.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean cuisine

Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.

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Mediterranean Region, Turkey

The Mediterranean Region (Akdeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megara

Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.

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Mehmed V

Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.

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Mehmed VI

Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Vahideddin or Altıncı Mehmet), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.

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Melih Cevdet Anday

Melih Cevdet Anday (13 March 1915 – 28 November 2002), was a Turkish writer whose unique poetry stands outside the traditional literary movements.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Member states of the Council of Europe

The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by ten western and northern European states, with Greece and Turkey joining three months later, and Iceland and West Germany joining the next year.

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Mersin Province

The Mersin Province (Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.

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Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).

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Mevlevi Order

The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order in Konya (modern day Turkey) (capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle East Technical University

Middle East Technical University (commonly referred to as METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi ODTÜ) is a public technical university located in Ankara, Turkey.

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Middle Eastern cuisine

Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.

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Midhat Pasha

Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (18 October 1822 – 26 April 1883), was one of the leading Ottoman statesmen during the late Tanzimat period.

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Miletus

Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.

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Military technology

Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.

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Millet (Ottoman Empire)

In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.

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Mimar Kemaleddin

Ahmet Kemalettin or Kemaleddin (1870-July 13, 1927), widely known as Mimar Kemalettin (Kemalettin the Architect) and Kemalettin Bey, was a renowned Turkish architect of the very late period of the Ottoman architecture and the early years of the newly established Republic.

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Mimar Sinan

Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (معمار سينان, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan,, "Sinan the Architect") (1488/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (mimar) and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.

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Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Turkey)

The Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for culture and tourism affairs in Turkey.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Dışişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the foreign relations of Turkey.

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Ministry of Health (Turkey)

The Ministry of Health (Sağlık Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for health affairs in Turkey.

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Ministry of Justice (Turkey)

The Ministry of Justice (Adalet Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for justice affairs.

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Ministry of National Defence (Turkey)

The Ministry of National Defence (Millî Savunma Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Ministry of National Education (Turkey)

The Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the supervision of public and private educational system, agreements and authorizations under a national curriculum.

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Ministry of the Interior (Turkey)

The Ministry of the Interior (İçişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for interior security affairs in Turkey.

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Minorities in Turkey

Minorities in Turkey form a substantial part of the country's population, with at least an estimated 30% of the populace belonging to an ethnic minority.

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Mlahsô language

Mlaḥsô or Mlahsö (ܡܠܚܬܝܐ), sometimes referred to as Suryoyo or Surayt, is an extinct or dormant Central Neo-Aramaic language.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasions of Anatolia

Mongol invasions of Anatolia occurred at various times, starting with the campaign of 1241–1243 that culminated in the Battle of Köse Dağ.

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Moody's Investors Service

Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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Mount Ararat

Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.

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Mount Nemrut

Nemrut or Nemrud (Nemrut Dağı; Çiyayê Nemrûdê; Նեմրութ լեռ) is a mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.

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Muş Province

Muş Province (Muş ili) is a province in eastern Turkey.

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Multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey

The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey.

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Music of Albania

The Music of Albania (Muzika Shqiptare) is associated with the country of Albania and Albanian communities.

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Music of Armenia

The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs.

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Music of Central Asia

The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region.

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Music of Greece

The music of Greece is as diverse and celebrated as its history.

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Music of Poland

The Music of Poland covers diverse aspects of music and musical traditions which have originated, and are practiced in Poland.

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Music of the United States

The music of the United States reflects the country's multi-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles.

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Music of Turkey

The music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Myra

Myra (Μύρα, Mýra) was an ancient Greek town in Lycia where the small town of Kale (Demre) is today, in the present-day Antalya Province of Turkey.

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Nabucco pipeline

The Nabucco-West pipeline (also referred to as the Turkey–Austria gas pipeline) was a proposed natural gas pipeline from the Turkish-Bulgarian border to Austria.

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Nagorno-Karabakh War

The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Namık Kemal

Namık Kemal (21 December 1840 – 2 December 1888) was an Ottoman democrat, writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist, playwright, and political activist who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans and their struggle for governmental reform in the Ottoman Empire during the late Tanzimat period, which would lead to the First Constitutional Era in the Empire in 1876.

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Nation state

A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.

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National debt of Turkey

The national debt of Turkey is the entire stock of direct, fixed-term, contractual, financial obligations of the state of the Republic of Turkey that are outstanding on a particular date.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Nâzım Hikmet

Nâzım Hikmet Ran (15 January 1902 – 3 June 1963), commonly known as Nâzım Hikmet was a Turkish poet, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, director and memoirist.

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Nejat Eczacıbaşı

Mehmet Nejat Ferit Eczacıbaşı (known simply as Nejat F. Eczacıbaşı, (January 5, 1913–October 6, 1993), a second generation member of the notable Turkish Eczacıbaşı family, was a chemist, industrialist, entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was the founder of Eczacıbaşı, a prominent Turkish industrial group with investments in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, consumer products, building products and financial services.

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Neo-Ottomanism

Neo-Ottomanism (Turkish: Yeni Osmanlıcılık) is a Turkish political ideology that, in its broadest sense, promotes greater political engagement of the Republic of Turkey within regions formerly under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, its predecessor state.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Netherlands and weapons of mass destruction

Although the Netherlands does not have weapons of mass destruction made by itself, the country participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering United States nuclear weapons.

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New Rome

New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) has often been used to describe the city founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD as his new imperial capital at the city on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait, then known as Byzantium, which he enlarged and named after himself as Constantinople.

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Niall Ferguson

Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.

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Nicaea

Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.

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Nikos Sampson

Nikos Sampson (Νίκος Σαμψών; 16 December 1935 – 9 May 2001) was the de facto president of Cyprus who succeeded Archbishop Makarios, appointed as President of Cyprus by the Greek military leaders of the coup d'état against Makarios, on July 15 1974.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Non-denominational Muslim

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.

