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The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority. The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.
The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a Northwest Caucasian language in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abidin Dino (March 23, 1913 – December 7, 1993) was a Turkish artist and a well-known painter.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
The abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) on 1 November 1922 ended the Ottoman Empire, which had lasted since 1299.
Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimes called the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union law.
An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, tr. Akrópolis; from ákros (άκρος) or ákron (άκρον) "highest, topmost, outermost" and pólis "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) is a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Adnan Coker (Adnan Çoker) (born 1927) in İstanbul) is a Turkish abstract artist.)))(English mention states "Turkish artists such as abstract masters Devrim Erbil and Adnan Coker") He graduated from Academy of Fine Arts Istanbul in 1951 and won European Concourt Prize in 1955. He went on to Paris on a scholarship from the Turkish state. He worked at the André Lhote, Henri Goetz and Hayter studios in Paris and the Emilio Vedova Studio at the International Salzburg Summer Academy., MİNE SANAT GALERİSİ, Retrieved February 3, 2010.
Adnan Menderes (1899 – 17 September 1961) or Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes was the Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
The Aegean Region is one of the 7 geographical regions of Turkey.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Aeolians (Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major tribes in which Greeks divided themselves in the ancient period (along with the Achaeans, Dorians and Ionians).
Afrin (translit; Efrîn or Afrîn; ܥܦܪܝܢ) is a district as well as a city in northern Syria.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahmet Davutoğlu (born 26 February 1959) is a Turkish academic, politician and former diplomat who was the Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) from August 2014 to May 2016.
Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.
An air superiority fighter, also spelled air-superiority fighter, is a type of fighter aircraft designed for entering and seizing control of enemy airspace as a means of establishing complete dominance over the enemy's air force (air supremacy).
The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.
Airports Council International (ACI) is the only global trade representative of the world’s airport authorities.
Aizanoi (Αἰζανοί), Latinized as Aezani was an Ancient Greek city in western Anatolia.
The Akbash Dog (from Akbaş 'white head') is native to Turkey, and it is primarily used as a livestock guardian dog or shepherd dog.
The Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant (Akkuyu Nükleer Güç Santrali) is a nuclear power plant under development at Akkuyu, in Büyükeceli, Mersin Province, Turkey.
The Aksaray Malaklısı, also known as the Turkish mastiff or Central Anatolian shepherd, is a large Turkish breed of Molosser-type guard dog.
Aksiyon (Action) was a Turkish news magazine.
Al-Ahram Weekly is an English-language weekly broadsheet printed by the Al-Ahram Publishing House in Cairo, Egypt.
Alanya, formerly Alaiye, is a beach resort city and a component district of Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey, in the country's Mediterranean Region, east of the city of Antalya.
Albanians in Turkey (Shqiptarët në Turqi, Türkiye'deki Arnavutlar) are ethnic Albanian citizens and denizens of Turkey.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
Alternative civilian service is a form of national service performed in lieu of conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
Anadolu Agency (Anadolu Ajansı, abbreviated AA) is a state-run international news agency of the Turkish government headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.
Anadolu Efes Spor Kulübü (Anadolu Efes Sports Club), formerly known as Efes Pilsen, is a Turkish professional basketball team that is based in Istanbul, Turkey.
Anadolu University (Turkish: Anadolu Üniversitesi) is a public university in Eskişehir, Turkey.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.
The Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana), also called the Asia Minor leopard, was proposed in the 19th century as a distinct leopard subspecies native to south-western Turkey.
Anatolians were Indo-European peoples of Anatolia identified by their use of the Anatolian languages.
Anatolian rug is a term of convenience, commonly used today to denote rugs and carpets woven in Anatolia (or Asia minor) and its adjacent regions.
The Anatolian Shepherd Dog (Anadolu çoban köpeği) is a breed of dog which originated in the Anatolia region of central Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Angora goat is a breed of domesticated goat, historically known as Angora.
The Angora rabbit (Ankara tavşanı), which is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as Angora wool, that are gathered by shearing, combing, or plucking.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community (commonly known as the Ankara Agreement), is a treaty, signed in 1963, which provides for the framework for the co-operation between Turkey and the European Union (EU).
Ankara Province (Ankara ili) is the capital province of Turkey.
The Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway (Ankara–İstanbul yüksek hızlı demiryolu), is a long high-speed railway currently running between Ankara and Pendik (a suburb of Istanbul), with the Pendik-Central İstanbul part under construction.
The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus reunification plan.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Antakya (انطاكيا, Anṭākyā, previously أنطاكيّة (Anṭākīyyah) from ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ, Anṭiokia; Ἀντιόχεια, Antiócheia) is the seat of the Hatay Province in southern Turkey.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochian Greek Christians, also known as Rûm, are an Arabic-speaking ethnoreligious Christian group from the Levant region.
Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (Անտիոքոս Երվանդունի, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην, meaning Antiochos, a just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend of Greeks, c. 86 BC – 38 BC, ruled 70 BC – 38 BC) was an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.
Aphrodisias (Aphrodisiás) was a small ancient Greek Hellenistic city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements.
Arabesque or Arabesk (Arabesk) is a term created by Turkish musicologists for an Arabic style of music created in Turkey.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Arabic music or Arab music (Arabic: الموسيقى العربية – ALA-LC) is the music of the Arab people.
Arabs in Turkey (العرب في تركيا, Türkiye'deki Araplar) refers to citizens and residents of Turkey who are ethnically Arab.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
The Architecture of Central Asia, which is generally considered as comprising Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan has been influenced by a diverse array of architectural traditions such as Russian architecture during the eras of tsarist and Soviet rule, Islamic architecture which came earlier, Persian architecture, and Chinese architecture.
In mathematics, the Arf invariant of a nonsingular quadratic form over a field of characteristic 2 was defined by Turkish mathematician when he started the systematic study of quadratic forms over arbitrary fields of characteristic 2.
Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888 - 1982) was a Turkish architect best known for his work on the State Art and Sculpture Museum in Ankara, Turkey.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenian architecture comprises architectural works with an aesthetic or historical connection to the Armenian people.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenian Genocide denial is the act of denying the planned systematic genocide of 1.5 million Armenians during World War I, conducted by the Ottoman government.
The Armenian Highlands (Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as the Armenian Upland, Armenian plateau, Armenian tableland,Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17 or simply Armenia) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Turkey (Türkiye Ermenileri; Թուրքահայեր, also Թրքահայեր, "Turkish Armenians"), one of the indigenous peoples of Turkey, have an estimated population of 50,000 to 70,000, down from more than 2 million in 1914.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
Arzawa in the second half of the 2nd millennium BC (roughly from late 15th century BC until the beginning of the 12th century BC) was the name of a region and a political entity (a "kingdom" or a federation of local powers) in Western Anatolia.
ASELSAN A.Ş., (ASELSAN, acronym: Askeri Elektronik Sanayi, Military Electronic Industries) is a Turkish corporation that produces tactical military radios and defense electronic systems for the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is an inter-governmental organization created on 18 June 2002 to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level and to help integrate separate regional organizations such as ASEAN, SAARC, the Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Eurasian Economic Union.
Aspendos or Aspendus (Pamphylian: ΕΣΤϜΕΔΥΣ; Attic: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Assumption of Mary into Heaven (often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Dormition)) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Assyrians/Syriacs in Turkey are an indigenous Semitic-speaking ethnic group and minority of Turkey (and also northern Iraq and northeast Syria) with a presence in the region dating to as far back as the 25th century BC, making them the oldest ethnic group in the nation.
Atatürk University (Atatürk Üniversitesi) is a land-grant university established in 1957 in Erzurum, Turkey.
Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
ATV (stylized as atv) is a nationwide TV channel in Turkey, began broadcasting in September 1993.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The automotive industry in Turkey plays an important role in the manufacturing sector of the Turkish economy.
Demolition of the Monument at San Stefano (Ayastefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı) is a 1914 Turkish documentary film directed by former army officer Fuat Uzkınay.
Aziz Sancar (born 8September 1946) is a Turkish-American biochemist and molecular biologist specializing in DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and circadian clock.
The Çanakkale 1915 Bridge (Çanakkale 1915 Köprüsü) is a suspension bridge under construction situated at the western end of the Sea of Marmara between Gelibolu and Lapseki towns of Turkey's Çanakkale Province.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
Çırağan Palace (Çırağan Sarayı), a former Ottoman palace, is now a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.
Ölüdeniz (literally Dead Sea, due to its calm waters even during storms; official translation name Blue Lagoon) is a small village and beach resort in the Fethiye district of Muğla Province, on the Turquoise Coast of southwestern Turkey, at the conjunction point of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.
İbrahim Şinasi (5 August 1826 – 13 September 1871) was a pioneering Ottoman intellectual, author, journalist, translator, playwright, and newspaper editor.
Ilbank A.Ş., short for İller Bankası Anonim Şirketi, is a state-owned development and investment bank based in Ankara, Turkey.
İsmail Kahraman (born 1940) is a Turkish politician from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who currently serves as the 27th Speaker of the Grand National Assembly since 22 November 2015.
Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.
The İstiklal Marşı (Independence March) is the national anthem of the Republic of Turkey which was officially adopted on 12 March 1921 —two-and-a-half years before the 29 October 1923 establishment of the nation— both as a motivational musical saga for the troops fighting in the Turkish War of Independence, and as an aspirational anthem for a Republic that was yet to be established.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Şanlıurfa Province (Şanlıurfa ili) or simply Urfa Province is a province in southeastern Turkey.
The Şırnak Province (Şırnak ili, Parêzgeha Şirnex) is a Turkish province in Southeastern Anatolia Region. Şırnak borders Iraq and Syria. Şırnak was legally separated from Siirt province on May 16, 1990. This law also attached several districts from neighboring provinces of Siirt and Mardin, making them part of Şırnak, including Cizre and Silopi. As of 2013, the province had an estimated population of 475,255 people. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The 2015–16 Şırnak clashes are ongoing in Şırnak City, and its districts Cizre, Idil and Silopi.
