280 relations: -stan, Aýrybaba, Achaemenid Empire, Afghanistan, Ahal Region, Akhal-Teke, Aktau, Alem Cultural and Entertainment Center, Amu Darya, Anau, Arabic, Archman, Armed Forces of Turkmenistan, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian language, Armenians, Ashgabat, Ashgabat International Airport, Assembly of Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Azerbaijanis, Baýramaly, Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan, Bahá'í House of Worship, Bahá'í statistics, Baku, Balkan Region, Balkanabat, Baloch people, Baptists, Bartang River, Bashkir language, Basmachi movement, Battle of Geok Tepe, BBC News, Belarus, Belarusian language, Black Sea, Boeing, Boris Şyhmyradow, Branobel, California, Caspian Sea, Catholic Church, Central Asia, Central Asian Union, China, Christianity in Turkmenistan, City, ..., Communications satellite, Communism, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party of Turkmenistan, Conscientious objector, Constitution, Constitution of Turkmenistan, Cotton, Country, Cult of personality, Daşoguz, Daşoguz Region, Dargwa language, Dawah, Debt, Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, Dictatorship, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dungan language, Eastern Orthodox Church, Election monitoring, Electricity, Eritrea, Erzya language, Export, Foreign policy, Foreign relations of Turkmenistan, Frankfurt, Galkynysh Gas Field, Gazprom, Gülşat Mämmedowa, Geok Tepe, Georgian language, Global Witness, Greater Grace World Outreach, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, Hadith, Hari (Afghanistan), Hazar, Turkmenistan, Head of government, Head of state, History of slavery in Asia, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), History of Turkmenistan, Human Rights Watch, Hydrocarbon, Ibn Kathir, Iman (concept), Index of Turkmenistan-related articles, Indo-Iranians, Intensifier, International Federation for Human Rights, International Futures, International North–South Transport Corridor, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Internet service provider, Iran, Islam, Islam in Turkmenistan, ISO 3166-2, Jehovah's Witnesses, Judaism, Kale Heywet Word of Life Church, Karakalpak language, Karakum Desert, Kazakh language, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Köýtendag Range, Kerki, Khanate, Khanate of Bukhara, Khanate of Khiva, Khwarezm, Kim Il-sung, Konye-Urgench, Kopet Dag, Korean language, Kurds, Kuwait, Kyrgyz people, Lak language, Lebap Region, Lezgian language, LGBT rights in Turkmenistan, List of Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by natural gas proven reserves, Lithuanian language, Marble, Mary Region, Mary, Turkmenistan, Medical tourism, Merv, Military, Mongolia, Mongols, Moscow, Mount Arlan, Mountain range, Music of Turkmenistan, Muslim, Muslim world, National anthem of Turkmenistan, National Geophysical Data Center, Nationalism, Natural gas, Neutral country, New Apostolic Church, Nisa, Turkmenistan, Nomad, North Korea, Northern Alliance, Northern Kurdish, Oasis, Official language, Oghuz languages, Oghuz Turks, One-party state, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Ossetian language, Outline of Turkmenistan, Parthia, Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, Pashtuns, Pentecostalism, Persian language, Pew Research Center, Politics of Turkmenistan, Poverty, President for Life, President of Turkmenistan, Presidential system, Quran, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, Reporters Without Borders, Republic, Ruhnama, Russia, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russians, Russians in Turkmenistan, Salt, Saparmurat Niyazov, Satellite dish, Saudi Arabia, Science and technology in Turkmenistan, Scouting in Turkmenistan, Seljuk Empire, September 11 attacks, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Silk Road, Sogdian language, South Pars/North Dome Gas-Condensate field, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, Spain, Sport (Turkmen TV channel), State-owned enterprise, Subtropics, Tabasaran language, Tajik language, Taliban, Tashkent, Tatar language, Tatars, Türkmen Owazy, Türkmenabat, TürkmenÄlem 52°E / MonacoSAT, Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan, Türkmendemirýollary, Türkmengaz, Türkmennebit, Telephone numbers in Turkmenistan, The Great Game (Peter Hopkirk book), The New York Times, The New Yorker, The World Factbook, Totalitarianism, Trans-Caspian railway, Transcaspian Oblast, Transport in Turkmenistan, Turan Depression, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkmen cuisine, Turkmen language, Turkmen parliamentary election, 2004, Turkmen parliamentary election, 2013, Turkmen presidential election, 1992, Turkmen presidential election, 2007, Turkmen presidential election, 2012, Turkmen rug, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmenbashi International Airport, Turkmenbashi International Seaport, Turkmenistan (TV channel), Turkmenistan Airlines, Turkmenistan manat, Turkmenistan Tower, Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline, Turkmens, Ukrainian language, Ukrainians, Unitary state, United Nations, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, Uzbeks, Volga–Don Canal, Water, Wedding Palace (Ashgabat), Wilayah, World Heritage site, World War I, Yomut, Yomut carpet, .tm, 1948 Ashgabat earthquake, 35th parallel north, 43rd parallel north, 52nd meridian east, 67th meridian east. 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The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
Aýrybaba (since 2004 officially Beýik Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy belentligi - Mount of the Great Saparmyrat Turkmenbashi) is a mountain in Central Asia.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahal Region (Ahal welaýaty; from Persian آخال Axāl) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
The Akhal-Teke (or; from Turkmen Ahalteke) is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a national emblem.