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Non-revenue water

Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is "lost" before it reaches the customer.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North Anatolian Fault

The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) (Kuzey Anadolu Fay Hattı.) is an active right-lateral strike-slip fault in northern Anatolia which runs along the transform boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate.

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Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests

The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is a Palearctic ecoregion in the Temperate coniferous forests Biome, located in northern Anatolia, Turkey.

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Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

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Northern Kurdish

Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.

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Nuclear energy in Turkey

Turkey has no nuclear power plants but the first is expected to come online in 2020.

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Nuclear sharing

Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO.

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Nuclear technology

Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei.

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Nuri Bilge Ceylan

Nuri Bilge Ceylan (born 26 January 1959) is a Turkish film director, photographer, screenwriter and actor.

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Nuri Demirağ

Nuri Demirağ (born 1886 in Divriği – died 1957 in Istanbul) was an early Turkish business magnate.

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Occupation of Constantinople

The Occupation of Constantinople (İstanbul'un İşgali) (November 13, 1918 – September 23, 1923), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, by British, French and Italian forces, took place in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros, which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War.

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Occupation of Smyrna

The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Odrysian kingdom

The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Oghuz Turks

The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.

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Oghuz Yabgu State

The Oguz Yabgu State (Oguz il, meaning Oguz Land, Oguz Country, 750–1055) was a Turkic state, founded by Oghuz Turks in 766, located geographically in an area between the coasts of the Caspian and Aral Seas.

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Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq

Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1522 in Comines – 28 October 1592; Latin: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius; sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq) was a 16th-century Flemish writer, herbalist and diplomat in the employ of three generations of Austrian monarchs.

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Oil tanker

An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.

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Oil wrestling

Oil wrestling (Yağlı güreş), also called grease wrestling, is the Turkish national sport.

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Oktay Rıfat Horozcu

Oktay Rifat Horozcu, better known as Oktay Rifat, (10 June 1914 – 18 April 1988) was a Turkish writer and playwright, and one of the forefront poets of modern Turkish poetry since the late 1930s.

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Old Turkic alphabet

The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.

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Olive oil

Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.

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One-act play

A one-act play is a play that has only one act, as distinct from plays that occur over several acts.

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One-party period of the Republic of Turkey

The single-party period of the Republic of Turkey began with the formal establishment of the country in 1923.

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Operation Ocean Shield

Operation Ocean Shield was NATO's contribution to Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA), an anti-piracy initiative in the Indian Ocean, Guardafui Channel, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea.

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation

The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.

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Orhan Pamuk

Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Orhan Veli Kanık

Orhan Veli Kanık or Orhan Veli (13 April 1914, Beykoz, İstanbul – 14 November 1950, İstanbul) was a Turkish poet.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Orkhon inscriptions

The Orkhon inscriptions (Orhun Yazıtları, Orxon-Yenisey abidəsi, Orhon ýazgylary), also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam), are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia.

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Orontid Dynasty

The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).

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Osman Gazi Bridge

The Osman Gazi Bridge (Osman Gazi Köprüsü) is a suspension bridge spanning the Gulf of İzmit at its narrowest point,.

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Osman Hamdi Bey

Osman Hamdi Bey (30 December 184224 February 1910) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter.

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Osman I

Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.

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Ottoman Algeria

The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.

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Ottoman architecture

Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.

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Ottoman classical music

Classical Turkish music (Türk sanat müziği, "Turkish art music"; or Klasik Türk müziği, "Classical Turkish music"), sometimes known as Ottoman classical music, developed in Istanbul and other major Ottoman cities and towns through the palaces and Sufi lodges of the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman constitution of 1876

The Ottoman constitution of 1876 (قانون اساسى; Kanûn-u Esâsî; "Basic Law") was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman cuisine

Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its continuation in the cuisines of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, and parts of the Caucasus and the Middle East.

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Ottoman dynasty

The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman entry into World War I

The Ottoman Empire's entry into World War I began when its navy carried out a surprise attack on Russia's Black Sea coast on 29 October 1914, following which Russia declared war on it on 1 November 1914.

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Ottoman miniature

Ottoman miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.

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Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean

The Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean (Hint seferleri or Hint Deniz seferleri, "Indian Ocean campaigns") were a series of Ottoman amphibious operations in the Indian Ocean in the 16th century.

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Ottoman Navy

The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.

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Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17)

The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman–Persian War (1821–23)

The Ottoman–Qajar War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Empire from 1821 to 1823.

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Ottoman–Persian wars

The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.

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Outline of Turkey

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkey: Turkey – sovereign Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Southwest Asia and Thrace (Rumelia) at the southeastern tip of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe.

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Palace

A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Palme d'Or

The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.

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Pamphylia

Pamphylia (Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

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Pamukkale

Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli in southwestern Turkey.

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Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.

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Paper marbling

Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to smooth marble or other kinds of stone.

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Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.

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Parliamentary immunity

Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity, is a system in which members of the parliament or legislature are granted partial immunity from prosecution.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Partition (politics)

In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.

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Partition of the Ottoman Empire

The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.

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Party-list proportional representation

Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.

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Pasha

Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.

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Pasha Liman Base

The Pasha Liman Base, or Pashaliman Base, is an Albanian Navy base south of Vlorë, Albania.

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Patriarch

The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).

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Paul L. Modrich

Paul Lawrence Modrich (born June 13, 1946) is an American biochemist, James B. Duke Professor of Biochemistry at Duke University and Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

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Paul the Apostle

Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.

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Peace Research Institute Frankfurt

Established in 1970, the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF), or Hessische Stiftung Friedens und Konfliktforschung (HSFK) was founded by the state of Hesse.

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Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.

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Pechenegs

The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.