The B61 nuclear bomb is the primary thermonuclear gravity bomb in the United States Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Baklava is a rich, sweet dessert pastry made of layers of filo filled with chopped nuts and sweetened and held together with syrup or honey.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is a long crude oil pipeline from the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Balkan cuisine may refer to.
Balkan music is a type of music found in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balyan family (Western Պալեաններ; Balyan ailesi or Palyan ailesi) was a prominent Ottoman Armenian family of court architects in the service of Ottoman sultans and other members of the Ottoman dynasty during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Bar is a form of folk dance of Eastern Turkey.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Basilica of St.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
Basketball has been played consistently at the Mediterranean Games since the year 1951 for men and since the year 1987 for women.
Batman Province (Batman ili, Parêzgeha Batmanê, Arabic: محافظة بطمان) is a Turkish province southeast of Anatolia.
The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Sultanate of Rum ruled by the Seljuq dynasty and the Mongol Empire on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in modern northeastern Turkey; the Mongols achieved a decisive victory.
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).
Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (28 May 1925 – 5 November 2006) was a Turkish politician, poet, writer, scholar, and journalist, who served as the Prime Minister of Turkey four times between 1974 and 2002.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beşiktaş Basketbol is a Turkish professional basketball team from the city of İstanbul.
Bebek (known in Greek as Χηλαί, Chelai) is a historic Istanbul neighbourhood that falls within the boundaries and administration of the Beşiktaş district.
Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu (1911 in Görele – September 21, 1975 in İstanbul) was a Turkish painter and poet.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a type of inflammatory disorder which affects multiple parts of the body.
Beko (sometimes stylized as beko) is a Turkish domestic appliance and consumer electronics brand of Arçelik A.Ş. controlled by Koç Holding.
The Beylerbeyi Palace (Beylerbeyi Sarayı), Beylerbeyi meaning "Lord of Lords", is located in the Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Üsküdar district in Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus.
Beypazarı is a Turkish town and district of Ankara Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey, approximately 100 km west of the city of Ankara.
Bilkent University (in Turkish, Bilkent Üniversitesi) is a private university located in Ankara, Turkey.
BILSAT-1 was an earth observation satellite designed and developed by TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK UZAY) and produced in Turkey as part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) project in the context of a show-how program led by DMC International Imaging of Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL).
Bingöl Province (Bingöl ili; Parêzgeha Bîngolê, Zazaki: Çewlîg, Northern Kurdish: Çewlîg; Ճապաղջուր Chapaghjur) is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was created in 1946 out of parts of Elazığ and Erzincan. The new province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1950. Its neighbouring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km² and has a population of 255,170. The main spoken languages are Turkish and Zazaki/Kurdish. The capital is Bingöl. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.
Bitlis Province (Bitlis ili and Parêzgeha Peniyan) is a province of eastern Turkey, located to the west of Lake Van.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
On 29 April 2017, Turkish authorities blocked online access to all language editions of the online encyclopedia Wikipedia throughout Turkey.
Blue Stream is a major trans-Black Sea gas pipeline that carries natural gas from Russia into Turkey.
Boğaziçi University (also known as Bosphorus University, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, "Boğaziçi" literally meaning Bosphorus in Turkish) is a major research university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
In investment, the bond credit rating represents the credit worthiness of corporate or government bonds.
Bosniaks in Turkey refers to citizens of Turkey who are, or descend from, ethnic Bosniak people, originating in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak and other former Yugoslav republics.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Bosphorus Bridge (Boğaziçi Köprüsü), known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge (15 Temmuz Şehitler Köprüsü) and unofficially as the First Bridge (Birinci Köprü), is one of the three suspension bridges spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi) in Istanbul, Turkey, thus connecting Europe and Asia (alongside Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge).
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Burhan C. Doğançay (11 September 1929 – 16 January 2013) was a Turkish-American artist.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
Cahit Arf (11 October 1910 – 26 December 1997) was a Turkish mathematician.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Cappadocian, also known as Cappadocian Greek or Asia Minor Greek, is a mixed language spoken in Cappadocia (Central Turkey).
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
The Caucasian grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is a large bird in the grouse family.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus mixed forests ecoregion, in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, of Eurasia in Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
Mahmut Celâl Bayar (16 May 1883 – 22 August 1986) was a Turkish politician who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939.
Cemal Tollu (19 April 1899 – 26 July 1968) was a Turkish painter.
Censorship in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation, the latter (in theory) taking precedence over domestic law, according to Article 90 of the Constitution of Turkey (so amended in 2004).
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, CBRT (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankası, TCMB) is the central bank of Turkey and is founded as a joint stock company on 11 June 1930.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The Women's CEV Champions League, formerly known as CEV Champions Cup (from 1960 to 2000), is the top official competition for women's volleyball clubs of Europe and takes place every year.
Ceyhan is a city and a district in the Adana Province, in southern Turkey, east of Adana.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Christendom has several meanings.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
The phenomenon of large-scale migration of Christians is the main reason why Christians' share of the population has been declining in many countries.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity has a long history in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and the Armenian Highlands (now part of Turkey), which is the birthplace of numerous Christian Apostles and Saints, such as Paul of Tarsus, Timothy, Nicholas of Myra, Polycarp of Smyrna and many others.
The Church of Saint Peter (Aramaic: Knisset Mar Semaan Kefa, Turkish: Senpiyer Kilisesi, St. Peter's Cave Church, Cave-Church of St. Peter) near Antakya (Antioch), Turkey, is composed of a cave carved into the mountainside on Mount Starius with a depth of 13 m (42 ft.), a width of 9.5 m (31 ft.) and a height of 7 m (23 ft).
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
Yeşilçam (literally means The Green Pine in Turkish language) is the sobriquet that refers to the Turkish film art and industry.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
The Circassians in Turkey (East Circassian and West Circassian: Адыгэхэр Тырку, Adyghexer Tyrku; Türkiye'deki Çerkesler) are one of the largest ethnic minorities in Turkey, with a population between 130,000 and 2 million.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
The Coast Guard Command (Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) is the coast guard service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty-one years of age.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.
The Constitutional Court of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi, sometimes abbreviated as AYM) is the highest legal body for constitutional review in Turkey.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, also known as the Lausanne Convention, was an agreement between the Greek and Turkish governments signed by their representatives in Lausanne on 30 January 1923, in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922.
The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Higher Education (Yükseköğretim Kurulu, YÖK; also translated as Higher Education Board) is responsible for the supervision of universities in Turkey, in a capacity defined by articles 130 and 131 of the 1982 constitution.
The Council of State (Danıştay) is the highest administrative court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Court of Cassation, also called Supreme Court of Appeals of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyet Yargıtay Başkanlığı – Yargıtay for short) which was founded in 1868 is the last instance for reviewing verdicts given by courts of criminal and civil justice.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.
Cultural Muslims are religiously unobservant, secular or irreligious individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture or the religion due to family background, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up.
Ottoman culture evolved over several centuries as the ruling administration of the Turks absorbed, adapted and modified the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples.
Cumhuriyet (The Republic) is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper.
In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (also known as the financial account).
A referendum on the Annan Plan was held in the Republic of Cyprus and the breakaway Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on 24 April 2004.
There was a period of political and violent conflict in Cyprus, also known as the Cyprus crisis and EOKA period, between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, between 1955 and 1964.
The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.
The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organisation for development co-operation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Turkey.
Daily Sabah (lit. "Daily Morning") is a Turkish pro-government daily published in Turkey.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.
Defense News is a global website and magazine about politics, business and technology of defense.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
The Democratic Party (Turkish: Demokrat Parti, DP for short) was a Turkish moderately right-wing political party, and the country's third legal opposition party, after the Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) established by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930, and the National Development Party (Milli Kalkınma Partisi) established by Nuri Demirağ in 1945.
Demographic profiling is a tool utilized by marketers so that they may be as efficient as possible with advertising products or services and identifying any possible gaps in their marketing strategy.
DenizBank A.Ş. ("deniz" meaning sea in Turkish) is a large private bank in Turkey.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
In Turkey, the Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, normally referred to simply as the Diyanet) is an official state institution established in 1924 under article 136 of the Constitution of Turkey by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey as a successor to the Shaykh al-Islām after the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Diyarbakır Province (Diyarbakır ili, Parêzgeha Amed) is a province in southeastern Turkey. The province covers an area of 15,355 km² and its population is 1,528,958. The provincial capital is the city of Diyarbakır. It has been home to many civilisations and the surrounding area including itself is home to many Mesolithic era stone carvings and artifacts. The province has been ruled by the Akkadins, Hurrians, Mittani, Medes, Hittites, Armenians, Neo-Babylonians, Achaemenids, Greeks, Romans, Parthia, Byzantium, Sassanids, Arabs, Seljuk Empire, Mongol Empire, Safavid dynasty, Marwanids, and Ayyubids. The majority of the province's population today is Kurdish.
Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (Yıldız Palace was used in the interim).
Doner kebab (also döner kebab) (Turkish: döner or döner kebap) is a Turkish kebab, made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie.
The Dormition of the Mother of God (Κοίμησις Θεοτόκου, Koímēsis Theotokou often anglicized as Kimisis; Slavonic: Успение Пресвятыя Богородицы, Uspenie Presvetia Bogoroditsi; Georgian: მიძინება ყოვლადწმიდისა ღვთისმშობელისა) is a Great Feast of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches which commemorates the "falling asleep" or death of Mary the Theotokos ("Mother of God", literally translated as God-bearer), and her bodily resurrection before being taken up into heaven.
A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.
From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey that breeds from southeastern Europe to western and central Asia.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eczacıbaşı Holding is a Turkish industrial group of companies founded in 1942.