Aktau (Ақтау, Aqtaý) is a city in Kazakhstan, located on the east bank of the Caspian Sea.
Alem Cultural and Entertainment Center is a cultural center in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Anau (also spelled Annau, Änew) is a city in Turkmenistan.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archman is a town in south-western Turkmenistan in Ahal Province on the northern rim of the Kopet Dag mountain range.
The Armed Forces of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Ýaragly Güýçleri, Түркменистаның Йараглы Гүйчлери) consists of an Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops, and Internal Troops, and a National Guard.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.
Ashgabat International Airport, formerly known as Saparmurat Türkmenbaşy International Airport, is one of three international airports in Turkmenistan.
The Assembly (Mejilis) is the legislative branch of Turkmenistan.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Baýramaly (formerly Bayram-Ali, بایرام علی) is a city of Turkmenistan, a seat of Baýramaly District within Mary Province.
The Bahá'í Faith in Turkmenistan begins before Russian advances into the region when the area was under the influence of Persia.
A Bahá'í House of Worship, sometimes referred to by the name of mašriqu-l-'aḏkār (مشرق اﻻذكار), an Arabic phrase meaning "Dawning-place of the remembrances of God", is the designation of a place of worship, or temple, of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Bahá'í World News Service reports a Bahá'í membership of more than 5 million worldwide, in "virtually every country" and many territories.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Balkan Region (Balkan welaýaty, Балкан велаяты, بلقان ولايتى) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
Balkanabat (Балканабат, بلخان آباد), formerly Nebit Dag and Neftedag, is a city in western Turkmenistan and the capital of Balkan Province, the largest province in the country.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bartang river, a view from the air The Bartang river is a river of Central Asia, tributary to the Panj river and consequently to the Amu-Darya.
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
For Lomakin's defeat at the same place in 1879 see Battle of Geok Tepe (1879) The Battle of Geok Tepe in 1881 was the main event in the 1880/81 Russian campaign to conquer the Tekke Turkomans.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
Boris Shikhmuradov (Turkmen:Boris Orazowiç Şyhmyradow, Russian:Бори́с Ора́зович Шихмура́дов, born 25 May 1949 in Ashgabat, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.) was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan from 1995 to 2000.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel (short for братьев Нобель "brat'yev Nobel" — "Nobel Brothers" in Russian), was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Asian Union (CAU), later called the Central Asian Economic Union, was an intergovernmental organisation for economic integration between the Central Asian post-Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan between 1994 and 2004.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christians, most of whom are ethnic Russians, constitute less than 9% of the population in Turkmenistan.
A city is a large human settlement.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR (Коммунистическая партия Туркменистана; Türkmenistanyň Kommunistik Partiyasy) was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of Turkmenistan adopted on 18 May 1992 is the supreme law of Turkmenistan (Article 5).
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Daşoguz (Дашогу́з, also Dashoguz, Dasoguz; roughly "stone spring" in Turkmen), formerly known as Tashauz (until 1992; Ташау́з) and Dashkhovuz (1992-1999; Дашхову́з), is a city in northern Turkmenistan and the capital of Daşoguz Province.
Daşoguz Region (Daşoguz welaýaty, formerly Daşhowuz) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
The Dargwa or Dargin language is spoken by the Dargin people in the Russian republic Dagestan.