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Pentarchy

Pentarchy (from the Greek Πενταρχία, pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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People's Protection Units

The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.

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Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey)

The Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkish: Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP), Kurdish: Partiya Demokratîk a Gelan), or Democratic Party of the Peoples, is a pro-minority political party in Turkey.

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Pera Museum

Pera Museum (Turkish: Pera Müzesi) is an art museum in the Tepebaşı quarter of the Beyoğlu (Pera) district in Istanbul, Turkey, located at Meşrutiyet Avenue No.

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Perga

Perga or Perge (Πέργη Perge, Perge) was an ancient Anatolian city in modern Turkey, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

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Pergamon

Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.

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Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire

Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of over two centuries between the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD under Nero Caesar and the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Persian leopard

The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana syn. P. p. ciscaucasica and P. p. saxicolor) is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the population is estimated at fewer than 871–1,290 mature individuals and considered declining.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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Persian traditional music

Persian traditional music or Iranian traditional music, also known as Persian classical music or Iranian classical music, refers to the classical music of Iran (also known as Persia).

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Persianate society

A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.

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Peshmerga

Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Philip J. Crowley

Philip J. “P.J.” Crowley (born July 28, 1951) is the former United States Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, having been sworn into office on May 26, 2009.

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Phrygia

In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.

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Phrygians

The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.

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Pinus brutia

Pinus brutia, the Turkish pine, is a pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Plateau

In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.

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Polatlı–Konya high-speed railway

The Polatlı–Konya high-speed railway (Polatlı-Konya yüksek hızlı demiryolu) is a long high-speed railway running from the town of Polatlı to the central Anatolian city of Konya.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Political Islam

"Political Islam" is a recently developed term used to label the wide-scale activities of individuals or organizations advocating transformation of the state and entire society according to "Islamic" rules.

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Polonezköy Nature Park

Polonezköy Nature Park (Polonexköy abiat Parkı) is a nature park declared village of Polonezköy in Istanbul Province, Turkey. Polonezköy is situated in Beykoz district of Istanbul Province. The area was declared a nature park by the Ministry of Environment and Forest in 1994. It covers an area of about. It is the province' first and in terms of area the largest nature park. The protected area is named after the village Polonezköy, which was settled in 1842 by a small group of Polish emigrants, after the failed November Uprising. The settlement was initially named "Adamköy" or "Adampol" (literally Adamville) in honor of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, and was renamed later to "Polonez Karyesi". In 1923, it was changed to its current official name.u The nature park offers many outdoor recreational activities such as picnicing, camping, trekking and orienteering. There is a -long hiking, cycling and jogging course, and observation towers. There are quality and luxurious restaurants. Lodging is available in a number of boarding houses and hotels in the village.

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Polycarp

Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.

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Pomaks

Pomaks (Помаци/Pomatsi, Πομάκοι/Pomákoi, Pomaklar) is a term used for Slavic Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and northwestern Turkey, mainly referring to the ca.

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Pontic Greek

Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.

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Pontic Mountains

The Pontic Mountains or Pontic Alps (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, meaning North Anatolian Mountains) form a mountain range in northern Anatolia, Turkey.

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Pop music

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.

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Popular music

Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.

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Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.

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Population transfer

Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Posta (newspaper)

Posta is a mass market Turkish daily newspaper, with the second highest circulation in Turkey.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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President of Turkey

The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Priene Synagogue

The Priene Synagogue is an ancient synagogue discovered by archaeologists in Priene, Turkey.

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Prime Minister of Turkey

The Prime Minister of Turkey (Turkish: Başbakan) was the head of government of Turkey.

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Princess Fahrelnissa Zeid

Fahrelnissa Zeid Fakhr un-nisa or Fahr-El-Nissa (7 January 1901–5 September 1991) was a Turkish artist best known for her large-scale abstract paintings with kaleidoscopic patterns.

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Private sector

The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Prosecutor

A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Provinces of Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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Public sector

The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.

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Public service

Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.

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Purchasing power

Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Quinisext Council

The Quinisext Council (often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod) was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II.

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Radio and Television Supreme Council

RTÜK, short for (Radyo ve Televizyon Üst Kurulu, Radio and Television Supreme Council), is the Turkish state agency for monitoring, regulating, and sanctioning radio and television broadcasts.

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RASAT

RASAT is an earth observation satellite designed and developed by TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK UZAY) and produced in Turkey to provide high resolution imagery.

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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.

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Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Reconnaissance

In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Red-fronted serin

The red-fronted serin or fire-fronted serin (Serinus pusillus) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.

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Refugee

A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic of Genoa

The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Republican People's Party (Turkey)

The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire

The rise of the Western notion of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the breakdown of the Ottoman millet concept.

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Rise of the Ottoman Empire

The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.

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Rock music in Turkey

Anatolian rock (Anadolu rock), also known as Turkish rock, is a fusion of Turkish folk and rock music.

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Roderic H. Davison

Roderic H. Davison (April 27, 1917March 23, 1996) was an American historian of the Middle East who taught at George Washington University from 1947 to 1993.

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ROKETSAN

Roketsan is a major Turkish weapons manufacturer and defense contractor based in the central Anatolian province of Ankara.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Roman–Parthian Wars

The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.

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Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Romaniote Jews

The Romaniote Jews or Romaniots (Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; רומניוטים, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in the Eastern Mediterranean for more than 2,000 years and are the oldest Jewish community in the Levant.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Ruling party

The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.

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Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Russia in the European energy sector

The Russian Federation supplies a significant volume of fossil fuels and is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the European Union.

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Russian conquest of the Caucasus

The Russian conquest of the Caucasus mainly occurred between 1800 and 1864.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russo-Circassian War

The Russo-Circassian War (1763–1864) involved a series of battles and wars in Circassia, the northwestern part of the Caucasus, in the course of the Russian Empire's conquest of the Caucasus.

