132 relations: Admiral, Air-cushioned landing craft, Air-independent propulsion, Aksaz Naval Base, Allies of World War I, Amasra, Amphibious Marine Brigade (Turkish Armed Forces), Amphibious warfare, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Ankara, Annapolis, Maryland, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-submarine warfare, Anti-surface warfare, Armistice of Mudanya, Armistice of Mudros, İhsan Eryavuz, İstinye, İzmir, İzmit, Balıkesir Province, Battalion, Black Sea, Blue, Bosporus, Brigade, CASA/IPTN CN-235, Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station, Coast guard, Commando, Corvette, Dardanelles, Dry dock, Erdek Naval Base, Fethiye, Flightglobal, Foça, Frigate, Gölcük Naval Base, Gölcük Naval Shipyard, Gölcük, Kocaeli, General officer, General Staff of the Republic of Turkey, Gold (color), Golden Horn, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Gulf of İzmir, Gulf of İzmit, Gulf of Saros, ..., Heybeliada, Hulusi Akar, Hydrography, Istanbul, Karadeniz Ereğli, Kasımpaşa, Beyoğlu, Kocaeli Province, Lake Eğirdir, Landing craft tank, Landing Ship, Tank, LCM-1E, Library of Congress, List of active ships of the Turkish Naval Forces, List of Commanders of the Turkish Naval Forces, List of Fleet Commanders of the Ottoman Navy, Lists of ships of the Turkish Navy, Marines, Maritime patrol aircraft, Marmaris, Mediterranean Sea, Mersin, MILGEM project, Military helicopter, Mine countermeasures vessel, Minister (government), Ministry of National Defence (Turkey), Missile boat, Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, NATO, Naval Academy (Turkey), Naval aviation, Naval warfare, Navy, Novorossiysk, Nurettin Canikli, Oceanography, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Navy, Patrol boat, Pennant (commissioning), President of Turkey, Rear admiral, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Replenishment oiler, Rescue and salvage ship, Roundel, Samsun, Sea of Marmara, Seljuq campaigns in the Aegean, Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk, Sinop, Turkey, SOCATA TB family, Soviet Union, Special operations, Submarine, Submarine rescue ship, TCG Anadolu, TCG Büyükada (F-512), TCG Heybeliada (F-511), TF2000-class frigate, Thales Group, Tonne, Trabzon, Trainer aircraft, Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey, Turkish Aerospace Industries, Turkish Armed Forces, Turkish National Movement, Turkish Straits, Turkish War of Independence, Tuzla, Istanbul, Type 214 submarine, Underwater Defence (Turkish Armed Forces), Underwater Offence (Turkish Armed Forces), Vice admiral, White, World War I, World War II, Yalova, Yıldız Palace. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
An air-cushioned landing craft, also called an LCAC (landing craft, air cushioned) is a modern variation on the amphibious landing boat.
Air-independent propulsion (AIP) is any marine propulsion technology that allows a non-nuclear submarine to operate without access to atmospheric oxygen (by surfacing or using a snorkel).
Aksaz Naval Base (Aksaz Deniz Üssü) is a base of the Turkish Navy on the south-east coast of the Aegean Sea in Marmaris, Muğla.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Amasra (from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, gen. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey, formerly known as Amastris.
The Amphibious Marine Brigade (Amfibi Deniz Piyade Tugayı), also known as Amphibious Commando (Amfibi Komando), is the marine corps unit of the Turkish Naval Forces which consists 4,500 men based in Foça near İzmir, three amphibious battalions, an MBT battalion, an artillery battalion, a support battalion and other company-sized units.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
Anti-surface warfare (ASuW or ASUW) is the branch of naval warfare concerned with the suppression of surface combatants.
The Armistice of Mudanya (in Turkish: Mudanya Mütarekesi) was an agreement between Turkey (the Grand National Assembly of Turkey) on the one hand, and Italy, France and Britain on the other hand, signed in the Ottoman town of Mudanya, in the province of Bursa, on 11 October 1922.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
İhsan Eryavuz also known as "Topçu" İhsan ("Artilleryman" Ihsan), Mehmet İhsan Bey (1877, Scutari (Üsküdar) – March 6, 1947, Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army, and a politician of the Republic of Turkey.
