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Index Turtle

Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield. [1]

221 relations: Adocidae, African spurred tortoise, Algae, Algonquian languages, Alligator snapping turtle, American Museum of Natural History, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, American Society of Mammalogists, Americhelydia, Amniote, Anapsid, Animal track, Ankylosauria, Aquatic plant, Araripemydidae, Archelon, Archosaur, Asian box turtle, Asian leaf turtle, August Batsch, Australia, Australochelys, Baenidae, Body plan, Bone, Bothremydidae, Box turtle, Boyle's law, Brown rat, Canada, Cantor's giant softshell turtle, Carapace, Carbonemys, Caribbean, Caribemys, Cartilage, Cervical vertebrae, Chelidae, Cheloniidae, Cheloniology, Chelydridae, China, Chubutemys, Cladistics, Claw, Cloaca, Common box turtle, Common tortoise, Conservation biology, Convergent evolution, ..., Cretaceous, Crocodilia, Cryptodira, Cultural depictions of turtles, Dermatemydidae, Dermochelyidae, Diamondback terrapin, Diapsid, Dog paddle, Early Triassic, Ecological niche, Ectotherm, Egg, Emydidae, Emys, Encephalization quotient, Endangered species, Epidermis, Eric Daniel Metzgar, Eunotosaurus, Eurysternidae, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary grade, Exaptation, Exoskeleton, Extinction, Flipper (anatomy), Florida, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fontanelle, Food and Drug Administration, Form classification, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Galápagos Islands, Geochelone, Geoemydidae, Germany, Giant tortoise, Gill, Ginseng, Gopher tortoise, Grand Cayman, Green sea turtle, Guangling District, Guilinggao, Haichemydidae, Helochelydridae, Holocene, Homopus signatus, Hong Kong, Insect, Invasive species, Jaw, Jellyfish, Jurassic, Kachuga, Kallokibotion, Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Keratin, Kinosternidae, Kinosternoidea, Kinosternon, Late Triassic, Leatherback sea turtle, Lindholmemydidae, Lingzhi mushroom, Louisiana, Macrobaenidae, Madagascan big-headed turtle, Mammal, Meiolania, Meiolaniidae, Mesozoic, Mexico, Middle Triassic, Mikko's Phylogeny Archive, Millerettidae, Miocene, Molecular phylogenetics, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Monophyly, Negligible senescence, Nemegt Formation, Neontology, New Zealand, North Carolina State University, North Dakota, Odontochelys, Oklahoma, Order (biology), Oxfordian (stage), Oxygen, Painted turtle, Pancake tortoise, Pappochelys, Paracryptodira, Pareiasaur, Patagoniaemys, Pelomedusidae, Permian, Pet, Phylogenetics, Pig-nosed turtle, Plesiochelyidae, Pleurodira, Pleurosternidae, Podocnemididae, Poikilotherm, Procolophonidae, Proganochelys, Protein, Proterochersidae, Protorothyrididae, Protostegidae, Red-eared slider, Reptile, Rib, Rod cell, Rudder, Russian tortoise, Saint Bathans Fauna, Salmonellosis, Salt, Scientific literature, Scute, Sea turtle, Seychelles, Shanshan County, Shellfish, Shield, Sichuanchelyidae, Sinemydidae, Sinochelyidae, Siraitia grosvenorii, Smooth pursuit, Snail, Snake, South America, Spanish language, Species, Sponge, Squamata, Sternotherus, Symposium on Turtle Evolution, Taiwan, Tampa International Airport, Taxon, Temperature-dependent sex determination, Terrapin, Testudinata, Testudinoidea, The Chances of the World Changing, The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution, The New York Times, Tortoise, Traditional Chinese medicine, Triassic, Trionychia, Trionychidae, Turtle, Turtle farming, Turtle shell, Turtle soup, United States, Utah, World Turtle Day, Worm, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Xinjiangchelyidae, Zygomatic arch. Expand index (171 more) »


The Adocidae are an extinct family of aquatic and omnivorous turtles.