Eczacıbaşı VitrA is the women's volleyball department of Eczacıbaşı S.K., a Turkish sports club based in Istanbul, Turkey.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elâzığ Province (Elâzığ ili) is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elâzığ.
The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.
Electronica encompasses a broad group of electronic-based styles such as techno, house, ambient, jungle and other electronic music styles intended not just for dancing.
Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).
Encyclopaedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political and Religion History, the Archeology, Geography and Natural History of the Bible (1899), edited by Thomas Kelly Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black, is a critical encyclopedia of the Bible.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.
Energy markets are commodity markets that deal specifically with the trade and supply of energy.
Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European Union energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court.
Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.
Enosis (Ένωσις,, "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
EOKA-B was a Greek Cypriot paramilitary organisation formed in 1971 by General Georgios Grivas ("Digenis").
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
The seat or cathedra of the Bishop of Rome in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
Ergenekon was the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Ethnography Museum of Ankara is a museum of ethnography dedicated to the cultures of Turkic civilizations.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Etibank A.Ş is a defunct Turkish bank.
An EU Battlegroup (EU BG) is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU).
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasia Tunnel (Avrasya Tüneli) is a road tunnel in Istanbul, Turkey, crossing underneath the Bosphorus strait.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
The 2001 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2001, was the 32nd FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2002 FIBA World Championship, giving a berth to the top four (or five, depending on Yugoslavia reaching one of the top four places) teams in the final standings.
The 2011 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called EuroBasket Women 2011, was the 33rd regional championship held by FIBA Europe.
The 2013 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called EuroBasket Women 2013, was the 34th regional championship held by FIBA Europe.
The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
Euroleague Basketball is the private company that runs and operates the top two continental-wide men's professional club basketball competitions in Europe, the first-tier EuroLeague, and the second-tier EuroCup.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Charter of Local Self-Government was adopted under the auspices of the Congress of the Council of Europe (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union) and was opened for signature by the Council of Europe's member states on 15 October 1985.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
On 31 December 1995, a 6 March 1995 Decision of the EC-Turkey Association Council, established by the Ankara Agreement, to implement a customs union (Gümrük Birliği) between Turkey and the European Union, came into effect.
The Confédération Européenne de Volleyball or CEV is the continental governing body for the sports of volleyball, beach volleyball and snow volleyball in Europe.
The European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is the nominate subspecies of the wildcat that inhabits forests of Western, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe up to the Caucasus Mountains.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests ecoregion, in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, is located along the southern shore of the Black Sea.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge ("Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge"), also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge (in Turkish: Fatih Sultan Mehmet Köprüsü, F.S.M. Köprüsü or 2. Köprü), is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi).
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
Fenerbahçe Basketball (Fenerbahçe Basketbol Takımı), for sponsorship reasons Fenerbahçe Doğuş, commonly known as Fenerbahçe, is a professional basketball team and the men's basketball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.
Fenerbahçe Women's Basketball is the women's basketball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.
Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball is the women's volleyball department of Fenerbahçe SK, a major Turkish multi-sport club based in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Feriye Palace (Feriye Sarayı) is a complex of Ottoman imperial palace buildings along the European shoreline of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.
Ferzan Özpetek (born 3 February 1959, Turkey) is a Turkish-Italian film director and screenwriter, residing in Italy.
FIBA EuroChallenge (called the FIBA Europe League in 2003–05, and FIBA EuroCup in 2005–08) was the 3rd tier level transnational men's professional club basketball competition in Europe, from 2003 to 2015.
The FIBA Korać Cup was an annual basketball club competition held by FIBA between the 1971–72 and 2001–02 seasons.
The FIBA Saporta Cup was the name of the second-tier level European-wide professional club basketball competition, where the domestic National Cup winners, from all over Europe, played against each other.
Fikret Muallâ Saygı (1904 in Kadıköy, Istanbul, Turkey – July 20, 1967 in Reillanne, France) was a 20th-century avant-garde painter of Turkish descent.
Filo or phyllo (φύλλο "leaf") is a very thin unleavened dough used for making pastries such as baklava and börek in Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First national architectural movement (Birinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı), also referred to in Turkey as the National architectural Renaissance (Millî Mimari Rönesansı), or Turkish Neoclassical architecture was a period of Turkish architecture that was most prevalent between 1908 and 1930 but continued until the end of the 1930s.
Fitch Ratings Inc.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
Free verse is an open form of poetry.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.
Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.
French Development Agency (Agence française de développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government.
Fuat Uzkınay (b. 1888 - İstanbul, d. 29 March 1956 - İstanbul) was the first Turkish filmmaker.
Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.
Galatasaray Spor Kulübü, also known simply as Galatasaray, is a Turkish football club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul.
Galatasaray S.K., for sponsorship reasons Galatasaray Odeabank, is a professional basketball team based in the city of Istanbul in Turkey.
Galatasaray is the women's basketball section of Galatasaray S.K., a major sports club in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Gareth Porter (born June 18, 1942) is an American historian, investigative journalist, author and policy analyst specializing in U.S. national security policy.
Garip (strange, peculiar / poor, forlorn) was a group of Turkish poets.
The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six civilian ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters in the Mediterranean Sea.
Göbekli Tepe, Turkish for "Potbelly Hill", is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.
Göktürk-1 is a high resolution earth observation satellite (greater than 50 cm) designed and developed for the Turkish Ministry of National Defence by the Italian space service company Telespazio with technological input from Turkish Aerospace Industries (TUSAŞ) and Aselsan of Turkey.
Göktürk-2 is an earth observation satellite designed and developed by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) and built by TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK UZAY) and Turkish Aerospace Industries (TUSAŞ) for the Turkish Ministry of National Defence.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
The Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) is a service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations.
The General Assembly (Meclis-i Umumî or Genel Parlamento) of the Ottoman Empire was the first attempt at representative democracy at the imperial level in the Ottoman Empire.
The General Directorate of Security (Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü) are the civilian police force responsible for law enforcement in Turkey.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The geographical regions of Turkey comprise seven regions (bölge) which were originally defined at the country's First Geography Congress in 1941.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgians in Turkey (ქართველები თურქეთში) refers to citizens and denizens of Turkey who are, or descend from, ethnic Georgians who originate in Georgia.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy which is derived from the earth's internal heat.
Although Germany is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, since World War II it has generally refrained from using this technology to outfit its own armed forces with weapons of mass destruction (WMD), although it participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering nuclear weapons.
A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Gordium (Γόρδιον, Górdion; Gordion or Gordiyon) was the capital city of ancient Phrygia.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
The Government of the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti), commonly known as the Ankara Government (Ankara Hükûmeti), was the name given to the provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) and during the final years of the Ottoman Empire.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The Istanbul Grand Post Office, aka Istanbul Main Post Office, (Büyük Postane) is an office building for postal services located at Sirkeci quarter of Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Great Eastern Crisis of 1875–78 began in the Ottoman Empire's territories on the Balkan peninsula in 1875, with the outbreak of several uprisings and wars that resulted in the meddling of international powers, and was ended with the Treaty of Berlin in July 1878.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.
Greek Cypriots (Ελληνοκύπριοι, Kıbrıs Rumları or Kıbrıs Yunanları) are the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus, forming the island's largest ethnolinguistic community.
The Greek genocide, including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic genocide of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Greeks in Turkey (Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Gökçeada and Bozcaada).
Gulf of İzmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
Habertürk (literally: "News Turkish"), abbreviated as HT, is a high-circulation Turkish newspaper.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Hacı Ömer Sabancı (1 January 1906 in Kayseri – 2 February 1966 in İstanbul) was a Turkish entrepreneur, who founded a number of companies, which later formed the second largest industrial and financial conglomerate of Turkey, the Sabancı Holding.
Hakkâri Province (Hakkâri ili), is a province in the south east corner of Turkey. The administrative centre is located in the city of Hakkâri (Colemêrg). The province covers an area of 7,121 km² and has a population of 251,302 (2010 est). The province had a population of 236,581 in 2000. The province was created in 1936 out of part of Van Province. Its adjacent provinces are Şırnak to the west and Van to the north. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.
Halay is a regional category of folk dance styles in central and southeastern Anatolia.
Halil Pasha (c.1857, Istanbul - August, 1939, Istanbul), was a Turkish painter and art teacher.
Halk Bankası ("People's Bank"), or Halkbank, is a large Turkish state-owned bank.
The Hamidian massacres (Համիդյան ջարդեր, Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1892–1896.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Hatay State (Hatay Devleti, État du Hatay, دولة خطاي Dawlat Khaṭāy), also known informally as the Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that existed from September 7, 1938, to June 29, 1939, in the territory of the Sanjak of Alexandretta of the French Mandate of Syria.
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia.
Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age.
HAVELSAN is a Turkish software and systems company having business presence in the defence and IT sectors.
Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Turkey has been a secular state since it was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
Hierapolis (Ἱεράπολις, lit. "Holy City") was an ancient city located on hot springs in classical Phrygia in southwestern Anatolia.
The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed railways in 2003.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
The Historic Areas of Istanbul is a group of sites in the capital district of Fatih in the city of Istanbul, Turkey.
The history of modern Turkish painting can be traced back to the modernization efforts in the Ottoman Empire during the Tanzimat period, in the 19th century.
The history of the Jews in Turkey (Türkiye Yahudileri, Turkish Jews; יהודים טורקים Yehudim Turkim, Djudios Turkos) covers the 2,400 years that Jews have lived in what is now Turkey.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey).
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The Holy League of 1538 was a short-lived alliance of Christian states arranged by Pope Paul III at the urging of the Republic of Venice.
The Holy League (Liga Sancta, Liga Santa, Lega Santa), of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean except France.
The Holy League (Latin: Sacra Ligua) of 1684 was an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War.