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Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

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Sabah (newspaper)

Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.

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Sabancı Holding

Hacı Ömer Sabancı Holding A.Ş., abbreviated as Sabancı Holding, is the largest industrial and financial conglomerate in Turkey by profit.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Safranbolu

Safranbolu is a town and district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

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Sagalassos

Sagalassos (Σαγαλασσός) is an archaeological site in southwestern Turkey, about 100 km north of Antalya (ancient Attaleia), and 30 km from Burdur and Isparta.

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Saint

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Saint Peter

Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.

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Saint Timothy

Timothy (Greek: Τιμόθεος; Timótheos, meaning "honouring God" or "honoured by God") was an early Christian evangelist and the first first-century Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97.

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Salah

Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.

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Sardis

Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.

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Sardis Synagogue

Sardis Synagogue is a synagogue located in Manisa Province, Turkey.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Satellite dish

A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sözcü

Sözcü (English: Spokesperson) is a popular Turkish daily newspaper.

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Süleyman Demirel

Sami Süleyman Gündoğdu Demirel (1 November 1924 – 17 June 2015) was a Turkish statesman and political leader who served as the 9th President of Turkey from 1993 to 2000.

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Sümerbank

Sümerbank was a Turkish bank and industrial holding company established in 1933 and originally owned by the Turkish state, now part of Oyak Bank.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science and technology in Turkey

Science and Technology in Turkey is centrally planned by TÜBİTAK and in responsibility of universities and research institutes.

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Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey

The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu, TÜBİTAK) is a national agency of Turkey whose stated goal is to develop "science, technology and innovation" (STI) policies, support and conduct research and development, and to "play a leading role in the creation of a science and technology culture" in the country.

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Sea of Marmara

The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.

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Season

A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.

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Second Cairo Conference

The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II.

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Second Constitutional Era

The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.

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Secondary school

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.

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Secular state

A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.

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Secularism

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Secularism in Turkey

Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.

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Sedat Simavi

Sedat Simavi (1896 – 11 December 1953) was a Turkish journalist, writer and film director.

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Selçuk

Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district, İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of the ancient city of Ephesus.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Seljuk architecture

Seljuk architecture comprises the building traditions used by the Seljuq dynasty, when it ruled most of the Middle East and Anatolia during the 11th to 13th centuries.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Separatism

A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Sertab Erener

Sertab Erener (born 4 December 1964) is a Turkish pop music singer.

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Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.

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Sezen Aksu

Sezen Aksu (born: Fatma Sezen Yıldırım; 13 July 1954 in Sarayköy, Denizli, Turkey) is a Turkish pop music singer, songwriter and producer who has sold over 40 million albums worldwide.

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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shipbuilding

Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.

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Show TV

Show TV is a nationwide television channel in Turkey owned by Ciner Media Group (since 2013, acquired from Çukurova Media Group after Çukurova was forced to sell due to tax debts. The channel was originally established by the Turkish businessmen Erol Aksoy and Haldun Simavi and were originally launched on March 1, 1991, although it commences its test transmissions. A year later, the channel moved its headquarters to Istanbul, Turkey, and were at the same time starting its official broadcasts. Show TV extended its range of viewers by adding more channels like Show Max and Show Turk to its group. Show TV aired many world-known series for the first time in Turkey. Among them were S.W.A.T., The Master, The Rookies, Silk Stalkings, T. J. Hooker, Booker, Roseanne, The Wonder Years, Superboy, Tequila and Bonetti, Doogie Howser, M.D., The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Dream On, Generations, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Seinfeld, In the Heat of the Night, Friends, Beverly Hills, 90210, Power Rangers and Premiers Baisers. Furthermore, it re-aired some television series like Fame, Charlie's Angels, The Twilight Zone and Dallas, which were very popular during the monopolistic era of TRT in Turkey. The channel's personalities include Mustafa Ceceli, Begüm, Alişan, Asuman Krause, Ali Sunal, Jülide Ateş and Çağla Şikel. The channel also aired successful Turkish television series like Kurtlar Vadisi, Doktorlar, Adını Feriha Koydum, and Muhteşem Yüzyıl.

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Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.

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Side, Turkey

Side (Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country.

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Siirt Province

Siirt Province, (Siirt ili, محافظة سعرد, Parêzgeha Sêrt) is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. The province borders Bitlis to the north, Batman to the west, Mardin to the southwest, Şırnak to the south, and Van to the east. It has an area of 5,406 km² and a total population of 300,695 (as of 2010). The provincial capital is the city of Siirt. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sinop Nuclear Power Plant

The Sinop Nuclear Power Plant (Sinop Nükleer Enerji Santrali) is a planned nuclear plant located at Sinop in northern Turkey.

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Sinop Province

Sinop Province (Sinop ili; Σινώπη, Sinopi) is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. It is located between 41 and 42 degrees North latitude and between 34 and 35 degrees East longitude. The surface area is 5,862 km², equivalent to 0.8% of Turkey's surface area. The borders total 475 km and consists of 300 km of land and 175 km seaside borders. Its adjacent provinces are Kastamonu on the west, Çorum on the south, and Samsun on the southeast. The provincial capital is the city of Sinop.

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Siret (river)

The Siret or Sireth (Сірет or Серет, Siret, Szeret, Сирет) is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of Ukraine, and flows southward into Romania before it joins the Danube.

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Skytrax

Skytrax (originally known as Inflight Research Services) is a United Kingdom–based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site.

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Slavic Review

The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.

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Sledgehammer (coup plan)

Operation Sledgehammer (Turkish Balyoz Harekâtı) is the name of an alleged Turkish secularist military coup plan dating back to 2003, Article of Prof.

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Smyrna

Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.

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Sobriquet

A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.

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Social Security Institution

The Social Security Institution (Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu (SGK)) is the governing authority of the Turkish social security system.