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African spurred tortoise

The African spurred tortoise (Centrochelys sulcata), also called the sulcata tortoise, is a species of tortoise, which inhabits the southern edge of the Sahara desert, in Africa.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Algonquian languages

The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.

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Alligator snapping turtle

The alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is a species of turtle in the family Chelydridae, native to freshwater habitats in the United States.

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American Museum of Natural History

The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.

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American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists

The American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH) is an international learned society devoted to the scientific studies of ichthyology (study of fish) and herpetology (study of reptiles and amphibians).

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American Society of Mammalogists

The American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) was founded in 1919.

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Americhelydia is a clade of turtles that consists of sea turtles, snapping turtles, the Central American river turtle and mud turtles, supported by several lines of molecular work.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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An anapsid is an amniote whose skull does not have openings near the temples.

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Animal track

An animal track is an imprint left behind in soil, snow, or mud, or on some other ground surface, by an animal walking across it.

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Ankylosauria is a group of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs of the order Ornithischia.

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Aquatic plant

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).

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Araripemydidae is a family of turtles belonging to the order Testudines.

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Archelon (from the Greek roots ἀρχε- arkhe- "chief" and χελώνη chelone "turtle", meaning "ruler turtle") is a genus of extinct sea turtles, the largest genus of sea turtles that has ever been documented, and the second-heaviest turtles documented behind Stupendemys.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Asian box turtle

Asian box turtles are turtles of the genus Cuora in the family Geoemydidae.

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Asian leaf turtle

The Asian leaf turtle (Cyclemys dentata) is a species of turtle found in Southeast Asia.

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August Batsch

August Johann Georg Karl Batsch (28 October 1761 – 29 September 1802) was a German naturalist.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australochelys was a genus of rhaptochelydian turtle.

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Baenidae is an extinct family of cryptodiran turtles that first appeared during the Jurassic, and died out during the Eocene.

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Body plan

A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Bothremydidae is an extinct family of side-necked turtles.

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Box turtle

Box turtles are North American turtles of the genus Terrapene.

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Boyle's law

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.

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Brown rat

The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), also known as the common rat, street rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat, Parisian rat or wharf rat, is one of the best known and most common rats.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cantor's giant softshell turtle

Cantor's giant softshell turtle or Asian giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys cantorii) is a species of freshwater turtle native to Southeast Asia.

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A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.

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Carbonemys cofrinii is an extinct podocnemidid turtle known from the Middle Paleocene Cerrejón Formation of northeastern Colombia.

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The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Caribemys is an extinct genus of turtle which existed in the Jurassic period.

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Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.

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Cervical vertebrae

In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.

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The Chelidae are one of three living families of the turtle suborder Pleurodira and are commonly called the Austro-South American side-neck turtles.

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Cheloniidae is a family of typically large marine turtles that are characterised by their common traits such as, having a flat streamlined wide and rounded shell and almost paddle-like flippers for their forelimbs.

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Cheloniology, less commonly known as testudinology, is the scientific study of turtles.

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The Chelydridae are a family of turtles that has seven extinct and two extant genera.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chubutemys was an extinct genus of meiolaniform turtle.

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds).

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In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.

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Common box turtle

The common box turtle (Terrapene carolina) is a species of box turtle with six existing subspecies.

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Common tortoise

The common Tortoise (Testudo graeca) or also known as Greek tortoise, or spur-thighed tortoise, is one of the 5 species of Mediterranean tortoise (genus Testudo and Agrionemys, family Testudinidae).

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Conservation biology

Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

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Cryptodira (hidden neck) is a suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles.

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Cultural depictions of turtles

Turtles are frequently depicted in popular culture as easygoing, patient, and wise creatures.

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The Dermatemydidae are a family of turtles.

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Dermochelyidae is a family of turtles which has seven extinct genera and one extant genus, including the largest living sea turtles.