The Holy League of 1717 was one of many coalitions organised by the Papal States to deal with the Ottoman threat.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hora, also known as horo and oro, is a type of circle dance originating in the Balkans but also found in other countries.
Horon (Greek) or khoron (horon), which is related to Modern Greek χορός (chorós), refers to a group of a circle folk dances from the Black Sea region of Turkey.
The House of the Virgin Mary (Turkish: Meryemana Evi or Meryem Ana Evi, "Mother Mary's House") is a Catholic and Muslim shrine located on Mt.
Hulusi Behçet (Constantinople, 20 February 1889 – 8 March 1948) was a Turkish dermatologist and scientist.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Human rights in Turkey are protected by a variety of international law treaties, which take precedence over domestic legislation, according to Article 90 of the 1982 Constitution.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Iğdır Province (Iğdır ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the borders with Armenia, Azerbaijan (the area of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic), and Iran. Its adjacent provinces are Kars to the northwest and Ağrı to the west and south. It occupies an area of 3,587 km² and population of 184,418 (2010 est.), it was 168,634 in 2000 (up from 142,601 in 1990). It was created from southeastern part of former Kars Province in 1993. Turkey's highest mountain, Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) is in Iğdır, but much of the land is a wide plain far below the mountain. The climate is the warmest in this part of Turkey, cotton can be grown in Iğdır. Iğdır is where Noah is said to have thrived following the flood. The closed border with Armenia follows the Aras River. The provincial capital is the city of Iğdır. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish, with Azerbaijanis making up the remainder.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ihlamur Palace (Ihlamur Kasrı), is a former imperial Ottoman summer palace located in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
An illiberal democracy, also called a partial democracy, low intensity democracy, empty democracy, or hybrid regime, is a governing system in which, although elections take place, citizens are cut off from knowledge about the activities of those who exercise real power because of the lack of civil liberties.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
Incirlik Air Base (İncirlik Hava Üssü) is a Turkish air base of slightly more than 3320 ac (1335 ha), located in the İncirlik quarter of the city of Adana, Turkey.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Turkey include.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
INOGATE was an international energy co-operation programme between the European Union (EU), the littoral states of the Black and Caspian seas and their neighbouring countries.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.
The Internet in Turkey has been available to the public since 1993, although experimentation at Ege University started in 1987.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.
Ipsos Group S.A. is a global market research and a consulting firm with worldwide headquarters in Paris, France.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion in Turkey is uncommon.
Ishbara Qaghan (Old Turkic:, Ϊšbara qaγan, 沙缽略可汗/沙钵略可汗, Pinyin: shābōlüè kěhàn, Wade-Giles: sha-po-lüeh, alternative names: Shapolo, full name: Il Kül Shad Bagha Ishbara Qaghan 伊利俱盧設莫何始波羅可汗/伊利俱卢设莫何始波罗可汗, personal name: 阿史那攝圖/阿史那摄图, āshǐnà shètú, a-shih-na she-t'u) (before 540 – 587) was the first son of Issik Qaghan, grandson of Bumin Qaghan, and the fifth khagan of the first Eastern Turkic Khaganate (581–587) The first son of Kelo, grandson of Bumin Khagan, fifth khagan of the Göktürk Empire, he was appointed to the throne by the high council as the legal resolution to the crisis created by his uncle Taspar Qaghan who had bequeathed the title of khagan to his nephew Talopien (son of Muqan Qaghan).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Turkey, The established presence of Islam in the region that now constitutes modern Turkey dates back to the latter half of the 11th century, when the Seljuks started expanding into eastern Anatolia.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han is a historical large office building located at Eminönü quarter of Fatih district in Istanbul, Turkey and owned by the Foundations Administration (Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü).
Istanbul Atatürk Airport (İstanbul Atatürk Havalimanı) is the main international airport serving Istanbul, and the biggest airport in Turkey by total number of passengers, destinations served and aircraft movements.
The Istanbul Metro (İstanbul Metrosu) is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey.
Istanbul New Airport (İstanbul Yeni Havalimanı) is an international airport under construction in the Arnavutköy district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.
The Istanbul pogrom, also known as the Istanbul riots or September events (Septemvriana, "Events of September";, "Events of September 6–7"), were organized mob attacks directed primarily at Istanbul's Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955.
Istanbul Technical University (Turkish İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ITU or Technical University) is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey.
Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.
The Italian law codes constitute the codified law of Italy.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jimmy Donal Wales (born August 7, 1966), also known by the online moniker Jimbo, is an American Internet entrepreneur, best known as the co-founder of the online non-profit encyclopedia Wikipedia, and the for-profit web hosting company Wikia.
John the Apostle (ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ; יוחנן בן זבדי; Koine Greek: Ιωάννης; ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
The judicial system of Turkey is defined by Articles 138 to 160 of the 1982 Constitution.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
Kanal D is a nationwide television channel in Turkey and part of Doğan Media Group owned by the Turkish media tycoon Aydın Doğan.
The Kangal is a breed of large livestock guardian dog originating from the Sivas province of Turkey.
Kanto (Kanto, Κάντο) is a popular genre of Turkish music.
Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.
Karsilamas (From karşılama, in Greek: καρσιλαμάς), is a folk dance spread all over Northwest Turkey and carried to Greece by Greek refugees.
The Köroğlu Mountains (Turkish: Köroğlu Dağları) are a mountain range situated in the northern Turkey, north of Ankara.
Küçüksu Palace or Küçüksu Pavilion, a.k.a. Göksu Pavilion, (Küçüksu Kasrı) is a summer palace in Istanbul, Turkey, situated in the Küçüksu neighborhood of Beykoz district on the Asian shore of the Bosphorus between Anadoluhisarı and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge.
Kırklareli Province (Kırklareli ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey on the west coast of the Black Sea. The province neighbours Bulgaria to the north along a long border. It borders the province of Edirne to the west and the province of Tekirdağ to the south and province of Istanbul to the southeast. Kırklareli is the capital city of the province. The province's and its central city's name means "the land of the forties" in Turkish and it may refer either to the forty Ottoman ghazis sent by the sultan Murad I to conquer the city for the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century or to the forty churches reported to be situated in the region before the Ottoman conquest, as attested by the former name of Kırklareli (Kırk Kilise in Turkish; Σαράντα Εκκλησιές, Saranta Eklesies in Greek). There is a memorial on a hilltop in Kırklareli city, called "Kırklar Anıtı" (the Memorial of the Forties in Turkish) to honor the Ottoman conquerors (For more on the name's origins, see Kırklareli). The province is bisected by the Yıldız (Istranca) mountain range. The north and northeastern parts of the province are among the least populated and under developed parts of Turkey. The districts to the south and west are more populated because the land is better suited for agriculture and industrial development. The north and eastern parts of the province are dominated by forests. Therefore, forestry is an important means of living in these areas. Fishing is done along the Black Sea coast.
Kırkpınar is a Turkish oil-wrestling (yağlı güreş) tournament.
Kemal Derviş (born 10 January 1949) is a Turkish economist and politician, and former head of the United Nations Development Programme.
Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνῆς; Կոմմագենեի թագավորություն) was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic period, located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Koç Holding A.Ş. (pronounced: Coach with a short syllable) is the largest industrial conglomerate in Turkey, and that country's only entry on the Fortune Global 500 list.
Koç University (Koç Üniversitesi) is a non-profit private university in Istanbul, Turkey.
KONDA Research and Consultancy (Turkish: KONDA Araştırma ve Danışmanlık) is an anonymous company in Turkey that specialises in public opinion polling and consultancy.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
The Konya Plain is a plain in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, associated with the Konya Province.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Kurdish rebellions in Turkey refer to Kurdish nationalist uprisings in Turkey, beginning with the Turkish War of Independence and the consequent transition from the Ottoman Empire into the modern Turkish state and lasting until present with the ongoing Kurdish-Turkish conflict.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
Kurds in Turkey refers to people born in or residing in Turkey who are of Kurdish origin.
L'arrivée d'un train en gare de La Ciotat (translated from French into English as The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station, Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat (US) and The Arrival of the Mail Train, and in the United Kingdom the film is known as Train Pulling into a Station) is an 1896 French short black-and-white silent documentary film directed and produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
The languages of Turkey, apart from the only official language Turkish, include the widespread Kurmanji, the moderately prevalent minority languages Arabic and Zazaki and a number of less common minority languages, some of which are guaranteed by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
The law of Europe is diverse and changing fast today.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
The Law of Germany (Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern German legal system (Deutsches Rechtssystem), is a system of civil law which is founded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of the most important laws, for example most regulations of the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or BGB) were developed prior to the 1949 constitution.
The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.
The Laz people or Lazi (ლაზი, lazi; or ჭანი, ch'ani; Laz) are an indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group inhabiting the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia.
The Laz people in Turkey refers to an ethnic group who are native to eastern Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey, and their descendants.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Lezginka is the collective name originally given by Russians to all Caucasian dances united by fast 6/8 rhythm.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
This is a list of airports in Turkey, sorted by location.
Many journalists in Turkey are being persecuted and kept in jail all over the country.
This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region.
As of September 2006, the size of the banking industry is 88.2% of total financial sector in Turkey.
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This list includes Chiefs of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Genelkurmay Başkanı), who were, in their time of service, nominal heads of the Turkish Armed Forces (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri).
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2016 and earlier.
This is a list of overseas military bases by country.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
The cuisine of the Caucasus includes the traditional cuisines of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and parts of Russia such as Chechnya, Circassian, Tatar, etc.
The 81 provinces of Turkey are divided into 957 districts (ilçeler; sing. ilçe).
This is a list of cities and towns in Turkey by population, which includes cities and towns that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 7,001.
National parks in Turkey are one of the five protected areas in the country.
Below is a list of national printed newspapers published in Turkey.
Turkey is a parliamentary democracy with a multi-party system.