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Somali Armed Forces

The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.

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Southeastern Anatolia Region

The Southeastern Anatolia Region (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space Launch System (Turkey)

The Space Launch System (Uydu Fırlatma Sistemi), shortly UFS, is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey.

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Spaceport

A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish Inquisition

The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.

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Speaker of the Grand National Assembly

This article lists the Speakers of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

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Spiritual but not religious

"Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated" (SBNA) is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth.

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Spoken language

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.

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Sport in Turkey

Among all sports in Turkey, the most popular one is football.

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Star TV (Turkey)

Star TV is a Turkish nationwide TV channel.

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State Art and Sculpture Museum

The State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) is a museum dedicated to fine arts and sculpture in Ankara, Turkey.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Statism

In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.

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Status quo ante bellum

The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".

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Student Selection and Placement System

Student Selection and Placement System (Öğrenci Seçme ve Yerleştirme Sistemi, ÖSYS) or Higher Education Examination-Undergraduate Placement Examination (Yükseköğretime Geçis Sınavı-Lisans Yerleştirme Sınavı, YGS-LYS), formerly Student Selection Examination, (Öğrenci Seçme Sınavı, ÖSS), is a standardized test for the admission to higher education in Turkey administered by ÖSYM.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Suleiman the Magnificent

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Sultanate of Rum

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.

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Summer

Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Surname Law

The Surname Law (Soyadı Kanunu) of the Republic of Turkey was adopted on June 21, 1934.

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Sustainable energy

Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.

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Swiss Civil Code

The Swiss Civil Code (SR 210, Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch (ZGB); Code civil suisse (CC); Codice civile svizzero (CC); Cudesch civil svizzer) is the codified law ruling in Switzerland and regulating relationship between individuals.

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Swiss Code of Obligations

The Swiss Code of Obligations (Obligationenrecht; Code des obligations; Diritto delle obbligazioni; Dretg d'obligaziuns) is a portion of the Swiss Civil Code that regulates contract law and corporations (Aktiengesellschaft).

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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TAI TF-X

The TAI TF-X is a proposed twin-engine all-weather Turkish air superiority fighter being developed by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) with technological assistance from BAE Systems of the United Kingdom.

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Taksim Gezi Park

Taksim Gezi Park is an urban park next to Taksim Square, in Istanbul's Beyoğlu district (historically known as Pera.) It is one of the last green spaces in Beyoğlu and one of the smallest parks of Istanbul.

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Tanzimat

The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

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Tarkan (singer)

Tarkan Tevetoğlu (born 17 October 1972), known as Tarkan, is a Turkish pop singer.

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Tarsus, Mersin

Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.

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Tartary

Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.

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Taurus Mountains

The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.

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Tayyare Apartments

The Tayyare Apartments, (initially script or later Tayyare Apartmanları), are a complex of four buildings completed in 1922 and located in the old city of Istanbul, Turkey.

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TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute

TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK Uzay Teknolojileri Araştırma Enstitüsü), TÜBİTAK UZAY for short, is a Turkish institution carrying out research and development projects on space technology, electronics, information technology and related fields.

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Türkiye İş Bankası

Türkiye İş Bankası or simply İşbank is Turkey's largest bank.

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Türksat (company)

Türksat Satellite Communications and Cable TV Operations Company (Türksat Uydu Haberleşme Kablo TV ve İşletme A.Ş.) is the sole communications satellite operator in Turkey.

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Tehcir Law

The Tehcir Law (from tehcir, a word of Arabic origin in Ottoman Turkish and meaning "deportation" or "forced displacement" as defined by the Turkish Language Institute), or, officially by the Republic of Turkey, the "Sevk ve İskân Kanunu" (Relocation and Resettlement Law) was a law passed by the Ottoman Parliament on May 27, 1915 authorizing the deportation of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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Telephone numbers in Turkey

Telephone numbers in Turkey went from six (2+4) to seven digits (3+4) local phone numbers c.1988, at which time Ankara went from 41 to 4.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Temperate rainforest

Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.

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Teres I

Teres I (Ancient Greek, "Τήρης"), (reigned 460-445 BC) was the first king of the Odrysian state of Thrace.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Tortoise Trainer

The Tortoise Trainer (Turkish: Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi) is a painting by Osman Hamdi Bey which was crafted in 1906 and 1907 (two versions).

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theatre of Turkey

The theatre of Turkey encompasses the traditional theatre practice of the Ottoman period and the modern Turkish theatre.

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Theodosius I

Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.

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Thrace

Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Thracians

The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

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Three Pashas

The "Three Pashas" (اوچ پاشلار) refers to the triumvirate of senior officials who effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I: Mehmed Talaat Pasha (1874–1921), the Grand Vizier (prime minister) and Minister of the Interior; Ismail Enver Pasha (1881–1922), the Minister of War; and Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872–1922), the Minister of the Navy.

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Tiele people

The Tiele (Turkic *Tegreg " Carts"), also transliterated Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine Turkic peoples living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.

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Tigris

Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.

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Times Higher Education World University Rankings

Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by ''Times Higher Education (THE)'' magazine.

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Tomas Lindahl

Tomas Robert Lindahl FRS FMedSci (born 28 January 1938) is a Swedish-born British scientist specialising in cancer research.

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Topkapı Palace

The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Tourism in Turkey

Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean Sea coasts.

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Treaty of Guarantee (1960)

The Treaty of Guarantee is a treaty between the Republic of Cyprus, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland promulgated in 1960.

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Treaty of Lausanne

The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.

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Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.

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Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

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Troy

Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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Truman Doctrine

The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Tughril

Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (Tuğrul) (990 – September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.