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Diamondback terrapin

The diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) or simply terrapin, is a species of turtle native to the brackish coastal tidal marshes of the eastern and southern United States, and in Bermuda. It belongs to the monotypic genus, Malaclemys. It has one of the largest ranges of all turtles in North America, stretching as far south as the Florida Keys and as far north as Cape Cod. The name "terrapin" is derived from the Algonquian word torope. It applies to Malaclemys terrapin in both British English and American English. The name originally was used by early European settlers in North America to describe these brackish-water turtles that inhabited neither freshwater habitats nor the sea. It retains this primary meaning in American English. In British English, however, other semi-aquatic turtle species, such as the red-eared slider, might be called a terrapin.

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Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.

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Dog paddle

The dog paddle or doggy paddle is a simple swimming style.

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Early Triassic

The Early Triassic is the first of three epochs of the Triassic Period of the geologic timescale.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.

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The Emydidae, commonly called terrapins, pond turtles, or marsh turtles, are a family of turtles.

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Emys is a small genus of turtles.

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Encephalization quotient

Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species.

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.

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Eric Daniel Metzgar

Eric Daniel Metzgar is a filmmaker who lives and works in San Francisco.

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Eunotosaurus is an extinct genus of reptile, possibly a close relative of turtles, from the late Middle Permian (Capitanian stage) Karoo Supergroup of South Africa.

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Eurysternidae is an extinct family of turtles in the order Cryptodira.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary grade

In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity.

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Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Flipper (anatomy)

A flipper is a typically flat forelimb evolved for movement through water.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) is a Florida government agency founded in 1999 and headquartered in Tallahassee.

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A fontanelle (or fontanel) (colloquially, soft spot) is an anatomical feature of the infant human skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps (sutures) between the cranial bones that make up the calvaria of a fetus or an infant.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Form classification

Form classification is the classification of organisms based on their morphology, which does not necessarily reflect their biological relationships.

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Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Fort Lauderdale (frequently abbreviated as Ft. Lauderdale) is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, north of Miami.

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Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.

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Geochelone is a genus of tortoises.

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Not to be confused with Geomyidae. The Geoemydidae (formerly known as Bataguridae) are one of the largest and most diverse families in the order Testudines (turtles), with about 70 species.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giant tortoise

Giant tortoises are characteristic reptiles that are currently found on two groups of tropical islands: the Aldabra Atoll and Fregate Island in Seychelles and the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador (a population at the Mascarene Islands was exterminated by the 1900s).

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

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Gopher tortoise

The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) is a species of the Gopherus genus native to the southeastern United States.

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Grand Cayman

Grand Cayman is the largest of the three Cayman Islands and the location of the territory's capital, George Town.

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Green sea turtle

The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), also known as the green turtle, black (sea) turtle or Pacific green turtle, is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae.

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Guangling District

Guangling District is one of three districts of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, China.

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Guīlínggāo, also known as Tortoise Jelly (though not technically correct) or Turtle Jelly, is a jelly-like Chinese medicine, also sold as a dessert.

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Haichemydidae is an extinct family of turtles that belongs to the superfamily Testudinoidea.

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Helochelydridae is an extinct family of turtles known from fossils found in North America and Europe that have been dated from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Homopus signatus

Homopus signatus is the world's smallest species of tortoise (family Testudinidae).

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Kachuga (roofed turtles) is an obsolete genus formerly used for several species of Asian turtles, now placed in Batagur and Pangshura.

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Kallokibotion is an extinct genus of turtle from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian, 70–66 million years ago), known from fossils found in Romania.

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Kemp's ridley sea turtle

Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), or the Atlantic ridley sea turtle, is the rarest species of sea turtle and is critically endangered.

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Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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The Kinosternidae are a family of mostly small turtles that includes the mud turtles and musk turtles.

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Kinosternoidea is a superfamily of aquatic turtles, which included two families: Dermatemydidae, and Kinosternidae.