The following is a complete list of Presidents of Turkey, consisting of the twelve heads of state and one Executive President of Turkey since the inception of the republican period in 1923, following the Turkish War of Independence.
The list of prisons in Turkey is based on official data provided by the Ministry of Justice in Turkey (as of December 2008).
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Turkish Airlines flies to 47 domestic and 230 international destinations in 119 countries, excluding those only served by Turkish Airlines Cargo.
This is a list of universities in Turkey.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.
Below is the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey.
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A Luxury yacht (also super-yacht, large yacht and mega-yacht) is a very expensive, privately owned, professionally crewed sailing or motor yacht.
Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
The machine industry or machinery industry is a subsector of the industry, that produces and maintains machines for consumers, the industry, and most other companies in the economy.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Makarios III (Μακάριος Γ΄; III.; 13 August 1913 – 3 August 1977) was a Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician, who served as the Archbishop and Primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first President of Cyprus (1960–1977).
The Malatya Plain is a plain in Eastern Turkey, associated with the Malatya Province.
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
Mardin (Mêrdîn, ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ, Arabic/Ottoman Turkish: rtl Mārdīn) is a city and multiple (former/titular) bishopric in southeastern Turkey.
Mardin Province (ܡܪܕܐ, Mardin ili, Parêzgeha Mêrdînê, Arabic: ماردين), is a province of Turkey with a population of 809,719 in 2017. The population was 835,173 in 2000. The capital of the Mardin Province is Mardin (ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ "Mardin" in related Semitic language Arabic: ماردين, Mardīn). Located near the traditional boundary of Anatolia and Mesopotamia, it has a diverse population, composed of Kurdish, Arab and Assyrian people, with Kurds forming the majority of the province's population.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The Marmara Region (Turkish: Marmara Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation (Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu or MKEK or Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi or MKE for short), established in 1950, is a reorganization of government-controlled group of factories in Turkey that supplied the Turkish Armed Forces with military products.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Western Armenia had been under Byzantine control since the partition of the Kingdom of Armenia in AD 387, while Eastern Armenia had been under the occupation of the Sassanid Empire starting 428.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
The Mediterranean Region (Akdeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.
Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Vahideddin or Altıncı Mehmet), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.
Melih Cevdet Anday (13 March 1915 – 28 November 2002), was a Turkish writer whose unique poetry stands outside the traditional literary movements.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by ten western and northern European states, with Greece and Turkey joining three months later, and Iceland and West Germany joining the next year.
The Mersin Province (Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.
There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).
The Mawlaw'īyya / Mevlevi Order (Mevlevilik or Mevleviyye طریقت مولویه) is a Sufi order in Konya (modern day Turkey) (capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate) founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic theologian and Sufi mystic.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle East Technical University (commonly referred to as METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi ODTÜ) is a public technical university located in Ankara, Turkey.
Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.
Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (18 October 1822 – 26 April 1883), was one of the leading Ottoman statesmen during the late Tanzimat period.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
In the Ottoman Empire, a millet was a separate court of law pertaining to "personal law" under which a confessional community (a group abiding by the laws of Muslim Sharia, Christian Canon law, or Jewish Halakha) was allowed to rule itself under its own laws.
Ahmet Kemalettin or Kemaleddin (1870-July 13, 1927), widely known as Mimar Kemalettin (Kemalettin the Architect) and Kemalettin Bey, was a renowned Turkish architect of the very late period of the Ottoman architecture and the early years of the newly established Republic.
Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (معمار سينان, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan,, "Sinan the Architect") (1488/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (mimar) and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for culture and tourism affairs in Turkey.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Dışişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the foreign relations of Turkey.
The Ministry of Health (Sağlık Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for health affairs in Turkey.
The Ministry of Justice (Adalet Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for justice affairs.
The Ministry of National Defence (Millî Savunma Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the supervision of public and private educational system, agreements and authorizations under a national curriculum.
The Ministry of the Interior (İçişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for interior security affairs in Turkey.
Minorities in Turkey form a substantial part of the country's population, with at least an estimated 30% of the populace belonging to an ethnic minority.
Mlaḥsô or Mlahsö (ܡܠܚܬܝܐ), sometimes referred to as Suryoyo or Surayt, is an extinct or dormant Central Neo-Aramaic language.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol invasions of Anatolia occurred at various times, starting with the campaign of 1241–1243 that culminated in the Battle of Köse Dağ.
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
Nemrut or Nemrud (Nemrut Dağı; Çiyayê Nemrûdê; Նեմրութ լեռ) is a mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.
Muş Province (Muş ili) is a province in eastern Turkey.
The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey.
The Music of Albania (Muzika Shqiptare) is associated with the country of Albania and Albanian communities.
The music of Armenia has its origins in the Armenian Highlands, where people traditionally sang popular folk songs.
The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region.
The music of Greece is as diverse and celebrated as its history.
The Music of Poland covers diverse aspects of music and musical traditions which have originated, and are practiced in Poland.
The music of the United States reflects the country's multi-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles.
The music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
Myra (Μύρα, Mýra) was an ancient Greek town in Lycia where the small town of Kale (Demre) is today, in the present-day Antalya Province of Turkey.
The Nabucco-West pipeline (also referred to as the Turkey–Austria gas pipeline) was a proposed natural gas pipeline from the Turkish-Bulgarian border to Austria.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Namık Kemal (21 December 1840 – 2 December 1888) was an Ottoman democrat, writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist, playwright, and political activist who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans and their struggle for governmental reform in the Ottoman Empire during the late Tanzimat period, which would lead to the First Constitutional Era in the Empire in 1876.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The national debt of Turkey is the entire stock of direct, fixed-term, contractual, financial obligations of the state of the Republic of Turkey that are outstanding on a particular date.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nâzım Hikmet Ran (15 January 1902 – 3 June 1963), commonly known as Nâzım Hikmet was a Turkish poet, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, director and memoirist.
Mehmet Nejat Ferit Eczacıbaşı (known simply as Nejat F. Eczacıbaşı, (January 5, 1913–October 6, 1993), a second generation member of the notable Turkish Eczacıbaşı family, was a chemist, industrialist, entrepreneur and philanthropist. He was the founder of Eczacıbaşı, a prominent Turkish industrial group with investments in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, consumer products, building products and financial services.
Neo-Ottomanism (Turkish: Yeni Osmanlıcılık) is a Turkish political ideology that, in its broadest sense, promotes greater political engagement of the Republic of Turkey within regions formerly under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, its predecessor state.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Although the Netherlands does not have weapons of mass destruction made by itself, the country participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering United States nuclear weapons.
New Rome (Greek: Νέα Ῥώμη, Nea Romē; Latin: Nova Roma) has often been used to describe the city founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD as his new imperial capital at the city on the European coast of the Bosphorus strait, then known as Byzantium, which he enlarged and named after himself as Constantinople.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
Nikos Sampson (Νίκος Σαμψών; 16 December 1935 – 9 May 2001) was the de facto president of Cyprus who succeeded Archbishop Makarios, appointed as President of Cyprus by the Greek military leaders of the coup d'état against Makarios, on July 15 1974.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is "lost" before it reaches the customer.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) (Kuzey Anadolu Fay Hattı.) is an active right-lateral strike-slip fault in northern Anatolia which runs along the transform boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the Anatolian Plate.
The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is a Palearctic ecoregion in the Temperate coniferous forests Biome, located in northern Anatolia, Turkey.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
Turkey has no nuclear power plants but the first is expected to come online in 2020.
Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO.
Nuclear technology is technology that involves the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei.
Nuri Bilge Ceylan (born 26 January 1959) is a Turkish film director, photographer, screenwriter and actor.
Nuri Demirağ (born 1886 in Divriği – died 1957 in Istanbul) was an early Turkish business magnate.
The Occupation of Constantinople (İstanbul'un İşgali) (November 13, 1918 – September 23, 1923), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, by British, French and Italian forces, took place in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros, which ended Ottoman participation in the First World War.
The Occupation of Smyrna was the military control by Greek forces of the city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir) and surrounding areas from 15 May 1919 until 9 September 1922.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Odrysian Kingdom (Ancient Greek: Βασίλειον Ὀδρυσῶν; Regnum Odrysium) was a state union of over 40 Thracian tribes and 22 kingdoms that existed between the 5th century BC and the 1st century AD.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
The Oguz Yabgu State (Oguz il, meaning Oguz Land, Oguz Country, 750–1055) was a Turkic state, founded by Oghuz Turks in 766, located geographically in an area between the coasts of the Caspian and Aral Seas.
Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1522 in Comines – 28 October 1592; Latin: Augerius Gislenius Busbequius; sometimes Augier Ghislain de Busbecq) was a 16th-century Flemish writer, herbalist and diplomat in the employ of three generations of Austrian monarchs.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
Oil wrestling (Yağlı güreş), also called grease wrestling, is the Turkish national sport.
Oktay Rifat Horozcu, better known as Oktay Rifat, (10 June 1914 – 18 April 1988) was a Turkish writer and playwright, and one of the forefront poets of modern Turkish poetry since the late 1930s.
The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
A one-act play is a play that has only one act, as distinct from plays that occur over several acts.
The single-party period of the Republic of Turkey began with the formal establishment of the country in 1923.
Operation Ocean Shield was NATO's contribution to Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA), an anti-piracy initiative in the Indian Ocean, Guardafui Channel, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Orhan Veli Kanık or Orhan Veli (13 April 1914, Beykoz, İstanbul – 14 November 1950, İstanbul) was a Turkish poet.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
The Orkhon inscriptions (Orhun Yazıtları, Orxon-Yenisey abidəsi, Orhon ýazgylary), also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam), are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia.
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).
The Osman Gazi Bridge (Osman Gazi Köprüsü) is a suspension bridge spanning the Gulf of İzmit at its narrowest point,.
Osman Hamdi Bey (30 December 184224 February 1910) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter.
Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.
Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.
Classical Turkish music (Türk sanat müziği, "Turkish art music"; or Klasik Türk müziği, "Classical Turkish music"), sometimes known as Ottoman classical music, developed in Istanbul and other major Ottoman cities and towns through the palaces and Sufi lodges of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman constitution of 1876 (قانون اساسى; Kanûn-u Esâsî; "Basic Law") was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its continuation in the cuisines of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, and parts of the Caucasus and the Middle East.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire's entry into World War I began when its navy carried out a surprise attack on Russia's Black Sea coast on 29 October 1914, following which Russia declared war on it on 1 November 1914.
Ottoman miniature or Turkish miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
The Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean (Hint seferleri or Hint Deniz seferleri, "Indian Ocean campaigns") were a series of Ottoman amphibious operations in the Indian Ocean in the 16th century.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman–Qajar War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Empire from 1821 to 1823.
The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkey: Turkey – sovereign Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in Southwest Asia and Thrace (Rumelia) at the southeastern tip of the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
Pamphylia (Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).
Pamukkale, meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli in southwestern Turkey.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to smooth marble or other kinds of stone.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.
Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity, is a system in which members of the parliament or legislature are granted partial immunity from prosecution.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
The Pasha Liman Base, or Pashaliman Base, is an Albanian Navy base south of Vlorë, Albania.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
Paul Lawrence Modrich (born June 13, 1946) is an American biochemist, James B. Duke Professor of Biochemistry at Duke University and Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Established in 1970, the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF), or Hessische Stiftung Friedens und Konfliktforschung (HSFK) was founded by the state of Hesse.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Pentarchy (from the Greek Πενταρχία, pentarchía, from πέντε pénte, "five", and ἄρχειν archein, "to rule") is a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.
The Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkish: Halkların Demokratik Partisi (HDP), Kurdish: Partiya Demokratîk a Gelan), or Democratic Party of the Peoples, is a pro-minority political party in Turkey.
Pera Museum (Turkish: Pera Müzesi) is an art museum in the Tepebaşı quarter of the Beyoğlu (Pera) district in Istanbul, Turkey, located at Meşrutiyet Avenue No.
Perga or Perge (Πέργη Perge, Perge) was an ancient Anatolian city in modern Turkey, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire occurred intermittently over a period of over two centuries between the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD under Nero Caesar and the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, in which the Roman Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius legalised the Christian religion.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana syn. P. p. ciscaucasica and P. p. saxicolor) is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the population is estimated at fewer than 871–1,290 mature individuals and considered declining.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
Persian traditional music or Iranian traditional music, also known as Persian classical music or Iranian classical music, refers to the classical music of Iran (also known as Persia).
A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philip J. “P.J.” Crowley (born July 28, 1951) is the former United States Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, having been sworn into office on May 26, 2009.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Pinus brutia, the Turkish pine, is a pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
The Polatlı–Konya high-speed railway (Polatlı-Konya yüksek hızlı demiryolu) is a long high-speed railway running from the town of Polatlı to the central Anatolian city of Konya.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
"Political Islam" is a recently developed term used to label the wide-scale activities of individuals or organizations advocating transformation of the state and entire society according to "Islamic" rules.
Polonezköy Nature Park (Polonexköy abiat Parkı) is a nature park declared village of Polonezköy in Istanbul Province, Turkey. Polonezköy is situated in Beykoz district of Istanbul Province. The area was declared a nature park by the Ministry of Environment and Forest in 1994. It covers an area of about. It is the province' first and in terms of area the largest nature park. The protected area is named after the village Polonezköy, which was settled in 1842 by a small group of Polish emigrants, after the failed November Uprising. The settlement was initially named "Adamköy" or "Adampol" (literally Adamville) in honor of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, and was renamed later to "Polonez Karyesi". In 1923, it was changed to its current official name.u The nature park offers many outdoor recreational activities such as picnicing, camping, trekking and orienteering. There is a -long hiking, cycling and jogging course, and observation towers. There are quality and luxurious restaurants. Lodging is available in a number of boarding houses and hotels in the village.
Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
Pomaks (Помаци/Pomatsi, Πομάκοι/Pomákoi, Pomaklar) is a term used for Slavic Muslims inhabiting Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and northwestern Turkey, mainly referring to the ca.
Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.
The Pontic Mountains or Pontic Alps (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, meaning North Anatolian Mountains) form a mountain range in northern Anatolia, Turkey.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Posta is a mass market Turkish daily newspaper, with the second highest circulation in Turkey.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Priene Synagogue is an ancient synagogue discovered by archaeologists in Priene, Turkey.
The Prime Minister of Turkey (Turkish: Başbakan) was the head of government of Turkey.
Fahrelnissa Zeid Fakhr un-nisa or Fahr-El-Nissa (7 January 1901–5 September 1991) was a Turkish artist best known for her large-scale abstract paintings with kaleidoscopic patterns.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Quinisext Council (often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod) was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II.
RTÜK, short for (Radyo ve Televizyon Üst Kurulu, Radio and Television Supreme Council), is the Turkish state agency for monitoring, regulating, and sanctioning radio and television broadcasts.
RASAT is an earth observation satellite designed and developed by TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK UZAY) and produced in Turkey to provide high resolution imagery.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The red-fronted serin or fire-fronted serin (Serinus pusillus) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi, CHP) is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
The rise of the Western notion of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire eventually caused the breakdown of the Ottoman millet concept.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Anatolian rock (Anadolu rock), also known as Turkish rock, is a fusion of Turkish folk and rock music.
Roderic H. Davison (April 27, 1917March 23, 1996) was an American historian of the Middle East who taught at George Washington University from 1947 to 1993.
Roketsan is a major Turkish weapons manufacturer and defense contractor based in the central Anatolian province of Ankara.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The Romaniote Jews or Romaniots (Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; רומניוטים, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in the Eastern Mediterranean for more than 2,000 years and are the oldest Jewish community in the Levant.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
The Russian Federation supplies a significant volume of fossil fuels and is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the European Union.
The Russian conquest of the Caucasus mainly occurred between 1800 and 1864.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Circassian War (1763–1864) involved a series of battles and wars in Circassia, the northwestern part of the Caucasus, in the course of the Russian Empire's conquest of the Caucasus.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.
Hacı Ömer Sabancı Holding A.Ş., abbreviated as Sabancı Holding, is the largest industrial and financial conglomerate in Turkey by profit.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Safranbolu is a town and district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Sagalassos (Σαγαλασσός) is an archaeological site in southwestern Turkey, about 100 km north of Antalya (ancient Attaleia), and 30 km from Burdur and Isparta.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
Timothy (Greek: Τιμόθεος; Timótheos, meaning "honouring God" or "honoured by God") was an early Christian evangelist and the first first-century Christian bishop of Ephesus, who tradition relates died around the year AD 97.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Sardis Synagogue is a synagogue located in Manisa Province, Turkey.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sözcü (English: Spokesperson) is a popular Turkish daily newspaper.
Sami Süleyman Gündoğdu Demirel (1 November 1924 – 17 June 2015) was a Turkish statesman and political leader who served as the 9th President of Turkey from 1993 to 2000.
Sümerbank was a Turkish bank and industrial holding company established in 1933 and originally owned by the Turkish state, now part of Oyak Bank.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science and Technology in Turkey is centrally planned by TÜBİTAK and in responsibility of universities and research institutes.
The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu, TÜBİTAK) is a national agency of Turkey whose stated goal is to develop "science, technology and innovation" (STI) policies, support and conduct research and development, and to "play a leading role in the creation of a science and technology culture" in the country.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.
Sedat Simavi (1896 – 11 December 1953) was a Turkish journalist, writer and film director.
Selçuk is the central town of Selçuk district, İzmir Province in Turkey, northeast of the ancient city of Ephesus.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Seljuk architecture comprises the building traditions used by the Seljuq dynasty, when it ruled most of the Middle East and Anatolia during the 11th to 13th centuries.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sertab Erener (born 4 December 1964) is a Turkish pop music singer.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
Sezen Aksu (born: Fatma Sezen Yıldırım; 13 July 1954 in Sarayköy, Denizli, Turkey) is a Turkish pop music singer, songwriter and producer who has sold over 40 million albums worldwide.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
Show TV is a nationwide television channel in Turkey owned by Ciner Media Group (since 2013, acquired from Çukurova Media Group after Çukurova was forced to sell due to tax debts. The channel was originally established by the Turkish businessmen Erol Aksoy and Haldun Simavi and were originally launched on March 1, 1991, although it commences its test transmissions. A year later, the channel moved its headquarters to Istanbul, Turkey, and were at the same time starting its official broadcasts. Show TV extended its range of viewers by adding more channels like Show Max and Show Turk to its group. Show TV aired many world-known series for the first time in Turkey. Among them were S.W.A.T., The Master, The Rookies, Silk Stalkings, T. J. Hooker, Booker, Roseanne, The Wonder Years, Superboy, Tequila and Bonetti, Doogie Howser, M.D., The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Dream On, Generations, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, Seinfeld, In the Heat of the Night, Friends, Beverly Hills, 90210, Power Rangers and Premiers Baisers. Furthermore, it re-aired some television series like Fame, Charlie's Angels, The Twilight Zone and Dallas, which were very popular during the monopolistic era of TRT in Turkey. The channel's personalities include Mustafa Ceceli, Begüm, Alişan, Asuman Krause, Ali Sunal, Jülide Ateş and Çağla Şikel. The channel also aired successful Turkish television series like Kurtlar Vadisi, Doktorlar, Adını Feriha Koydum, and Muhteşem Yüzyıl.
The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), also called Amur tiger, is a tiger population inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East.
Side (Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country.