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Tulip

Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

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Tunceli Province

Tunceli Province (parêzgeha Dêrsimê, df), formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds (Kurmanj and Zaza speaking Kurds). The province was originally named Dersim Province (Dersim vilayeti), then demoted to a district (Dersim kazası) and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. It was finally changed to Tunceli Province on January 4, 1936 by the "Law on Administration of the Tunceli Province" (Tunceli Vilayetinin İdaresi Hakkında Kanun), no. 2884 of 25 December 1935, but some still call the region by its original name. The name of the provincial capital, Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name. The adjacent provinces are Erzincan to the north and west, Elazığ to the south, and Bingöl to the east. The province covers an area of and has a population of 76,699. It has the lowest population density of any province in Turkey, just 9.8 inhabitants/km². The majority of the population is Kurdish. Tunceli is the only province of Turkey with an Alevi majority. Tunceli is known for its old buildings such as the Çelebi Ağa Mosque, Sağman Mosque, Elti Hatun Mosque and adjoining Tomb, castles including Mazgirt Castle, Pertek Castle, Derun-i Hisar Castle, and impressive natural scenery, especially in Munzur Valley National Park, the largest national park of Turkey.

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Turco-Persian tradition

The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).

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Turgut Özal

Halil Turgut Özal (13 October 192717 April 1993) was a Turkish politician who served as the 8th President of Turkey from 1989 to 1993.

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Turkey Home

Turkey Home is a country branding project of Turkey by courtesy of Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

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Turkey national basketball team

The Turkey national basketball team is nicknamed "12 Dev Adam", meaning 12 Giant Men.

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Turkey national football team

The Turkey national football team (Türkiye Millî Futbol Takımı) represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey.

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Turkey women's national basketball team

The Turkish women's national basketball team, is the basketball side that represents Turkey in international competitions for women.

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Turkey women's national volleyball team

The Turkey women's national volleyball team (Türkiye Kadın Voleybol Milli Takımı) is formed by the Turkish Volleyball Federation (TVF) and represents Turkey in international CEV and FIVB organizations.

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Turkey–United States relations

Turkey–United States relations in the post-World War II period evolved from the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943 and Turkey's entrance into World War II on the side of the Allies in February 1945, as a result of which Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkic migration

Turkic migration refers to the expansion and colonization of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Turkification

Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.

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Turkish Academy of Sciences

The Turkish Academy of Sciences (Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi – TÜBA) is an autonomous scholarly association aimed at promoting scientific activities in Turkey.

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Turkish Aerospace Industries

Türk Havacılık ve Uzay Sanayii A.Ş. (TUSAŞ) is the center of technology in design, development, manufacturing, integration of aerospace systems, modernization and after sales support in Turkey.

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Turkish Air Force

The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Turkish Airlines

Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.

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Turkish Angora

The Turkish Angora (Ankara kedisi, 'Ankara cat') is a breed of domestic cat.

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Turkish Armed Forces

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.

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Turkish Atomic Energy Authority

The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu - TAEK) is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey.

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Turkish civil code (1926)

Turkish civil code (Türk Medeni Kanunu) is one of the earliest laws in the history of Turkey within the scope of Turkish reforms.

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Turkish Constitution of 1924

The Constitution of 1924, formally titled the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Ottoman Turkish: Teşkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; 1924 Türk Anayasası), was the fundamental law of Turkey from 1924 to 1961.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2007

A constitutional referendum on electoral reform took place in Turkey on 21 October 2007.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2010

A constitutional referendum on a number of changes to the constitution was held in Turkey on 12 September 2010.

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Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017

A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).

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Turkish Cypriots

Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

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Turkish dance

Turkish folk dances are the folk dances of Turkey.

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Turkish general election, 1946

General elections were held in Turkey on 21 July 1946, the first multi-party elections in the country's history.

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Turkish general election, 1950

General elections were held in Turkey on 14 May 1950, using the multiple non-transferable vote electoral system.

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Turkish general election, 1954

General elections were held in Turkey on 2 May 1954.The electoral system used was the multiple non-transferable vote.

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Turkish general election, 1957

General elections were held in Turkey on 27 October 1957.

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Turkish hip hop

Turkish hip hop refers to hip hop music produced by members of the Turkish minority in Germany, and to a lesser degree by hip hop artists in Turkey.

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Turkish invasion of Cyprus

The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (lit and Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus.

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Turkish Kurdistan

Turkish Kurdistan, or Northern Kurdistan (Bakurê Kurdistanê), refers to portions of Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region and Southeastern Anatolia Region where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group.

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Turkish Land Forces

The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish lira

The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

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Turkish lira sign

The Turkish lira sign (symbol: ₺; image) is the currency symbol used for the Turkish lira, the official currency of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

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Turkish literature

Turkish literature (Türk edebiyatı) comprises oral compositions and written texts in Turkic languages.

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Turkish military base in Somalia

Beginning in 2017, Turkey maintains a military base in the Jaziira coastal area of Mogadishu, Somalia.

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Turkish military forces in Northern Cyprus

The Turkish military forces in Northern Cyprus (Kıbrıs'taki Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri), officially Cyprus Turkish Peace Force Command (Kıbrıs Türk Barış Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı) is the Turkish garrison on Cyprus.

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Turkish military operation in Afrin

In January 2018, the Turkish military launched a military operation, code-named Operation Olive Branch (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) by Turkey, in the SDF-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict.

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Turkish National Movement

The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.

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Turkish Naval Forces

The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Turkish presidential election, 2018

The Turkish presidential election of 2018 took place on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 general election, alongside parliamentary elections on the same day.

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Turkish Radio and Television Corporation

The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.

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Turkish Space Systems, Integration and Test Center

Turkish Space Systems, Integration and Test Centre (Uzay Sistemleri, Entegrasyon ve Test Merkezi) (USET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI).

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Turkish State Railways

The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines.

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Turkish State Theatres

The Turkish State Theatres (Devlet Tiyatroları - DT) is the official directorate of the national theatre companies in Turkey.

