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Turkish language

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Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia. [1]

211 relations: Ablative case, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accusative case, Aegean Sea, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Agglutinative language, Alliteration, Altaic languages, Alternation (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Anatolia, Antalya, Aorist, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Article (grammar), Assimilation (linguistics), Atatürk Boulevard, Atatürk's Reforms, Atlas, Attributive verb, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu, Back vowel, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Balkan sprachbund, Bilge Khagan, Black Sea Region, Boğaziçi University, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cağaloğlu, Central Anatolia Region, Central Asia, Circumflex, Clitic, Complementary distribution, Compound (linguistics), Computer science, Conditional mood, Constitution of Turkey, Council of Europe, Cultural assimilation, Cypriot Turkish, Cyprus, Dative case, ..., Declension, Defective verb, Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, Dialect levelling, Diphthong, District of Prizren, Dotted and dotless I, Eastern Anatolia Region, Edirne, Education in Turkey, Europa (web portal), European Commission, Final-obstruent devoicing, Flap consonant, Frang Bardhi, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Future tense, Gagauz language, Genitive case, German language, Germanic languages, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Greece, Greek language, Harvard University, Honorific, Immigration to Turkey, Imperative mood, Inferential mood, Infix, Interrogative word, Iraq, Islam, Istanbul, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Karamanli Turkish, Karamanlides, Kastamonu, Kosovo, Kul Tigin, Kurdish languages, Labial consonant, Language reform, Latin, Latin script, Laz language, Linguistic purism, List of English words of Turkic origin, Loanword, Locative case, Ludogorie, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Maureen Freely, Mediterranean Region, Turkey, Mersin, Meskhetian Turks, Middle Turkic languages, Minstrel, Misha Glenny, Modern Greek, Mongolia, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Necessitative mood, Nominative case, Northern Cyprus, Noun class, Nutuk, Oghuz languages, Oghuz Turks, Old Anatolian Turkish, Old Turkic alphabet, Old Turkic language, Optative mood, Orhan Pamuk, Orkhon inscriptions, Orkhon Valley, Orthography, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman poetry, Ottoman Turkish alphabet, Ottoman Turkish language, Palatal consonant, Parvenu, Past tense, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Personal pronoun, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Plural, Postalveolar consonant, Present tense, Pronoun, Proper noun, Qashqai language, Ramadan, Regular and irregular verbs, Relative clause, Republic of Macedonia, Romance languages, Romania, Roundedness, Routledge, Rumelia, Runes, Russian language, Scripting language, Seljuq dynasty, Sine qua non, Snow (Pamuk novel), Social distance, Southeast Europe, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Stress (linguistics), Subject–object–verb, Suffix, Sun Language Theory, Syntax, T–V distinction, The World Factbook, Tonyukuk, Trabzon, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic migration, Turkish alphabet, Turkish Braille, Turkish copula, Turkish Cypriots, Turkish diaspora, Turkish folk literature, Turkish Language Association, Turkish Language Olympiads, Turkish literature, Turkish name, Turkish people, Turkish Sign Language, Turkmen language, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Duisburg-Essen, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Vowel harmony, Western Asia, Western Thrace, Word formation, Yörüks, 1980 Turkish coup d'état. Expand index (161 more) »

In grammar, ablative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case (a type of noun inflection) in various languages that is used generally to express motion away from something, although the precise meaning may vary by language.

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In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.

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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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An affix (in modern sense) is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word.

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An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agglutination is a process in linguistic morphology derivation in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.

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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meaning, but each of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remains in every aspect unchanged after their union, thus resulting in generally easier deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in the phonetics and/or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, generally for shortening the word on behalf of an easier pronunciation.

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Alliteration is a stylistic literary device identified by the repeated sound of the first consonant in a series of multiple words, or the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables of a phrase.

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Altaic is a proposed, but widely discredited, language family of central Eurasia.

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In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a phoneme or morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.

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Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Antalya is the eighth most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.

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Aorist (abbreviated) is a term for a set of verb forms that usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

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The apostrophe (’ or ') is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet or certain other alphabets.

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Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.

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In linguistics, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Atatürk Boulevard (Atatürk Bulvarı) is the most important street in Ankara; Turkey.

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Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state.

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An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a map of Earth or a region of Earth, but there are atlases of the other planets (and their satellites) in the Solar System.

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An attributive verb is a verb that modifies (expresses an attribute of) a noun in the manner of an attributive adjective, rather than express an independent idea as a predicate.