Siirt Province, (Siirt ili, محافظة سعرد, Parêzgeha Sêrt) is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. The province borders Bitlis to the north, Batman to the west, Mardin to the southwest, Şırnak to the south, and Van to the east. It has an area of 5,406 km² and a total population of 300,695 (as of 2010). The provincial capital is the city of Siirt. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Sinop Nuclear Power Plant (Sinop Nükleer Enerji Santrali) is a planned nuclear plant located at Sinop in northern Turkey.
Sinop Province (Sinop ili; Σινώπη, Sinopi) is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. It is located between 41 and 42 degrees North latitude and between 34 and 35 degrees East longitude. The surface area is 5,862 km², equivalent to 0.8% of Turkey's surface area. The borders total 475 km and consists of 300 km of land and 175 km seaside borders. Its adjacent provinces are Kastamonu on the west, Çorum on the south, and Samsun on the southeast. The provincial capital is the city of Sinop.
The Siret or Sireth (Сірет or Серет, Siret, Szeret, Сирет) is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of Ukraine, and flows southward into Romania before it joins the Danube.
Skytrax (originally known as Inflight Research Services) is a United Kingdom–based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site.
The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.
Operation Sledgehammer (Turkish Balyoz Harekâtı) is the name of an alleged Turkish secularist military coup plan dating back to 2003, Article of Prof.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.
The Social Security Institution (Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu (SGK)) is the governing authority of the Turkish social security system.
The Somali National Armed Forces (SNAF) are the military forces of Somalia, officially known as the Federal Republic of Somalia.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
The Southeastern Anatolia Region (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Space Launch System (Uydu Fırlatma Sistemi), shortly UFS, is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey.
A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
This article lists the Speakers of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
"Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated" (SBNA) is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
Among all sports in Turkey, the most popular one is football.
Star TV is a Turkish nationwide TV channel.
The State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) is a museum dedicated to fine arts and sculpture in Ankara, Turkey.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
Student Selection and Placement System (Öğrenci Seçme ve Yerleştirme Sistemi, ÖSYS) or Higher Education Examination-Undergraduate Placement Examination (Yükseköğretime Geçis Sınavı-Lisans Yerleştirme Sınavı, YGS-LYS), formerly Student Selection Examination, (Öğrenci Seçme Sınavı, ÖSS), is a standardized test for the admission to higher education in Turkey administered by ÖSYM.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Surname Law (Soyadı Kanunu) of the Republic of Turkey was adopted on June 21, 1934.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
The Swiss Civil Code (SR 210, Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch (ZGB); Code civil suisse (CC); Codice civile svizzero (CC); Cudesch civil svizzer) is the codified law ruling in Switzerland and regulating relationship between individuals.
The Swiss Code of Obligations (Obligationenrecht; Code des obligations; Diritto delle obbligazioni; Dretg d'obligaziuns) is a portion of the Swiss Civil Code that regulates contract law and corporations (Aktiengesellschaft).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The TAI TF-X is a proposed twin-engine all-weather Turkish air superiority fighter being developed by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) with technological assistance from BAE Systems of the United Kingdom.
Taksim Gezi Park is an urban park next to Taksim Square, in Istanbul's Beyoğlu district (historically known as Pera.) It is one of the last green spaces in Beyoğlu and one of the smallest parks of Istanbul.
The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.
Tarkan Tevetoğlu (born 17 October 1972), known as Tarkan, is a Turkish pop singer.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Tayyare Apartments, (initially script or later Tayyare Apartmanları), are a complex of four buildings completed in 1922 and located in the old city of Istanbul, Turkey.
TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute (TÜBİTAK Uzay Teknolojileri Araştırma Enstitüsü), TÜBİTAK UZAY for short, is a Turkish institution carrying out research and development projects on space technology, electronics, information technology and related fields.
Türkiye İş Bankası or simply İşbank is Turkey's largest bank.
Türksat Satellite Communications and Cable TV Operations Company (Türksat Uydu Haberleşme Kablo TV ve İşletme A.Ş.) is the sole communications satellite operator in Turkey.
The Tehcir Law (from tehcir, a word of Arabic origin in Ottoman Turkish and meaning "deportation" or "forced displacement" as defined by the Turkish Language Institute), or, officially by the Republic of Turkey, the "Sevk ve İskân Kanunu" (Relocation and Resettlement Law) was a law passed by the Ottoman Parliament on May 27, 1915 authorizing the deportation of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telephone numbers in Turkey went from six (2+4) to seven digits (3+4) local phone numbers c.1988, at which time Ankara went from 41 to 4.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
Teres I (Ancient Greek, "Τήρης"), (reigned 460-445 BC) was the first king of the Odrysian state of Thrace.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Tortoise Trainer (Turkish: Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi) is a painting by Osman Hamdi Bey which was crafted in 1906 and 1907 (two versions).
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The theatre of Turkey encompasses the traditional theatre practice of the Ottoman period and the modern Turkish theatre.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
The "Three Pashas" (اوچ پاشلار) refers to the triumvirate of senior officials who effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I: Mehmed Talaat Pasha (1874–1921), the Grand Vizier (prime minister) and Minister of the Interior; Ismail Enver Pasha (1881–1922), the Minister of War; and Ahmed Djemal Pasha (1872–1922), the Minister of the Navy.
The Tiele (Turkic *Tegreg " Carts"), also transliterated Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine Turkic peoples living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by ''Times Higher Education (THE)'' magazine.
Tomas Robert Lindahl FRS FMedSci (born 28 January 1938) is a Swedish-born British scientist specialising in cancer research.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean Sea coasts.
The Treaty of Guarantee is a treaty between the Republic of Cyprus, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland promulgated in 1960.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
The Treaty of Sèvres (Traité de Sèvres) was one of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I. Hostilities had already ended with the Armistice of Mudros.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (Tuğrul) (990 – September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.
Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).
Tunceli Province (parêzgeha Dêrsimê, df), formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Its population mostly consists of Alevi Kurds (Kurmanj and Zaza speaking Kurds). The province was originally named Dersim Province (Dersim vilayeti), then demoted to a district (Dersim kazası) and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. It was finally changed to Tunceli Province on January 4, 1936 by the "Law on Administration of the Tunceli Province" (Tunceli Vilayetinin İdaresi Hakkında Kanun), no. 2884 of 25 December 1935, but some still call the region by its original name. The name of the provincial capital, Kalan, was then officially changed to Tunceli to match the province's name. The adjacent provinces are Erzincan to the north and west, Elazığ to the south, and Bingöl to the east. The province covers an area of and has a population of 76,699. It has the lowest population density of any province in Turkey, just 9.8 inhabitants/km². The majority of the population is Kurdish. Tunceli is the only province of Turkey with an Alevi majority. Tunceli is known for its old buildings such as the Çelebi Ağa Mosque, Sağman Mosque, Elti Hatun Mosque and adjoining Tomb, castles including Mazgirt Castle, Pertek Castle, Derun-i Hisar Castle, and impressive natural scenery, especially in Munzur Valley National Park, the largest national park of Turkey.
The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).
Halil Turgut Özal (13 October 192717 April 1993) was a Turkish politician who served as the 8th President of Turkey from 1989 to 1993.
Turkey Home is a country branding project of Turkey by courtesy of Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
The Turkey national basketball team is nicknamed "12 Dev Adam", meaning 12 Giant Men.
The Turkey national football team (Türkiye Millî Futbol Takımı) represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey.
The Turkish women's national basketball team, is the basketball side that represents Turkey in international competitions for women.
The Turkey women's national volleyball team (Türkiye Kadın Voleybol Milli Takımı) is formed by the Turkish Volleyball Federation (TVF) and represents Turkey in international CEV and FIVB organizations.
Turkey–United States relations in the post-World War II period evolved from the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943 and Turkey's entrance into World War II on the side of the Allies in February 1945, as a result of which Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkic migration refers to the expansion and colonization of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
The Turkish Academy of Sciences (Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi – TÜBA) is an autonomous scholarly association aimed at promoting scientific activities in Turkey.
Türk Havacılık ve Uzay Sanayii A.Ş. (TUSAŞ) is the center of technology in design, development, manufacturing, integration of aerospace systems, modernization and after sales support in Turkey.
The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.
The Turkish Angora (Ankara kedisi, 'Ankara cat') is a breed of domestic cat.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.
The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu - TAEK) is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey.
Turkish civil code (Türk Medeni Kanunu) is one of the earliest laws in the history of Turkey within the scope of Turkish reforms.
The Constitution of 1924, formally titled the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Ottoman Turkish: Teşkilât-ı Esasiye Kanunu; 1924 Türk Anayasası), was the fundamental law of Turkey from 1924 to 1961.
A constitutional referendum on electoral reform took place in Turkey on 21 October 2007.
A constitutional referendum on a number of changes to the constitution was held in Turkey on 12 September 2010.
A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).
Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.
Turkish folk dances are the folk dances of Turkey.
General elections were held in Turkey on 21 July 1946, the first multi-party elections in the country's history.
General elections were held in Turkey on 14 May 1950, using the multiple non-transferable vote electoral system.
General elections were held in Turkey on 2 May 1954.The electoral system used was the multiple non-transferable vote.
General elections were held in Turkey on 27 October 1957.
Turkish hip hop refers to hip hop music produced by members of the Turkish minority in Germany, and to a lesser degree by hip hop artists in Turkey.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (lit and Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus.
Turkish Kurdistan, or Northern Kurdistan (Bakurê Kurdistanê), refers to portions of Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region and Southeastern Anatolia Region where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group.
The Turkish Land Forces (Türk Kara Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Army (Türk Ordusu), is the main branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
The Turkish lira sign (symbol: ₺; image) is the currency symbol used for the Turkish lira, the official currency of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.
Turkish literature (Türk edebiyatı) comprises oral compositions and written texts in Turkic languages.
Beginning in 2017, Turkey maintains a military base in the Jaziira coastal area of Mogadishu, Somalia.