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (Türkmenistanyň Demokratik partiýasy) (TPD) is a political party in Turkmenistan.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Election monitoring is the observation of an election by one or more independent parties, typically from another country or a non-governmental organization (NGO), primarily to assess the conduct of an election process on the basis of national legislation and international election standards.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Turkmenistan's declaration of "permanent neutrality" was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Galkynysh Gas Field, formerly known as Iolotan gas field or South Yolotan – Osman field, is a large natural gas field near Ýolöten in Mary Province of Turkmenistan.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
Gülşat Sakhyevna Mämmedowa (born 1964) is a Turkmenistan politician and deputy chair (Speaker) of the Turkmen Parliament, the Mejlis.
Geok Tepe, Gökdepe or Gokdepe is a former fortress of the Turkmens, in Turkmenistan, in the oasis of Ahal, on the Transcaspian railway, 28 miles north-west of Ashgabat.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
Global Witness is an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation, conflict, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide.
Greater Grace World Outreach (GGWO) is an affiliation of nondenominational.
Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow (born June 29, 1957) IPA:, is a Turkmen politician who has served as the President of Turkmenistan since February 2007.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Heray Rud River (Dari: هری رود Hari Rūd, Heray Rūd, i.e. "Herat River") is a river flowing from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert forming the Tejend oasis.
Hazar (formerly known as Çeleken, also written Cheleken; Челекен; Persian: Chaharken چهارکن) is a city located on the Cheleken Peninsula of the Caspian Sea.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Slavery has existed all throughout Asia, and forms of slavery still exist today.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The history of Turkmenistan is largely shrouded in mystery, its past since the arrival of Indo-European Iranian tribes around 2000 BC is often the starting point of the area's discernible history.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Iman (إِيمَان ʾīmān, lit. faith or belief) in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam.
The list of Turkmenistan-related articles is below.
Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.
Intensifier (abbreviated) is a linguistic term (but not a proper lexical category) for a modifier that makes no contribution to the propositional meaning of a clause but serves to enhance and give additional emotional context to the word it modifies.
The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International North–South Transport Corridor (INSTC) is a 7,200-km-long multi-mode network of ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Iran, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Central Asia and Europe.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center report, 93.1% of Turkmenistan's population is Muslim.
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kale Heywet (Word of Life) Church (KHC) is the largest evangelical denomination in Ethiopia.
Karakalpak is a Turkic language spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan.
The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara-Gum (Garagum,; kərɐˈkumɨ), is a desert in Central Asia.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Köýtendag Range (also Koytendag Range or Kugitangtau Range, Köýtendag) is a spur of the Pamir-Alay mountains in the south-east of Turkmenistan, extending along the border with Uzbekistan's Surkhandarya Province.
Kerki is a town in eastern Turkmenistan.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (خانات بخارا; Buxoro Xonligi) was a Central Asian state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century.
The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva xonligi, خانات خیوه) was a Central Asian Turkic state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740 and 1746.
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Konye-Urgench (Köneürgenç; Куня Ургенч, Kunya Urgench – from Persian: Kuhna Gurgānj کهنه گرگانج) – Old Gurgānj also known as Kunya-Urgench, Old Urgench or Urganj, is a municipality of about 30,000 inhabitants in north Turkmenistan, just south from its border with Uzbekistan.
The Kopet Dag, Kopet Dagh, or Koppeh Dagh (کپهداغ; Köpetdag), also known as the Turkmen-Khorasan Mountain Range is a mountain range on the frontier between Turkmenistan and Iran that extends about along the border southeast of the Caspian Sea, stretching northwest-southeast from near the Caspian Sea in the northwest to the Harirud River in the southeast.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Lak language (лакку маз, lakːu maz) is a Northeast Caucasian language forming its own branch within this family.
Lebap Region (Lebap welaýaty/Лебап велаяты from the Persian لب آب Labe âb) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
Lezgian, also called Lezgi or Lezgin, (Azerbaijani: Ləzgi dili), is a language that belongs to the Lezgic languages.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Turkmenistan face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
List of Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Mary Region (Mary welaýaty, Мары велаяты) is one of the regions of Turkmenistan.
Mary, formerly named Merv, Meru and Margiana, is a city on an oasis in the Karakum Desert, located on the Murghab river.
Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mount Arlan (Uly Balkan Gerşi) is an peak in the western plains of Turkmenistan in Balkan Province.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
The music of the nomadic and rural Turkmen people is closely related to Kyrgyz and Kazakh folk forms.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The national anthem of Turkmenistan is called the National Anthem of Independent Neutral TurkmenistanTurkmenistan to the Heights of the Golden Age, Ashgabat, 2005.
The United States National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provided scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data describing the solid earth, marine, and solar-terrestrial environment, as well as earth observations from space.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
The New Apostolic Church (NAC) is a chiliastic Christian church that split from the Catholic Apostolic Church during a 1863 schism in Hamburg, Germany.
Nisa (also Parthaunisa) was an ancient settlement of the Iranic peoples, located near (modern-day) Bagir village, 18 km southwest of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 110 million people.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Turkmenistan: Turkmenistan is a sovereign Turkic country located in Central Asia.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (Senagatçylar we Telekeçiler partiýasy) is a political party in Turkmenistan.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
The politics of Turkmenistan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is both head of state and head of government.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
President for Life is a title assumed by or granted to some leaders to remove their term limit irrevocably as a way of removing future challenges to their authority and legitimacy.
President of Turkmenistan (Turkmen:Türkmenistanyň prezidenti) is the head of state and of the executive power, is the highest official of Turkmenistan, and has the constitutional charter to act as a guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity, and adherence to the Constitution and international agreements.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, often referred to as Repetek Nature or Desert Reserve, (Repetek goraghanasy, Репетек горагханасы) is a desert nature reserve (zapovednik) of Turkmenistan, located in Lebap Province, East Karakum Desert, near Amu Darya.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Ruhnama (The Book of the Soul) is a book written by Saparmurat Niyazov, the President of Turkmenistan from 1990 to 2006, combining spiritual/moral guidance, autobiography and revisionist history; much of it is of dubious or disputed factuality and accuracy.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians in Turkmenistan are a minority ethnic group, numbering 297,913 as of 2000 census representing 4% of the population.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov (Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow); 19 February 1940 – 21 December 2006) was a Turkmen politician who served as the leader of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. He was First Secretary of the Turkmen Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 and continued to lead Turkmenistan for 15 years after independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Turkmen media referred to him using the title "His Excellency Saparmurat Türkmenbaşy, President of Turkmenistan and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers". His self-given title Türkmenbaşy, meaning Head of the Turkmen, referred to his position as the founder and president of the Association of Turkmens of the World. Foreign media criticised him as one of the world's most totalitarian and repressive dictators, highlighting his reputation of imposing his personal eccentricities upon the country, which extended to renaming months for details of his own biography among other things. Global Witness, a London-based human rights organisation, reported that money under Niyazov's control and held overseas may be in excess of US$3 billion, of which between $1.8–$2.6 billion was allegedly situated in the Foreign Exchange Reserve Fund at Deutsche Bank in Germany.
A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Science and technology in Turkmenistan examines government policies relative to the promotion of science, technology and innovation in Turkmenistan.
There is no formal Scouting organization yet in Turkmenistan, due to the political situation and because Turkmenistan refuses to join any organization because of its "status of permanent neutrality," which was accepted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 12, 1995.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.
The South Pars/North Dome field is a natural-gas condensate field located in the Persian Gulf.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Turkmenistan Sport (Türkmenistan Sport) is a Turkmenian sport TV channel of State Committee of Turkmenistan on TV, Radio and Film.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Tabasaran (also written Tabassaran) is a Northeast Caucasian language of the Lezgic branch.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Türkmen Owazy (Turkmen Melody) is a Turkmen music TV channel, broadcasting since 2009 in the Turkmen language.
Türkmenabat (Cyrillic Түркменабат), formerly and since medieval times, Chardzhou (Чарджоу, Čardžou; Çärjew, Чәрҗев) (Persian: چهارجوی 'Chharjvy', meaning 'four canals') and in ancient times Āmul, is the second-largest city in Turkmenistan and the capital of Lebap Province.
TürkmenÄlem 52°E / MonacoSAT (formerly referred to as TurkmenSat 1) is Turkmenistan's first satellite, built by Thales Alenia Space.
Türkmenbaşy (Turkmen Cyrillic: Түркменбашы, Turkmen Arabic; ترکمنباشی, also spelled Turkmenbashi, Түркменбаши), formerly known as Krasnovodsk (Красноводск) and Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea.