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Kinosternon is a genus of small aquatic turtles from the Americas known commonly as mud turtles.

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Late Triassic

The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale.

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Leatherback sea turtle

The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the lute turtle or leathery turtle or simply the luth, is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians.

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Lindholmemydidae is an extinct family of turtles in the Testudinoidea.

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Lingzhi mushroom

The lingzhi mushroom is a species complex that encompasses several fungal species of the genus Ganoderma, most commonly the closely related species Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma tsugae, and Ganoderma lingzhi.

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Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Macrobaenidae is an extinct family of turtles in Centrocryptodira.

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Madagascan big-headed turtle

The Madagascan big-headed turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis) is a turtle native to the waters of permanent slow moving rivers and lakes in western Madagascar.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Meiolania ("small roamer") is an extinct genus of basal turtle from the Middle Miocene to Holocene, with the last relict populations at New Caledonia which survived until 3,000 years ago.

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Meiolaniidae is an extinct family of large, possibly herbivorous turtles with heavily armored heads and tails known from South America and most of Oceania.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle Triassic

In the geologic timescale, the Middle Triassic is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period or the middle of three series in which the Triassic system is divided.

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Mikko's Phylogeny Archive

Mikko's Phylogeny Archive is an amateur paleontology website maintained by Mikko Haaramo, a student at the University of Helsinki's Department of Geology, Division of Geology and Palaeontology.

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Millerettidae is an extinct family of parareptiles from the Middle Permian to the Late Permian period (Capitanian - Changhsingian stages) of South Africa.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Negligible senescence

Negligible senescence is the lack of symptoms of aging in some organisms.

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Nemegt Formation

The Nemegt Formation (or Nemegtskaya Svita) is a geological formation in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia, dating to the Late Cretaceous.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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North Carolina State University

North Carolina State University (also referred to as NCSU, NC State, or just State) is a public research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.

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North Dakota

North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.

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Odontochelys semitestacea (meaning "toothed turtle with a half-shell") is a Late Triassic relative of turtles.

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Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Oxfordian (stage)

The Oxfordian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the earliest age of the Late Jurassic epoch, or the lowest stage of the Upper Jurassic series.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Painted turtle

The painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) is the most widespread native turtle of North America.

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Pancake tortoise

The pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri) is a species of flat-shelled tortoise in the family Testudinidae.

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Pappochelys (παπποχέλυς meaning "grandfather turtle" in Greek) is an extinct genus of diapsid reptile closely related to turtles.

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Paracryptodira are an extinct group of turtles.

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Pareiasaurs (meaning "cheek lizards") are an extinct group of anapsid reptiles classified in the family Pareiasauridae.

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Patagoniaemys is an extinct genus of stem turtle which existed in central Patagonia, Chubut Province, Argentina during the late Cretaceous epoch (Campanian to Maastrichtian age).

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Pelomedusidae is a family of freshwater turtles native to sub-Saharan Africa, with a single species, Pelomedusa subrufa, also found in Yemen.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Pig-nosed turtle

The pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta), also known as the pitted-shelled turtle or Fly River turtle, is a species of turtle native to northern Australia and southern New Guinea.

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Plesiochelyidae is an extinct family of turtles in the cryptodira suborder.

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The Pleurodira are one of the two living suborders of turtles, the other being the Cryptodira.

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Pleurosternidae is an extinct family of Testudines turtles.

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Podocnemididae is a family of pleurodire turtles native to Madagascar and northern South America.

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A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.

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Procolophonidae is an extinct family of parareptiles from the Permian and Triassic periods.

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Proganochelys quenstedti, identified as a primitive turtle, is an extinct genus that has been hypothesized to be the sister taxon to all other turtles creating a monophyletic group, the Casichelydia.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proterochersidae is an extinct family of turtles in the Testudinata superfamily.

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Protorothyrididae is an extinct family of small, lizard-like reptiles.