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Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who are concentrated mainly in the South Caucasus geographical region.

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Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (October 25, 1894 – March 21, 1973), commonly known simply as Âşık Veysel, was a Turkish minstrel and highly regarded poet of the Turkish folk literature.

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A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Balkan Gagauz Turkish, also known as Balkan Turkic, is a Turkic language spoken in European Turkey, Greece, and in the Kumanovo and Bitola areas of the Republic of Macedonia.

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The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.

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Bilge Khagan (Old Turkic:, Bilge qaγan) (683 or 684 – 734) was the khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate.

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The Black Sea Region (Karadeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Boğaziçi University (Boğaziçi Üniversitesi) is a public university located on the European side of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina,; Cyrillic script: Боснa и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Cağaloğlu is a neighbourhood located in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey.

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The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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In morphology and syntax, a clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind, where one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (i.e. complementary) set of environments.

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In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.

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The conditional mood is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.

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The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.

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Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.

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Cypriot Turkish (Kıbrıs Türkçesi) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria gave Jakob a drink".

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In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles to indicate number (at least singular and plural), case (nominative or subjective, genitive or possessive, etc.), and gender.

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In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation, or one which cannot be used in some other way as normal verbs can.

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A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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A dialect continuum or dialect area was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate in such a way that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible.

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Dialect levelling or dialect leveling refers to the assimilation, mixture and/or eradication of certain dialects, often due to language standardization.

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A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.

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The Prizren District (Rajoni i Prizrenit; Призренски округ, Prizrenski okrug) is one of the seven districts of Kosovo.

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The Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet, includes two distinct versions of the letter I, one dotted and the other dotless.

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The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Edirne, is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne, in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.

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Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Atatürk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence.

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Europa (sometimes capitalised EUROPA) is the official web portal of the European Union (EU).

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The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.

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In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Frang Bardhi (Latin: Franciscus Blancus, Italian: Francesco Bianchi, 1606–1643) was an Albanian bishop and author of the early eras of Albanian literature.

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Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gagauz (Gagauz dili, Gagauzca) also called Gagauz Turkish (Gagauz Türkçäsi) is a Turkic language spoken by the ethnic Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.

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In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.

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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time.

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In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, or verbs.

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In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical (usually morphologically marked) feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.

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In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference.

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The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.

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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636.

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An honorific title is a word or expression with connotations conveying esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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Since the 19th century, an exodus by the large portion of Turkish (Turkic) and Muslim peoples (who are termed "Muhacir" under a general definition) from the Balkans (Balkan Turks, Albanians, Bosniaks, Pomaks), Caucasus (Abkhazians, Ajarians, 'Circassians', Chechens), Crimea (Crimean Tatar diaspora), Crete (Cretan Turks), took refuge in present-day Turkey and moulded the country's fundamental features.

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The imperative is a grammatical mood that forms commands or requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of advice or exhortation.

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The inferential mood (abbreviated or) is used to report a nonwitnessed event without confirming it, but the same forms also function as admiratives in the Balkan languages in which they occur.

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An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, why and how.

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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Istanbul (İstanbul), once known as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center.

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The Kara-Khanid Khanate (قَراخانيان, Qarākhānīyān or, Khakānīya,, 桃花石) was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.

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Karamanlı Turkish is both a form of written Turkish, and a dialect of Turkish spoken by the Karamanlides, a community of Turkish-speaking orthodox Christians in Ottoman Turkey.

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The Karamanlides (Καραμανλήδες; Karamanlılar), or simply Karamanlis are an Orthodox, Greek people of Karaman and Cappadocia that became linguistically Turkified.

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Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 102,059 of which 64,606 live in the urban center of Kastamonu. (Population of the urban center in 2010 is 91,012)The district covers an area of, and the town lies at an elevation of. It is located to the south of the province.

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Prior to a change (other than minor edits), discussion NEEDS to take place.

