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Turkish language

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Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia). [1]

233 relations: Ablative case, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accusative case, Aegean Sea, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Alliteration, Altaic languages, Alternation (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Anatolia, Anatolian languages, Anatolian peoples, Antalya, Aorist, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Article (grammar), Assimilation (phonology), Atatürk Boulevard, Atatürk's Reforms, Atlas, Attributive verb, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu, Ömer Seyfettin, Back vowel, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Balkan sprachbund, Balkans, Bilge Khagan, Black Sea Region, Boğaziçi University, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cağaloğlu, Central Anatolia Region, Central Asia, Circumflex, Clitic, Common Turkic languages, Complementary distribution, Compound (linguistics), Computer science, Conditional mood, Consonant mutation, ..., Constitution of Turkey, Copula (linguistics), Cultural assimilation, Cypriot Turkish, Cyprus, Dative case, Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam, Declension, Defective verb, Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, Dialect levelling, Diphthong, Dotted and dotless I, East Thrace, Eastern Anatolia Region, Edirne, Education in Turkey, Europa (Web portal), Europe, European Commission, European Union, Existence, Final-obstruent devoicing, First language, Flap consonant, Frang Bardhi, Fricative consonant, Future tense, Gagauz language, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Giresun Province, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Greece, Greek language, Harvard University, Honorific, Immigration to Turkey, Imperative mood, Indo-European languages, Inferential mood, Infix, Interrogative word, Iraq, Islam, Istanbul, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Karamanli Turkish, Karamanlides, Kastamonu, Kosovo, Kul Tigin, Kurdish languages, Labial consonant, Language reform, Latin, Latin script, Laz language, Levant, Linguistic purism, List of English words of Turkic origin, Loanword, Locative case, Ludogorie, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Maureen Freely, Mediterranean Region, Turkey, Mediterranean Sea, Mersin, Meskhetian Turks, Mesopotamia, Middle Turkic languages, Minstrel, Misha Glenny, Mongolia, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Necessitative mood, Nominative case, Northern Cyprus, Noun class, Nutuk, Oghuz languages, Oghuz Turks, Old Anatolian Turkish, Old Turkic alphabet, Old Turkic language, Onur Güntürkün, Optative mood, Orhan Pamuk, Orkhon inscriptions, Orkhon Valley, Orthography, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman poetry, Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Ottoman Turkish language, Palatal consonant, Palatal harmony, Participle, Parvenu, Past tense, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Personal pronoun, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Plural, Postalveolar consonant, Present tense, Pronoun, Proper noun, Qashqai language, Ramadan, Regular and irregular verbs, Relative clause, Republic of Macedonia, Romance languages, Romania, Roundedness, Routledge, Rumelia, Runes, Russian language, Scripting language, Second language, Seljuq dynasty, Siberia, Sine qua non, Snow (Pamuk novel), Social distance, Southeast Europe, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Suffix, Sun Language Theory, Syntax, Syria, T–V distinction, The World Factbook, Topic-prominent language, Trabzon, Transcaucasia, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic migration, Turkish alphabet, Turkish Braille, Turkish copula, Turkish Cypriots, Turkish diaspora, Turkish folk literature, Turkish Language Association, Turkish literature, Turkish name, Turkish people, Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, Turkish Sign Language, Turkmen language, UNESCO, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Duisburg-Essen, Velar consonant, Verb phrase, Voice (phonetics), Vowel harmony, Western Asia, Western Thrace, Word formation, Yörüks, Ziya Gökalp, 1980 Turkish coup d'état. Expand index (183 more) »

Ablative case

The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.

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Accent (sociolinguistics)

In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Affix

In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agglutination

Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Alliteration

Alliteration is a figure of speech and a stylistic literary device which is identified by the repeated sound of the first or second letter in a series of words, or the repetition of the same letter sounds in stressed syllables of a phrase.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.

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Alternation (linguistics)

In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anatolian languages

The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.

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Anatolian peoples

Anatolians were Indo-European peoples of Anatolia identified by their use of the Anatolian languages.

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Antalya

Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.

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Aorist

Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

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Apostrophe

The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Atatürk Boulevard

Atatürk Boulevard (Atatürk Bulvarı) is the most important avenue in Ankara; Turkey.