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Protostegidae is a family of extinct marine turtles that lived during the Cretaceous period.

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Red-eared slider

The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), also known as the red-eared terrapin, is a semiaquatic turtle belonging to the family Emydidae.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

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Russian tortoise

The Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii), also commonly known as Horsfield's tortoise, Afghan tortoise or the Central Asian tortoise, is a threatened species of tortoise.

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Saint Bathans Fauna

The Saint Bathans Fauna, or St Bathans Fauna, is found in the lower Bannockburn Formation of the Manuherikia Group of Central Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand.

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Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type.

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Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Scientific literature

Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.

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A scute or scutum (Latin scutum, plural: scuta "shield") is a bony external plate or scale overlaid with horn, as on the shell of a turtle, the skin of crocodilians, and the feet of birds.

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Sea turtle

Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.

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Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Shanshan County

Shanshan County, formerly Piqan County is a county within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of the Turpan city.

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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.

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Sichuanchelyidae is a family of extinct turtles in the Testudinata.

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Sinemydidae is an extinct family of Testudines turtles from Cretaceous to Paleocene deposits in Asia and North America.

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Sinochelyidae is an extinct family of Testudinoidea turtles found in China.

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Siraitia grosvenorii

Siraitia grosvenorii (luo han guo or monk fruit) is a herbaceous perennial vine of the Cucurbitaceae (gourd) family, native to southern China and northern Thailand.

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Smooth pursuit

Smooth pursuit eye movements allow the eyes to closely follow a moving object.

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Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles.

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Sternotherus is a genus of aquatic turtles known commonly as musk turtles, which are endemic to North America.

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Symposium on Turtle Evolution

The Symposium on Turtle Evolution is a meeting of turtle morphologists, evolutionary biologists, and paleontologists, which is organised by different institutions since 1983.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tampa International Airport

Tampa International Airport is an international airport six miles west of Downtown Tampa, in Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Temperature-dependent sex determination

Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a type of environmental sex determination in which the temperatures experienced during embryonic/larval development determine the sex of the offspring.

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A terrapin is one of several small species of testudines living in fresh or brackish water.

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Testudinata is the group of all tetrapods with a true turtle shell.

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Testudinoidea is a superfamily within the suborder Cryptodira of the order Testudines.

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The Chances of the World Changing

The Chances of the World Changing is a 2006 documentary film, accessed 01-13-2010 about Richard Ogust's efforts to save endangered turtle species from extinction.

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The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution

The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution is a 2009 book by British biologist Richard Dawkins, which was released on 3 September 2009 in the UK and on 22 September 2009 in the US.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Trionychia is a superfamily of turtles which encompasses the species that are commonly referred to as softshelled turtles as well as some others.

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The Trionychidae are a taxonomic family of a number of turtle genera commonly known as softshells.

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Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Turtle farming

Turtle farming is the practice of raising turtles and tortoises of various species commercially.

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Turtle shell

The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins (all classified as "turtles" by zoologists), completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.

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Turtle soup

Turtle soup is soup or stews made from the flesh of the turtle.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Utah is a state in the western United States.

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World Turtle Day

The purpose of World Turtle Day, May 23, sponsored yearly since 2000 by American Tortoise Rescue, is to bring attention to, and increase knowledge of and respect for, turtles and tortoises, and encourage human action to help them survive and thrive.

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Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.

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Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Xinjiangchelyidae is an extinct family of Cryptodira found in Asia and western Europe.

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Zygomatic arch

The zygomatic arch, or cheek bone, is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone), the two being united by an oblique suture (zygomaticotemporal suture); the tendon of the temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process of the mandible.

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Aquatic turtle, Calipash, Calipee, Chelonia (order), Chelonians, Freshwater turtle, Order Testudines, Pet turtle, River turtle, Testadine, Testedine, Testudinal, Testudine, Testudines, Tortues, Turtle reproduction, Turtles, 🐢.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtle

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