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Kul Tigin (Old Turkic:, Kultegin, (闕特勒/阙特勤, Pinyin: quètèqín, Wade-Giles: chüeh-t'e-ch'in, ? - 575 AD) was a general of the Second Turkic Kaganate. He was a second son of Ilterish Shad and the younger brother of Bilge Kagan. During the reign of Mochuo Kagan, Kul Tigin and his older brother earned reputation for their military prowess. They defeated Kyrgyz, Turgesh, and Karluks, extending the Kaganate territory all the way to the Iron Gates (modern day Derbent in Dagestan). They also subjugated all nine of the Tokuz Oguz tribes. Upon the death of Mochuo Kagan, Mochuo's son attempted to illegally ascend to the throne, defying the traditional Lateral succession law, but Kül-Tegin refused to recognize the takeover. He raised an army, attacked, and killed Mochuo's son and his trusted followers. He raised his elder brother Mojilian, who took the title Bilge (The Wise) Kagan, and took the title of Shad, an equivalent of commander-in-chief of the army for himself. In 731 Kül-Tegin fell ill and died. A stele in memory of Kul Tigin, which included inscriptions in both the Turkic and Chinese, was erected at his memorial complex at the present site of Khöshöö-Tsaidam-2. Kül-Tegin is also mentioned in the inscription erected in memory of his older brother Bilge Kagan at the neighbouring site of Khöshöö-Tsaidam-1. Prince Kül-Tegin descended from the Gold (Kagan's) clan of the ancient Türkic dynastic tribe Ashina (Hot.-Sak. blue) called Shar-Duly (Middle Persian zarr duli "Golden bird Duli", i.e. "Golden/Red Raven"). All royal Oguzes traced their descent from this mythical bird Dulu/Tulu. The headdress on the glabella part of Kül-Tegin sculpture in the Husho-Tsaidam enclave (Orkhon, Northern Mongolia) carries a bird with wings spread like an eagle, personifying a Raven.

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Kurdish (کوردی, Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Language reform is a type of language planning by massive change to a language.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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The Laz language (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena; ლაზური ენა, lazuri ena, or ჭანური ენა, ç̌anuri ena, also chanuri ena; Lazca) is a Kartvelian language spoken by the Laz people on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea.

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Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.

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This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages.

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A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.

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Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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The Ludogorie (Лудогорие, usually used with a definite article, Лудогорието, Ludogorieto) or Deliorman (Делиорман, Deliorman), all meaning "region of mad forests" (Bulgarian: lud - "mad", "crazy" and gora - "forest"), is a region in northeastern Bulgaria stretching over the plateau of the same name.

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Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى) was an 11th-century Turkic scholar and lexicographer of Turkic languages from Kashgar.

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Maureen Freely (born 1952) is an American journalist, novelist, professor, and translator.

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The Mediterranean Region (Akdeniz Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Mersin is a large city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey.

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Meskhetian Turks also known as Meskheti Turks, and Akhaltsikhe / Ahiska Turks (თურქი მესხები, t'urk'i meskhebi) are the ethnic Turks formerly inhabiting the Meskheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey.

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Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. 900–1500 CE).

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A minstrel was a medieval European person who performed songs whose lyrics told stories of distant places or of existing or imaginary historical events.

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Misha Glenny (born 25 April 1958) is a British journalist who specialises in southeastern Europe, global organised crime, and cybersecurity.

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Modern Greek (νέα ελληνικά or νεοελληνική γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and the first President of Turkey.

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In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort.

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In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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The necessitative mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood found in languages such as Armenian and Turkish, which combines elements of both the cohortative (which is typically used in only the first person) and the jussive moods (which is typically only used in the second and third persons).

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The nominative case (abbreviated) is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a self-declared state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

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In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.

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The Nutuk (Modern Turkish: Söylev; Speech) was a speech delivered by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk from 15 to 20 October 1927, at the second congress of Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi.

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The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 150 million people in an area spanning from the Balkans to China.

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The Ghuzz or Turkmen also known as Oguzes (a linguistic term designating the Western Turkic or Oghuz languages from the Oghur sub-division of Turkic language family) were a historical Turkic tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in Central Asia during the early medieval period.

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The Old Anatolian Turkish (Modern Eski Anadolu Türkçesi) is the stage in the history of the Turkish language spoken in Anatolia from the 11th to 15th centuries.

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The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk and other early Turkic Khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.

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Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century to the 13th century.

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The Optative mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.

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Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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The Orkhon inscriptions Orxon-Yenisey abidəsi, Orhun Yazıtları also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions, and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam) are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia.

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Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (Орхоны хөндийн соёлын дурсгал) sprawls along the banks of the Orkhon River in Central Mongolia, some 320 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for how to write a language.

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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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The poetry of the Ottoman Empire, or Ottoman Divan poetry, is fairly little known outside of modern Turkey, which forms the heartland of what was once the Ottoman Empire.

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The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا) was a version of the Arabic alphabet, with Persian additions, that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language during the Ottoman Empire and into the early years of the Republic of Turkey, through 1928.

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Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language (Lisân-ı Osmânî) (also known as Türkçe or Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.