The Turkish military forces in Northern Cyprus (Kıbrıs'taki Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri), officially Cyprus Turkish Peace Force Command (Kıbrıs Türk Barış Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı) is the Turkish garrison on Cyprus.
In January 2018, the Turkish military launched a military operation, code-named Operation Olive Branch (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) by Turkey, in the SDF-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict.
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Turkish presidential election of 2018 took place on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 general election, alongside parliamentary elections on the same day.
The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.
Turkish Space Systems, Integration and Test Centre (Uzay Sistemleri, Entegrasyon ve Test Merkezi) (USET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI).
The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları), abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines.
The Turkish State Theatres (Devlet Tiyatroları - DT) is the official directorate of the national theatre companies in Turkey.
Turkish Statistical Institute (commonly known as TurkStat; Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu or TÜİK) is the Turkish government agency commissioned with producing official statistics on Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.
Turkish television series (televizyon dizileri) are wildly popular both in Turkey and internationally, and place among the country's most well known economic and cultural exports.
The Turkish Van is a semi-long-haired breed of domestic cat, which was developed in the United Kingdom from a selection of cats obtained from various cities of modern Turkey, especially Southeast Turkey.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
The Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (abbreviated as TFSA), partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army (al-Jayš al-Watanī as-Sūrī, Suriye Millî Ordusu) by Turkey since 30 May 2017, is an armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in northern Syria, mostly being a part of Operation Euphrates Shield or groups active in the area that are allied to the groups participating in the operation.
Turksat is the name of a series of Turkish communications satellites operated or projected by the Türksat A.Ş..
TurkStream (originally: Turkish Stream, TürkAkım or Türk Akımı) is a natural gas pipeline currently under construction from Russia to Turkey.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
The 2008 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2008 or simply Euro 2008, was the 13th UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football tournament contested by European nations.
Uludere is a district in Şırnak Province, Turkey.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was the first part of a United Nations (UN) sponsored effort to provide, facilitate, and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia, as well as to monitor the first UN-brokered ceasefire of the Somali Civil War conflict in the early 1990s.
The United Nations Protection Force (French: Force de Protection des Nations Unies; UNPROFOR, also known by its French acronym FORPRONU), was the first United Nations peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav Wars.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
United World Wrestling (UWW) is the international governing body for the sport of amateur wrestling; its duties include overseeing wrestling at the Olympics.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Vakıfbank Sports Club (Vakıfbank Spor Kulübü), currently one of the best volleyball teams in the world, double winner of the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship and triple European Champions League winner, is a Turkish volleyball club based in Istanbul, Turkey.
Van Province (Armenian:Վան Van ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. and has a sizeable Azerbaijani minority (Küresünni).
Varlık Vergisi ("wealth tax" or "capital tax") was a Turkish tax levied on citizens of Turkey in 1942, with the stated aim of raising funds for the country's defense in case of an eventual entry into World War II.
Mehmet Vedat Tek (1873–1942) was a notable Turkish architect, who has been one of the leading figures of the First Turkish National Architectural Movement.
Vehbi Koç (20 July 1901, Çoraklı, Ankara, Ottoman Empire – 25 February 1996) was a Turkish entrepreneur and philanthropist.
Vestel is a Turkish home and professional appliances manufacturing company consisting of 18 companies specialised in electronics, major appliances and information technology.
The Vice President of Turkey is the second-highest constitutional office in Turkey, after the President.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Volleyball has been played consistently at the Mediterranean Games since the year 1959 for men and since the year 1975 for women.
The wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) is a small passerine bird found throughout the high mountains of Eurasia from southern Europe to central China.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western Armenian (Classical spelling:, arevmdahayerên) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Eastern Armenian.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
A yalı (yalı, from Greek γιαλή yialí (mod. γιαλός yialós), literally "seashore, beach") is a house or mansion constructed at immediate waterside (almost exclusively seaside, particularly on the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul) and usually built with an architectural concept that takes into account the characteristics of the coastal location.
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü) is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus strait, to the north of two existing suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey.
Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Yılmaz Güney (born Yılmaz Pütün, 1 April 1937 – 9 September 1984) was a Zaza and Kurdish film director, scenarist, novelist, and actor, who produced movies in Turkish.
Yeşilköy (prior to 1926, San Stefano or Santo Stefano from the Greek: Άγιος Στέφανος pronounced Ayos Stefanos, rendered in Turkish as Ayastefanos, Сан Стефано) is a neighbourhood (mahalle) in the district of Bakırköy, Istanbul, Turkey, on the Marmara Sea about west of Istanbul's historic city centre.
Yeniköy (Yeniköy, "New Village"), sometimes also referred to as Yeni Kioi, is a neighbourhood in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.
Zaza language, also called Zazaki, Kirmanjki and Dimli, is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in eastern Turkey by the Zazas.
In rhetoric, zeugma (from the Ancient Greek ζεῦγμα,, lit. "a yoking together"Liddell, H. G. & al. A Greek-English Lexicon.. Perseus Project. Retrieved 24 January 2013.) and syllepsis (from the Ancient Greek σύλληψις,, lit. "a taking together"Random House Dictionary.. 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.) are figures of speech in which one single phrase or word joins different parts of a sentence.
The zeybek is a form of folk dance peculiar to Western, Central and southern Anatolia in Turkey.
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ziraat Bankası (Agricultural Bank of the Republic of Turkey), commonly known as Ziraat Bankası, is a state-owned bank in Turkey founded in 1863.
.tr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Turkey.
The 1913 Ottoman coup d'état (January 23, 1913), also known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî Baskını), was a coup d'état carried out in the Ottoman Empire by a number of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) members led by Ismail Enver Bey and Mehmed Talaat Bey, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Bâb-ı Âlî).
The 1960 Turkish coup d'état (27 Mayıs Darbesi) was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey.
The 1971 Turkish military memorandum (12 Mart Muhtırası), issued on 12 March that year, was the second military intervention to take place in the Republic of Turkey, coming 11 years after its 1960 predecessor.
The 1974 coup d'état in Cyprus was a military coup d'état by the Greek army in Cyprus, the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.
The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".
The 1992–93 FIBA European Cup was the twenty-seventh edition of FIBA's 2nd-tier level European-wide professional club basketball competition.
The 1997 military memorandum (28 Şubat, "28 February"; also called Post-modern darbe, "Post-modern coup") in Turkey refers to the decisions issued by the Turkish military leadership on a National Security Council meeting on 28 February 1997.
The 1999 İzmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Gölcük, or Marmara earthquake) occurred on 17 August at 03:01:40 local time in northwestern Turkey.
The 2000 UEFA Cup Final was a football match that took place on 17 May 2000 at Parken Stadium in Copenhagen, Denmark to decide the winner of the 1999–2000 UEFA Cup.
The 2000 UEFA Super Cup was a football match played on 25 August 2000 between Real Madrid of Spain and Galatasaray of Turkey.
The 2000–01 FIBA SuproLeague was the FIBA European professional club basketball Champions' Cup for the 2000–01 season.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Turkey relied heavily on foreign investment for economic growth, with trade above 40% of GNP.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
The 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup football tournament was the sixth FIFA Confederations Cup, held in France in June 2003.
The 2003 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 23rd edition of the event, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.
The 2010 FIBA World Championship, hosted by Turkey, was the international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams.
The 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship was the 4th edition of the event.
The 2011 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 27th edition of the European Volleyball Championship, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.
2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge was the eighth edition of Europe's third-tier level transnational men's professional club basketball FIBA EuroChallenge Tournament, organized by FIBA Europe.
The 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix was a women's volleyball tournament played by 16 countries starting 8 June 2012.
The CEV Champions League was the highest level of European club volleyball in the 2012–13 season and the 54th edition.
On 3 July 2013, Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution.
The 2013 FIVB Women's Club World Championship was the 7th edition of the event.
The 2013–14 season is the 23rd edition of Europe's premier basketball tournament for women – EuroLeague Women since it was rebranded to its current format.
The 2015 European Games, also known as Baku 2015 or Baku 2015 European Games (Bakı 2015 Avropa Oyunları), were the inaugural edition of the European Games, an international multi-sport event for athletes representing the National Olympic Committees (NOCs) of the European Olympic Committees.
The 2015–16 Eurocup Basketball season was the 14th season of Europe's secondary level professional club basketball tournament, which is organised by Euroleague Basketball, and the eighth season since it was renamed from the ULEB Cup to the Eurocup.
The 2015–16 Turkish Airlines Euroleague was the 16th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the sixth under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.
On 15 July 2016, a coup d'état was attempted in Turkey against state institutions, including the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
The 2016–17 Turkish Airlines EuroLeague was the 17th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the seventh under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.
The 2016–present purges in Turkey are an ongoing series of purges by the government of Turkey enabled by a state of emergency in reaction to the 15 July failed ''coup d'état''.
The 2017 FIVB Women's Club World Championship was the 11th tournament.
The 2017-18 CEV Champions League was the highest level of European club volleyball in the 2017–18 season and the 58th edition.
The 2017–18 Turkish Airlines EuroLeague was the 18th season of the modern era of Euroleague Basketball and the eighth under the title sponsorship of the Turkish Airlines.
The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 35th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 45° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Etymology of Turkey, ISO 3166-1:TR, Republic of Turkey, Republic of Turkiye, Republic of turkey, State of Turkey, TURKEY, Terky, The Republic of Turkey, Tuerkei, Tuerkiye, Tuerkiye Cumhuriyeti, TurkeY, Turkei, Turkey (Country), Turkey (country), Turkey (nation), Turkey (state), Turkia, Turkie, Turkish Republic, Turkish State, Turkish republic, Turkiye, Turkiye Cumhuriyeti, Turky, Turkye, Turquia, Turquie, Türkei, Türkiye, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, Türkiye Devleti, Türkiye Respublikasi, Türkiye Respublikası.