İstinye is a neighbourhood in Istanbul, on the European side of the city.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.
Balıkesir Province (Balıkesir ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey with coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport.
Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station (Cengiz Topel Deniz Hava Üssü), a.k.a. Topel Airport or formerly Cengiz Topel Air Base, is a Turkish Navy air station located east of İzmit in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.
A coast guard or coastguard is a maritime security organization of a particular country.
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
A corvette is a small warship.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.
Erdek Naval Base (Erdek Deniz Üssü) is a base of the Turkish Navy on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara south-east of Erdek in Balıkesir Province.
FethiyeDiana Darke, Guide to Aegean and Mediterranean Turkey, M. Haag, 1986, 296 pages.
Flightglobal is an online news and information website which covers the aviation and aerospace industries.
Foça is a town and district in Turkey's İzmir Province, on the Aegean coast.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
Gölcük Naval Base (Gölcük Deniz Ana Üssü) is the main base of the Turkish Navy on the east coast of the Sea of Marmara in Gölcük, Kocaeli.
Gölcük Naval Shipyard (Gölcük Donanma Tersanesi) is a naval shipyard of the Turkish Navy within the Gölcük Naval Base on the east coast of the Sea of Marmara in Gölcük, Kocaeli.
Gölcük is a town and district of Kocaeli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
The General Staff of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, abbreviation: T.C. Gnkur. Bşk.lığı) presides over the Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey, comprising the Land Forces, Navy, Air Force and Special Forces.
Gold, also called golden, is a color.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz; Χρυσόκερας, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name as Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The Gulf of İzmir (İzmir Körfezi), formerly known as the Gulf of Smyrna, is a gulf on the Aegean Sea, with its inlet between the peninsula of Karaburun and the mainland area of Foça.
Gulf of İzmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.
Saros Bay or Gulf of Saros (Saros Körfezi) is an inlet of the northern Aegean Sea located north of the Gallipoli Peninsula in northwestern Turkey.
Heybeliada or Heybeli Ada (Χάλκη, Halki) is the second largest of the Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara, near Istanbul.
Hulusi Akar (born 17 January 1952) is a four-star Turkish Armed Forces general.
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Karadeniz Ereğli is a city and district in Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea shore at the mouth of the Kılıçsu River.
Kasımpaşa is a quarter within the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Kocaeli Province (Kocaeli ili) is a province of Turkey and one of only two to not have the same official name as its capital, İzmit, which is thus also sometimes called Kocaeli. The province is the successor of the Ottoman-era Sanjak of Kocaeli. The largest towns in the province are İzmit and Gebze. The traffic code is 41. The province is located at the easternmost end of the Marmara Sea around the Gulf of İzmit. Kocaeli is bordered by the province of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, the province of Sakarya to the east, the province of Bursa to the south and the province of Yalova to the southwest. The metropolitan area of Istanbul extends to the Kocaeli-Istanbul provincial border. The size and natural conditions of the Bay of İzmit allow for extensive port facilities, including the Gölcük Naval Base. The province is called the industrial capital of Turkey. Kocaeli has an airport named Cengiz Topel Naval Air Station which is used for military and civilian transport. Kocaeli has two universities: Kocaeli University and Gebze Technical University.
Eğirdir (Eğirdir Gölü, formerly Eğridir) is the name of a lake and of the town situated on the shore of that lake (Eğirdir) in Turkey.
The landing craft, tank (or tank landing craft) was an amphibious assault craft for landing tanks on beachheads.
Landing Ship, Tank (LST), or tank landing ship, is the naval designation for ships built during World War II to support amphibious operations by carrying tanks, vehicles, cargo, and landing troops directly onto shore with no docks or piers.
The LCM-1E is a class of amphibious mechanized landing craft manufactured by Navantia at their factory in San Fernando.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Turkish Naval Forces or Turkish Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of Turkey.
This list includes Commanders of the Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı), who were, in their time of service, nominal heads of the Turkish Naval Forces (or Turkish Navy).
This list includes Fleet Commanders (Turkish: Donanma Komutanı) of the Ottoman Navy.
* List of active ships of the Turkish Naval Forces.
Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.
A maritime patrol aircraft (MPA), also known as a patrol aircraft, maritime reconnaissance aircraft, or by the older American term patrol bomber, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles — in particular anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-ship warfare (AShW), and search and rescue (SAR).