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Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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A parvenu is a person who is a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class.

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The past tense is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic script is a writing system based on the Arabic script.

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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it).

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A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.

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A phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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The plural, in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not as far back as the hard palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants).

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The present tense is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).

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Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Ghashghayi, Qašqāʾī,, by Michael Knüppel, by Gerhard Doerfer Qashqa'i, and Qashqayi) is a dialect of Azerbaijani or Western Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars region of Iran.

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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also transliterated Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs.

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A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphoric relation between the relativized element in the relative clause, and the antecedent on which it depends.

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Macedonia (Македонија, tr. Makedonija), officially the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian:, tr. Republika Makedonija), is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.

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In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rumelia (Rumeli; Rumelija, Ρωμυλία, Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Rumelia; Rumelija and Румелия, Rumeliya) was a historical term describing the area now referred to as the Balkans or the Balkan Peninsula when it was administered by the Ottoman Empire.

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Runes (Proto-Norse: (runo), Old Norse: rún) are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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A scripting language or script language is a programming language that supports scripts, programs written for a special run-time environment that can interpret (rather than compile) and automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.

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The Seljuq dynasty (سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; Selçuklular; Selçuklar) was a Turkish Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually adopted Persian culture and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) refers to an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient.

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Snow (Kar) is a novel by Turkish writer Orhan Pamuk.

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Social distance describes the distance between different groups of society and is opposed to locational distance.

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Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical and political region of Europe, consisting primarily of the Balkan peninsula.

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In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order.

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In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes termed postfix or ending or, in older literature, affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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The Sun Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi) was a Turkish nationalist pseudoscientific linguistic hypothesis developed in Turkey in the 1930s that proposed that all human languages are descendants of one proto-Turkic primal language.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.

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In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Tonyukuk (Old Turkic: Bilge Tuňuquq, born c. 646, died c. 726?) was the baga-tarkhan (military leader) of four Göktürk khagans, the best known of whom is Bilge Khan.

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Trabzon (see other names) is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are proposed to be part of the controversial Altaic language family.

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The Turkic migration as defined in this article was the expansion of the Turkic peoples across most of Central Asia into Europe and the Middle East between the 6th and 11th centuries AD (the Early Middle Ages).

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The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish Braille (kabartma yazı) is the braille alphabet of the Turkish language.

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Turkish language copulas, which are called as ek-eylem or ek-fiil, both of which literally mean "suffix-verb", are one of the most distinct features of the Turkish grammar.

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Turkish Cypriots (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

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The Turkish diaspora (Gurbetçi) refers to "Turks" who have emigrated from their homeland.

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Turkish folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted, in its form, in Central Asian nomadic traditions.

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The Turkish Language Association (Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey.

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The International Turkish Language Olympiads (Turkish: Uluslararası Türkçe Olimpiyatları) is a competition in the Turkish language.

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Turkish literature (Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) comprises both oral compositions and written texts in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman and Azeri or in less exclusively literary forms, such as that spoken in the Republic of Turkey today.

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A Turkish name consists of an ad or an isim (given name; plural adlar and isimler) and a soyadı or soyisim (surname).

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Turkish people (Türk milleti), or Turks (Türkler), are a Turkic ethnic group.

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Turkish Sign Language (Türk İşaret Dili, TİD) is the language used by the deaf community in Turkey.

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Turkmen or Torkoman (Türkmençe, türkmen dili, түркменче, түркмен дили, تورکمن تیلی,تورکمنچه), is a Turkic language spoken by 3½ million people in Turkmenistan, where it is the official state language, as well as by around 2 million people in northeastern Iran and 1½ million people in northwestern Afghanistan.

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The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university located in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.

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The University of Duisburg-Essen (Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr.

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Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds, with sounds described as either voiceless (unvoiced) or voiced.

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In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.

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Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.

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Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki,; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, located between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country.

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In linguistics, word formation is the creation of a new word.

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The Yörüks, also Yuruks or Yorouks (Yörük,, юруци, Јуруци), are a Turkish group of people, some of whom are nomadic, primarily inhabiting the mountains of Anatolia and partly Balkan peninsula.

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The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état, headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic after the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".

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Anatolian Turkic language, Anatolian Turkish language, ISO 639:tr, ISO 639:tur, Merhaba, Modern Turkish, Nuclear Turkish language, Tuerkce, Turcophone, Turkce, Turkey Turkish, Turkish (language), Turkish Language, Turkish language reform, Türkçe.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_language

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