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Atatürk's Reforms

Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.

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Atlas

An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.

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Attributive verb

An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Azerbaijani language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).

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Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu

Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (25 October 1894 – 21 March 1973), commonly known simply as Âşık Veysel, was a Turkish minstrel and highly regarded poet of the Turkish folk literature.

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Ömer Seyfettin

Ömer Seyfettin, also Omer Seyfeddin (March 11, 1884 – March 6, 1920), was a Turkish nationalist writer from the late-19th to early-20th-century, considered to be one of the greatest modern Turkish authors.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Balkan Gagauz Turkish

Balkan Gagauz Turkish, also known as Balkan Turkic, is a Turkic language spoken in European Turkey, in Dulovo and the Deliorman area in Bulgaria, and in the Kumanovo and Bitola areas of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Balkan sprachbund

The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Bilge Khagan

Bilge Khagan (Old Turkic: 𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀 𐰴𐰍𐰣, Bilge qaγan) (683 – 25 November 734) was the khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate.

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Black Sea Region

The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Boğaziçi University

Boğaziçi University (also known as Bosphorus University, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi, "Boğaziçi" literally meaning Bosphorus in Turkish) is a major research university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Cağaloğlu

Cağaloğlu is a quarter located in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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Clitic

A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Common Turkic languages

Common Turkic or Shaz Turkic is a taxon in some of the classifications of the Turkic languages which includes all languages except the Oghur languages.

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Complementary distribution

In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Constitution of Turkey

The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.

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Copula (linguistics)

In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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Cypriot Turkish

Cypriot Turkish (Kıbrıs Türkçesi) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam

Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam (The Man Who Saved the World) is a 1982 Turkish science fantasy adventure film also known as Turkish Star Wars because of its notorious use of unauthorized footage from Star Wars and other films worked into the film.

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Declension

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Defective verb

In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation, or one which cannot be used in some other way as normal verbs can.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Dialect levelling

Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dotted and dotless I

Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.

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East Thrace

East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.

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Eastern Anatolia Region

The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Edirne

Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Education in Turkey

Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Atatürk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence.

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Europa (Web portal)

Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Existence

Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.

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Final-obstruent devoicing

Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Frang Bardhi

Frang Bardhi (Latin: Franciscus Blancus, Italian: Francesco Bianchi, 1606–1643) was an Albanian Catholic bishop and writer.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gagauz language

The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Giresun Province

Giresun Province (Giresun ili) is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Trabzon to the east, Gümüşhane to the southeast, Erzincan to the south, Sivas to the southwest, and Ordu to the west. The provincial capital is Giresun.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Grand National Assembly of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Honorific

An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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Immigration to Turkey

Since the 19th century, an exodus by the large portion of Turkish (Turkic) and Muslim peoples (who are termed "Muhacir" under a general definition) from the Balkans (Balkan Turks, Albanians, Bosniaks, Pomaks), Caucasus (Abkhazians, Ajarians, 'Circassians', Chechens), Crimea (Crimean Tatar diaspora), Crete (Cretan Turks), took refuge in present-day Turkey and moulded the country's fundamental features.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Inferential mood

The inferential mood (abbreviated or) is used to report a nonwitnessed event without confirming it, but the same forms also function as admiratives in the Balkan languages in which they occur.

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Infix

An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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Interrogative word

An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Kara-Khanid Khanate

The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.

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Karamanli Turkish

Karamanlı Turkish is both a form of written Turkish, and a dialect of Turkish spoken by the Karamanlides, a community of Turkish-speaking Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Turkey.

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Karamanlides

The Karamanlides (Καραμανλήδες; Karamanlılar), or simply Karamanlis are a Greek-Orthodox, Turkish-speaking people native to the Karaman and Cappadocia regions of Anatolia.

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Kastamonu

Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey.