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Turkish Statistical Institute

Turkish Statistical Institute (commonly known as TurkStat; Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu or TÜİK) is the Turkish government agency commissioned with producing official statistics on Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Turkish Straits

The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.

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Turkish television drama

Turkish television series (televizyon dizileri) are wildly popular both in Turkey and internationally, and place among the country's most well known economic and cultural exports.

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Turkish Van

The Turkish Van is a semi-long-haired breed of domestic cat, which was developed in the United Kingdom from a selection of cats obtained from various cities of modern Turkey, especially Southeast Turkey.

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Turkish War of Independence

The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.

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Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army

The Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (abbreviated as TFSA), partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army (al-Jayš al-Watanī as-Sūrī, Suriye Millî Ordusu) by Turkey since 30 May 2017, is an armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in northern Syria, mostly being a part of Operation Euphrates Shield or groups active in the area that are allied to the groups participating in the operation.

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Turksat (satellite)

Turksat is the name of a series of Turkish communications satellites operated or projected by the Türksat A.Ş..

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TurkStream

TurkStream (originally: Turkish Stream, TürkAkım or Türk Akımı) is a natural gas pipeline currently under construction from Russia to Turkey.

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Turoyo language

No description.

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Twelver

Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Twitter

Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".

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Ubykh language

Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).

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UEFA Euro 2008

The 2008 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2008 or simply Euro 2008, was the 13th UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football tournament contested by European nations.

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Uludere

Uludere is a district in Şırnak Province, Turkey.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Union for the Mediterranean

The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United Nations Operation in Somalia I

United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was the first part of a United Nations (UN) sponsored effort to provide, facilitate, and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia, as well as to monitor the first UN-brokered ceasefire of the Somali Civil War conflict in the early 1990s.

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United Nations Protection Force

The United Nations Protection Force (French: Force de Protection des Nations Unies; UNPROFOR, also known by its French acronym FORPRONU), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Government Publishing Office

The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.

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United World Wrestling

United World Wrestling (UWW) is the international governing body for the sport of amateur wrestling; its duties include overseeing wrestling at the Olympics.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of North Carolina

The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.

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Upper Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.

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Urartu

Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Vakıfbank S.K.

Vakıfbank Sports Club (Vakıfbank Spor Kulübü), currently one of the best volleyball teams in the world, double winner of the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship and triple European Champions League winner, is a Turkish volleyball club based in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Van Province

Van Province (Armenian:Վան Van ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. and has a sizeable Azerbaijani minority (Küresünni).

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Varlık Vergisi

Varlık Vergisi ("wealth tax" or "capital tax") was a Turkish tax levied on citizens of Turkey in 1942, with the stated aim of raising funds for the country's defense in case of an eventual entry into World War II.

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Vedat Tek

Mehmet Vedat Tek (1873–1942) was a notable Turkish architect, who has been one of the leading figures of the First Turkish National Architectural Movement.

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Vehbi Koç

Vehbi Koç (20 July 1901, Çoraklı, Ankara, Ottoman Empire – 25 February 1996) was a Turkish entrepreneur and philanthropist.

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Vestel

Vestel is a Turkish home and professional appliances manufacturing company consisting of 18 companies specialised in electronics, major appliances and information technology.

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Vice President of Turkey

The Vice President of Turkey is the second-highest constitutional office in Turkey, after the President.

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Virtual private network

A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Volleyball

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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Volleyball at the Mediterranean Games

Volleyball has been played consistently at the Mediterranean Games since the year 1959 for men and since the year 1975 for women.

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Wallcreeper

The wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) is a small passerine bird found throughout the high mountains of Eurasia from southern Europe to central China.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Western Armenian

Western Armenian (Classical spelling:, arevmdahayerên) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Eastern Armenian.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western European Union

The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.

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Westernization

Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.

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Wikipedia

Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.

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Winter

Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Yalı

A yalı (yalı, from Greek γιαλή yialí (mod. γιαλός yialós), literally "seashore, beach") is a house or mansion constructed at immediate waterside (almost exclusively seaside, particularly on the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul) and usually built with an architectural concept that takes into account the characteristics of the coastal location.

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Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge

The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü) is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus strait, to the north of two existing suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Yıldız Palace

Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Yılmaz Güney

Yılmaz Güney (born Yılmaz Pütün, 1 April 1937 – 9 September 1984) was a Zaza and Kurdish film director, scenarist, novelist, and actor, who produced movies in Turkish.

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Yeşilköy

Yeşilköy (prior to 1926, San Stefano or Santo Stefano from the Greek: Άγιος Στέφανος pronounced Ayos Stefanos, rendered in Turkish as Ayastefanos, Сан Стефано) is a neighbourhood (mahalle) in the district of Bakırköy, Istanbul, Turkey, on the Marmara Sea about west of Istanbul's historic city centre.

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Yeniköy, Sarıyer

Yeniköy (Yeniköy, "New Village"), sometimes also referred to as Yeni Kioi, is a neighbourhood in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Yogurt

Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.

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Young Turk Revolution

The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.

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YouTube

YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Zand dynasty

The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.

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Zaza language

Zaza language, also called Zazaki, Kirmanjki and Dimli, is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in eastern Turkey by the Zazas.

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Zeugma and syllepsis

In rhetoric, zeugma (from the Ancient Greek ζεῦγμα,, lit. "a yoking together"Liddell, H. G. & al. A Greek-English Lexicon.. Perseus Project. Retrieved 24 January 2013.) and syllepsis (from the Ancient Greek σύλληψις,, lit. "a taking together"Random House Dictionary.. 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.) are figures of speech in which one single phrase or word joins different parts of a sentence.

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Zeybek dance

The zeybek is a form of folk dance peculiar to Western, Central and southern Anatolia in Turkey.