Marmaris is a port city and tourist resort on the Mediterranean coast, located in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey, along the shoreline of the Turkish Riviera.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mersin is a large city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey.
The Ada class (also known as the MILGEM project), is a Turkish national warship program, the purpose of which was to build a modern littoral combat ship with indigenous anti-submarine warfare and high-seas patrol capabilities, extensively using the principles of stealth technology in its design.
A military helicopter is a helicopter that is either specifically built or converted for use by military forces.
A mine countermeasures vessel or MCMV is a type of naval ship designed for the location of and destruction of naval mines which combines the role of a minesweeper and minehunter in one hull.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Ministry of National Defence (Millî Savunma Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the Turkish Armed Forces.
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles.
The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits is a 1936 agreement that gives Turkey control over the Bosporus Straits and the Dardanelles and regulates the transit of naval warships.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Turkish Naval Academy (Deniz Harp Okulu) is a four-year co-educational military academy located in the district of Tuzla in Istanbul.
Naval aviation is the application of military air power by navies, whether from warships that embark aircraft, or land bases.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Nurettin Canikli (born May 15, 1960 in Alucra, Giresun Province) is a Turkish politician, the current Minister of National Defence of Turkey and a Member of Parliament for Giresun under the ruling Justice and Development Party.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties.
The commissioning pennant (or masthead pennant) is a pennant (also spelled "pendant") flown from the masthead of a warship.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore (U.S equivalent of Commander) and captain, and below that of a vice admiral.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
A replenishment oiler or replenishment tanker is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry cargo holds which can supply both fuel and dry stores during underway replenishment (UNREP) at sea.
Rescue and salvage ships (hull classification symbol ARS) are a type of military salvage tug.
A roundel is a circular disc used as a symbol.
Samsun is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Seljuq campaigns in the Aegean refer to the ground and naval actions conducted by the Seljuk Turks, chiefly under the leadership of Tzachas of Smyrna against the Byzantine Empire.
The Sikorsky SH-60/MH-60 Seahawk (or Sea Hawk) is a twin turboshaft engine, multi-mission United States Navy helicopter based on the United States Army UH-60 Black Hawk and a member of the Sikorsky S-70 family.
Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.
The Socata TB is a series of light single engine piston aircraft developed and manufactured by French aircraft company SOCATA.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Special operations (S.O.) are military operations that are "special" or unconventional and carried out by dedicated special forces and other special operations forces units using unconventional methods and resources.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A submarine rescue ship serves as a surface support ship for submarine rescue and deep-sea salvage operations.
TCG Anadolu (L-408) is a planned amphibious assault ship (LHD) of the Turkish Navy that can be configured as a light aircraft carrier.
TCG Büyükada (F-512) is the second ship of the ASW corvettes of the Turkish Navy.
TCG Heybeliada (F-511) is the lead ship of the ASW corvettes of the Turkish Navy.
The TF-2000 class frigate is a projected anti-air warfare frigate currently undergoing development by the Turkish Naval Institute.
Thales Group is a French multinational company that designs and builds electrical systems and provides services for the aerospace, defence, transportation and security markets.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews.
The Treaty of Lausanne (Traité de Lausanne) was a peace treaty signed in the Palais de Rumine, Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Türk Havacılık ve Uzay Sanayii A.Ş. (TUSAŞ) is the center of technology in design, development, manufacturing, integration of aerospace systems, modernization and after sales support in Turkey.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
Tuzla is a municipality in the province of Istanbul, Turkey on the Asian side of the city next to the municipality of Pendik.
The Type 214 is a diesel-electric submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH (HDW).
The Underwater Defence (Sualtı Savunma), or SAS, is one of two special operations units of the Turkish Navy, based in the Foça Naval Base near İzmir, on the Aegean coast of Turkey.
The Underwater Offence (Su Altı Taarruz), or SAT, is the special operation unit of the Turkish Navy, based in the Foça Naval Base near İzmir, on the Aegean coast of Turkey and Istanbul.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yalova is a city located in northwestern Turkey, near the eastern coast of the Sea of Marmara.
Yıldız Palace (Yıldız Sarayı) is a vast complex of former imperial Ottoman pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey, built in the 19th and early 20th centuries.