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Kosovo

Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Kul Tigin

Kul Tigin (Old Turkic:, Kültigin, (勒/阙特勤, Pinyin: quètèqín, Wade-Giles: chüeh-t'e-ch'in, Xiao'erjing: ٿُؤ تْ ٿٍ, AD 684–731) was a general of the Second Turkic Khaganate. He was a second son of Ilterish Qaghan, the dynasty's founder, and the younger brother of Bilge Kaghan, the fourth kaghan. Tigin means something like prince. During the reign of Qapagan Khaghan, Kul Tigin and his older brother earned reputation for their military prowess. They defeated Yenisei Kirghiz, Turgesh, and Karluks, extending the Kaganate territory all the way to the Iron Gate (Central Asia) south of Samarkand. They also subjugated all nine of the Tokuz Oguz tribes. Upon the death of Qapagan Khaghan, his son Inel Qaghan attempted to illegally ascend to the throne, defying the traditional Lateral succession law, but Kül-Tegin refused to recognize the takeover. He raised an army, attacked, and killed Inel and his trusted followers. He placed his elder brother Bilge Khagan on the throne, and took the title of Shad, an equivalent of commander-in-chief of the army for himself. In 731 Kül-Tegin fell ill and died. A stele in memory of Kul Tigin, which included inscriptions in both the Turkic and Chinese, was erected at his memorial complex at the present site of Khöshöö-Tsaidam-2. Kül-Tegin is also mentioned in the inscription erected in memory of his older brother Bilge Kagan at the neighbouring site of Khöshöö-Tsaidam-1. Prince Kül-Tegin descended from the Gold (Kagan's) clan of the Ashina ruling family called Shar-Duly (Middle Persian zarr duli "Golden bird Duli", i.e. "Golden/Red Raven"). All royal Oguzes traced their descent from this mythical bird Dulu/Tulu. The headdress on the glabella part of Kül-Tegin sculpture in the Husho-Tsaidam enclave (Orkhon, Northern Mongolia) carries a bird with wings spread like an eagle, personifying a Raven.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Language reform

Language reform is a type of language planning by massive change to a language.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Laz language

The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena / chanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.

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Levant

The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Linguistic purism

Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.

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List of English words of Turkic origin

This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Locative case

Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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Ludogorie

The Ludogorie (Лудогорие, usually used with a definite article, Лудогорието, Ludogorieto) or Deliorman (Делиорман, Deliorman), all meaning "region of mad forests" (Bulgarian: lud - "mad", "crazy" and gora - "forest"), is a region in northeastern Bulgaria stretching over the plateau of the same name.

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Mahmud al-Kashgari

Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, Mehmud Qeshqiri, Мәһмуд Қәшқири) was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar.

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Maureen Freely

Maureen Deidre Freely (born July 1952) is an American journalist, novelist, professor, and translator.

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Mediterranean Region, Turkey

The Mediterranean Region (Akdeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mersin

Mersin is a large city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey.

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Meskhetian Turks

Meskhetian Turks also known as Ahiska Turks (მესხეთის თურქები Meskhetis t'urk'ebi) are an ethnic subgroup of Turks formerly inhabiting the Meskheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Turkic languages

Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. 900–1500 CE).

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Minstrel

A minstrel was a medieval European entertainer.

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Misha Glenny

Misha Glenny (born 25 April 1958) is a multilingual British journalist, specialising in southeast Europe, global organised crime, and cybersecurity.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Necessitative mood

The necessitative mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood found in Turkish and Armenian, which combines elements of both the cohortative (which is typically used in only the first person) and the jussive moods (which is typically only used in the first and third persons).

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

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Noun class

In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.

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Nutuk

Nutuk (Modern Turkish: Söylev; The Speech) was a speech delivered by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk from 15 to 20 October 1927, at the second congress of Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi.

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Oghuz languages

The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 110 million people.

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Oghuz Turks

The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.

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Old Anatolian Turkish

Old Anatolian Turkish (Modern Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries.

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Old Turkic alphabet

The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.

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Old Turkic language

Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.

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Onur Güntürkün

Onur Güntürkün (born 18 July 1958, in İzmir) is a Turkish-German neuroscientist.

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Optative mood

The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.

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Orhan Pamuk

Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Orkhon inscriptions

The Orkhon inscriptions (Orhun Yazıtları, Orxon-Yenisey abidəsi, Orhon ýazgylary), also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam), are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia.