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Ziraat Bankası

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ziraat Bankası (Agricultural Bank of the Republic of Turkey), commonly known as Ziraat Bankası, is a state-owned bank in Turkey founded in 1863.

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.tr

.tr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Turkey.

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1913 Ottoman coup d'état

The 1913 Ottoman coup d'état (January 23, 1913), also known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını), was a coup d'état carried out in the Ottoman Empire by a number of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) members led by Ismail Enver Bey and Mehmed Talaat Bey, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî).

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1960 Turkish coup d'état

The 1960 Turkish coup d'état (27 Mayıs Darbesi) was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey.

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1971 Turkish military memorandum

The 1971 Turkish military memorandum (12 Mart Muhtırası), issued on 12 March that year, was the second military intervention to take place in the Republic of Turkey, coming 11 years after its 1960 predecessor.

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1974 Cypriot coup d'état

The 1974 coup d'état in Cyprus was a military coup d'état by the Greek army in Cyprus, the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.

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1980 Turkish coup d'état

The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".

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1992–93 FIBA European Cup

The 1992–93 FIBA European Cup was the twenty-seventh edition of FIBA's 2nd-tier level European-wide professional club basketball competition.

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1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup

No description.

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1997 Turkish military memorandum

The 1997 military memorandum (28 Şubat, "28 February"; also called Post-modern darbe, "Post-modern coup") in Turkey refers to the decisions issued by the Turkish military leadership on a National Security Council meeting on 28 February 1997.

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1999 İzmit earthquake

The 1999 İzmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Gölcük, or Marmara earthquake) occurred on 17 August at 03:01:40 local time in northwestern Turkey.

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2000 UEFA Cup Final

The 2000 UEFA Cup Final was a football match that took place on 17 May 2000 at Parken Stadium in Copenhagen, Denmark to decide the winner of the 1999–2000 UEFA Cup.

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2000 UEFA Super Cup

The 2000 UEFA Super Cup was a football match played on 25 August 2000 between Real Madrid of Spain and Galatasaray of Turkey.

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2000–01 FIBA SuproLeague

The 2000–01 FIBA SuproLeague was the FIBA European professional club basketball Champions' Cup for the 2000–01 season.

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2001 Turkish economic crisis

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Turkey relied heavily on foreign investment for economic growth, with trade above 40% of GNP.

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2002 FIFA World Cup

The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.

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2003 FIFA Confederations Cup

The 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup football tournament was the sixth FIFA Confederations Cup, held in France in June 2003.

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2003 Women's European Volleyball Championship

The 2003 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 23rd edition of the event, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.

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2010 FIBA World Championship

The 2010 FIBA World Championship, hosted by Turkey, was the international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams.

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2010 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship

The 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship was the 4th edition of the event.

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2011 Women's European Volleyball Championship

The 2011 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 27th edition of the European Volleyball Championship, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.

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2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge

2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge was the eighth edition of Europe's third-tier level transnational men's professional club basketball FIBA EuroChallenge Tournament, organized by FIBA Europe.

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2012 FIVB Volleyball World Grand Prix

The 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix was a women's volleyball tournament played by 16 countries starting 8 June 2012.

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2012–13 CEV Women's Champions League

The CEV Champions League was the highest level of European club volleyball in the 2012–13 season and the 54th edition.

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2013 Egyptian coup d'état

On 3 July 2013, Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution.

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2013 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship

The 2013 FIVB Women's Club World Championship was the 7th edition of the event.

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2013–14 EuroLeague Women

The 2013–14 season is the 23rd edition of Europe's premier basketball tournament for women – EuroLeague Women since it was rebranded to its current format.

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2015 European Games

The 2015 European Games, also known as Baku 2015 or Baku 2015 European Games (Bakı 2015 Avropa Oyunları), were the inaugural edition of the European Games, an international multi-sport event for athletes representing the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) of the European Olympic Committees.

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2015–16 Eurocup Basketball

The 2015–16 Eurocup Basketball season was the 14th season of Europe's secondary level professional club basketball tournament, which is organised by Euroleague Basketball, and the eighth season since it was renamed from the ULEB Cup to the Eurocup.

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2015–16 Euroleague

The 2015–16 Turkish Airlines Euroleague was the 16th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the sixth under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.

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2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt

On 15 July 2016, a coup d'état was attempted in Turkey against state institutions, including the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.

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2016–17 EuroLeague

The 2016–17 Turkish Airlines EuroLeague was the 17th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the seventh under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.

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2016–present purges in Turkey

The 2016–present purges in Turkey are an ongoing series of purges by the government of Turkey enabled by a state of emergency in reaction to the 15 July failed ''coup d'état''.

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2017 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship

The 2017 FIVB Women's Club World Championship was the 11th tournament.

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2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League

The 2017-18 CEV Champions League was the highest level of European club volleyball in the 2017–18 season and the 58th edition.

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2017–18 EuroLeague

The 2017–18 Turkish Airlines EuroLeague was the 18th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the eighth under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.

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25th meridian east

The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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35th parallel north

The 35th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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43rd parallel north

The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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45th meridian east

The meridian 45° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Etymology of Turkey, ISO 3166-1:TR, Republic of Turkey, Republic of Turkiye, Republic of turkey, State of Turkey, TURKEY, Terky, The Republic of Turkey, Tuerkei, Tuerkiye, Tuerkiye Cumhuriyeti, TurkeY, Turkei, Turkey (Country), Turkey (country), Turkey (nation), Turkey (state), Turkia, Turkie, Turkish Republic, Turkish State, Turkish republic, Turkiye, Turkiye Cumhuriyeti, Turky, Turkye, Turquia, Turquie, Türkei, Türkiye, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, Türkiye Devleti, Türkiye Respublikasi, Türkiye Respublikası.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey

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