Türkmendemirýollary (Turkmen Railways) is a state-owned operator of railways in Turkmenistan.
Türkmengaz is the national gas company of Turkmenistan.
Türkmennebit (also spelled Turkmennebit, also known by the translation of the name as Turkmenoil (in English) or Turkmenneft (in Russian)) is the national oil company of Turkmenistan.
The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia (published as The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia in the USA) is a book on the history of the region by Peter Hopkirk.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Trans-Caspian Railway (also called the Central Asian Railway, Среднеазиатская железная дорога) is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia.
The Transcaspian Oblast (Закаспійская область), or just simply Transcaspia (Закаспія), was the section of Russian Empire and early Soviet Russia to the east of the Caspian Sea during the second half of the 19th century until 1924.
Transport in Turkmenistan includes such as roadways, railways, airways, seaways, waterways, oil, gas and water pipelines.
The Turan Depression, Turan Lowland or Turanian Basin is a low-lying desert basin region stretching from southern Turkmenistan through Uzbekistan to Kazakhstan.
The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially, the Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic; 30 April 191827 October 1924) was an autonomous republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic located in Soviet Central Asia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkmen cuisine, the cuisine of Turkmenistan, is similar to that of the rest of Central Asia.
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
Parliamentary elections were held in Turkmenistan on 19 December 2004, with a second round in seven constituencies on 9 January 2005.
Parliamentary elections were held in Turkmenistan on 15 December 2013.
Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on 21 June 1992.
Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on February 11, 2007, following the death of President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov on 21 December 2006.
Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on 12 February 2012.
A Turkmen rug (Türkmen haly; or Turkmen carpet or Turkoman carpet) is a type of handmade floor-covering textile traditionally originating in Central Asia.
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Түркменистан Совет Социалистик Республикасы, Türkmenistan Sowet Sotsialistik Respublikasy; Туркменская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Turkmenskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also commonly known as Turkmenistan or Turkmenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union located in Central Asia existed as a republic from 1925 to 1991.
Türkmenbaşy International Airport, also known as Krasnovodsk Airport, is the second largest international airport in Turkmenistan.
The Turkmenbashi International Seaport (Türkmenbaşy halkara deňiz porty) is the main passenger harbour and cargo port in Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan (Türkmenistan) is a state-owned Turkmenian television channel founded in 2004.
Turkmenistan Airlines (Türkmenhowaýollary) is the flag carrier airline of Turkmenistan, headquartered in Ashgabat.
The manat is the currency of Turkmenistan.
The Turkmenistan Tower (Turkmen: «Türkmenistan» teleradio merkezi) is a communications and observation tower in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
The Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline (TAPI), also known as Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline, is a natural gas pipeline being developed by the Galkynysh – TAPI Pipeline Company Limited with participation of the Asian Development Bank.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal (Волго-Донской судоходный канал имени В. И. Ленина, Volga-Donskoy soudokhodniy kanal imeni V. I. Lenina, abbreviated ВДСК, VDSK) is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The Wedding Palace (Bagt köşgi; Багт көшги) is a civil registry building in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
A wilayah (ولاية; Urdu and ولایت; vilayet) is an administrative division, usually translated as "state", "province", or occasionally as "governorate".
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yomut or Yomud is a Turkmen tribe that lives from Gorgan to Turkmenbashi and eastern Caspian shores and Khiva and Dashoguz.
The Yomut carpet is a type of Turkmen rug traditionally handwoven by the Yomut or Yomud, one of the major tribes of Turkmenistan.
.tm is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Turkmenistan.
The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake (1948 Ашгабат ыер титремеси; 1948 Aşgabat yer titremesi; Ашхабадское землетрясение 1948 года; Ashkhabadskoye zemletryasenie 1948 goda) occurred on 6 October with a surface wave magnitude of 7.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme).
The 35th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 52° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 67° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Administrative divisions of Turkmenistan, ISO 3166-1:TM, Languages of Turkmenistan, Name of Turkmenistan, Province of Turkmenistan, Provinces of turkmenistan, Republic of Turkmenistan, TURKMENISTAN, Tuerkmenistan, Turcomania, Turkenistan, Turkimenistan, Turkmania, Turkmanistan, Turkmen Republic, Turkmenistani, Turkmenostan, Turkmenyia, Turkomania, Türkmenistan, Welayatlar of Turkmenistan, Түркменистан, Түрікменстан.