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Orkhon Valley

Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (Орхоны хөндийн соёлын дурсгал) sprawls along the banks of the Orkhon River in Central Mongolia, some 320 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar.

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Orthography

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman poetry

The poetry of the Ottoman Empire, or Ottoman Divan poetry, is fairly little known outside modern Turkey, which forms the heartland of what was once the Ottoman Empire.

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Ottoman Turkish alphabet

The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) is a version of the Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write Ottoman Turkish until 1928, when it was replaced by the Latin-based modern Turkish alphabet.

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Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatal harmony

Palatal harmony, also called palatovelar harmony, is a type of vowel harmony that manifests in forcing agreement between vowels that are either neighboring or in the same word regarding their place of articulation-- specifically the difference between the palatal-articulated front vowels and the back vowels which are articulated closer to the velum.

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Participle

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Parvenu

A parvenu is a person who is a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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Persian alphabet

The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Phoneme

A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Proper noun

A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).

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Qashqai language

Qashqai (قاشقای ديلى, also spelled Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qašqāʾī,, by Michael Knüppel, by Gerhard Doerfer and Qashqa'i) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars Province of southern Iran.

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Ramadan

Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Regular and irregular verbs

A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs.

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Relative clause

A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rumelia

Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.

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Runes

Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Scripting language

A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sine qua non

Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient.

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Snow (Pamuk novel)

Snow (Kar) is a novel by Turkish writer Orhan Pamuk.

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Social distance

Social distance describes the distance between different groups in society and is opposed to ''locational distance''.

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Southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subject–object–verb

In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Sun Language Theory

The Sun Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi) was a Turkish nationalist pseudoscientific linguistic hypothesis developed in Turkey in the 1930s that proposed that all human languages are descendants of one proto-Turkic primal language.

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Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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T–V distinction

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Topic-prominent language

A topic-prominent language is a language that organizes its syntax to emphasize the topic–comment structure of the sentence.

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Trabzon

Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.

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Transcaucasia

Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkic migration

Turkic migration refers to the expansion and colonization of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries.

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Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish Braille

Turkish Braille (kabartma yazı) is the braille alphabet of the Turkish language.

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Turkish copula

Turkish language copulas, which are called as ek-eylem or ek-fiil, both of which literally mean "suffix-verb", are one of the most distinct features of Turkish grammar.

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Turkish Cypriots

Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

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Turkish diaspora

The Turkish diaspora (Türk diasporası or Türk gurbetçiler) refers to Turkish people who have emigrated from their homeland.

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Turkish folk literature

Turkish folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted, in its form, in Central Asian nomadic traditions.

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Turkish Language Association

The Turkish Language Institution (Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 by the initiative of Atatürk and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.

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Turkish literature

Turkish literature (Türk edebiyatı) comprises oral compositions and written texts in Turkic languages.

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Turkish name

A Turkish name consists of an ad or an isim (given name; plural adlar and isimler) and a soyadı or soyisim (surname).

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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Turkish Radio and Television Corporation

The Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, also known as TRT (Turkish: Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), is the national public broadcaster of Turkey and was founded in 1964.

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Turkish Sign Language

Turkish Sign Language (Türk İşaret Dili, TİD) is the language used by the deaf community in Turkey.

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Turkmen language

Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists

UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Duisburg-Essen

The University of Duisburg-Essen (Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Verb phrase

In linguistics, a verb phrase (VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Vowel harmony

Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Thrace

Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.

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Word formation

In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word.

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Yörüks

The Yörüks, also Yuruks or Yorouks (Yörükler;, Youroúkoi; юруци; Јуруци, Juruci), are a Turkish ethnic subgroup, some of whom are nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia, and partly in the Balkan peninsula.

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Ziya Gökalp

Mehmed Ziya Gökalp (23 March 1876 – 25 October 1924) was a Turkish sociologist, writer, poet, and political activist.

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1980 Turkish coup d'état

The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Anatolian Turkic language, Anatolian Turkish language, ISO 639:tr, ISO 639:tur, Istanbul Turkish, Merhaba, Modern Turkish, Modern Turkish language, Nuclear Turkish language, Tuerkce, Turcophone, Turkce, Turkey Turkish, Turkish (language), Turkish Language, Turkish language reform, Türkçe.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_language

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