310 relations: Accademia Musicale Chigiana, Aegean Sea, Agriculture, Aldus Manutius, Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, Allegory, Ambrogio Lorenzetti, American Heroes Channel, Amerigo Vespucci, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andrea Pisano, Apennine culture, Apennine Mountains, Arezzo, Arno, Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement, Asia, Badia Tedalda, Barbarian, Barga, Bargello, Battle of Giglio (1241), Benito Mussolini, Bibbona, Bishop, Black Death, Bolgheri, Bologna, Boydell & Brewer, Bronze Age, Brunello di Montalcino, Brunetto Latini, Byzantine Empire, Campania, Campiglia Marittima, Canzone, Carlo Collodi, Carmignano, Carrara, Carthage, Cascina, Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, Castiglion Fiorentino, Castiglione della Pescaia, Castiglione di Garfagnana, Castle, Catherine de' Medici, Cecco Angiolieri, Celts, ..., Central Italy, Certaldo, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chianina, Chianti, Chiantishire, Chiefdom, China, Chivalry, Cimabue, Cinta Senese, City-state, Civilization, Classic stamp, Cloister, Colle di Val d'Elsa, Collegiate Church of San Gimignano, Comune, Cortona, Cosimo de' Medici, Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Costanzo Ciano, Courtly love, Dante Alighieri, Dante da Maiano, Della Robbia, Democratic Party (Italy), Dino Perrone Compagni, Discovery Network, Divine Comedy, Dolce Stil Novo, Domenico di Bartolo, Domenico di Pace Beccafumi, Donatello, Duccio, Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Duchy of Parma, Edison, New Jersey, Elba, Emilia-Romagna, Empoli, Enrico Rossi (politician), Etruria, Etruscan civilization, Europe, European Parliament election, 2014 (Italy), Fibonacci, Fiesole, Filippo Brunelleschi, Filippo Lippi, First French Empire, Fivizzano, Florence, Florence Cathedral, Florentine Camerata, Florentine painting, Folgóre da San Gimignano, Fosdinovo, Fra Angelico, François Rabelais, France, Francesco Guicciardini, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Fumarole, Galeazzo Ciano, Galileo Galilei, Giacomo Puccini, Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand 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Province of Livorno, Province of Lucca, Province of Massa and Carrara, Province of Pisa, Province of Pistoia, Province of Prato, Province of Siena, Realism (arts), Regions of Italy, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Republic of Siena, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romanticism, Rome, Rusellae, San Gimignano, San Miniato, Sandro Botticelli, Sansepolcro, Sarcasm, Second Italian War of Independence, Siena, Siena Cathedral, Sienese School, Silvio Berlusconi, Simone Martini, Solfège, Sorano, Sovana, State of the Presidi, Stefano di Giovanni, Suvereto, Symphony, T-bone steak, Taddeo di Bartolo, Textile, The Birth of Venus, The Prince, Tiber, Transport, Truffle, Tuscan Archipelago, Tuscan dialect, Tuscia, Tyrrhenian Sea, Uffizi, Umbria, United Provinces of Central Italy, University of Wisconsin Press, Val d'Orcia, Valdichiana, Versilia, Via Francigena, Viareggio, Vicopisano, Villa Basilica, Villanovan culture, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Visigoths, Volterra, Wiley-Blackwell, Wine, World 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The Accademia Musicale Chigiana (English: Chigiana Musical Academy) is a music institute in Siena, Italy.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aldus Pius Manutius (Aldo Pio Manuzio; 1449/14526 February 1515) was a Venetian humanist, scholar, and educator.
Alessandro de' Medici (22 July 1510 – 6 January 1537) called "il Moro" ("the Moor") due to his dark complexion, Duke of Penne and also Duke of Florence (from 1532), was ruler of Florence from 1531 to his death in 1537.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Ambrogio Lorenzetti (or Ambruogio Laurati) (c. 1290 – 9 June 1348) was an Italian painter of the Sienese school.
American Heroes Channel (AHC; formerly Military Channel and originally Discovery Wings Channel) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by Discovery Inc. The network carries programs related to the military, warfare, and military history and science.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrea Pisano (Pontedera 12901348 Orvieto) also known as Andrea da Pontedera, was an Italian sculptor and architect.
The Apennine culture is a technology complex in central and southern Italy from the Italian Middle Bronze Age (15th-14th centuries BC).
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy, capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany.
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.
Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement (Articolo 1 – Movimento Democratico e Progressista, MDP), most commonly known as Democrats and Progressives (Democratici e Progressisti), is a social-democratic political party in Italy, formed in February 2017 by a left-wing split from the Democratic Party (PD) and soon joined by a group of splinters from the Italian Left (SI).
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Badia Tedalda is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Arezzo in the Italian region Tuscany, located about east of Florence and about northeast of Arezzo.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
Barga is a medieval town and comune of the province of Lucca in Tuscany, central Italy.
The Bargello, also known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo (Palace of the People), is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy.
The naval Battle of Giglio was a military clash between a fleet of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and a fleet of the Republic of Genoa in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bibbona is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Livorno in the Italian region Tuscany, located about southwest of Florence and about southeast of Livorno in the Val di Cecina.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bolgheri (IPA) is a central Italian village and hamlet (frazione) of Castagneto Carducci, a municipality (comune) in the province of Livorno, Tuscany.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brunello di Montalcino is a red DOCG Italian wine produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcino located about 80 km south of Florence in the Tuscany wine region.
Brunetto Latini (c. 1220–1294) (who signed his name Burnectus Latinus in Latin and Burnecto Latino in Italian) was an Italian philosopher, scholar, notary, and statesman.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Campiglia Marittima is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Livorno in the Italian region Tuscany, located about southwest of Florence and about southeast of Livorno.
Literally "song" in Italian, a canzone (plural: canzoni; cognate with English to chant) is an Italian or Provençal song or ballad.
Carlo Lorenzini, better known by the pen name Carlo Collodi (24 November 1826 – 26 October 1890), was an Italian author and journalist, widely known for his world-renowned fairy tale novel The Adventures of Pinocchio.
Carmignano is a comune (municipality) in the province of Prato, part of the Italian region Tuscany.
Carrara is a city and comune in Tuscany, in central Italy, of the province of Massa and Carrara, and notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cascina is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Pisa in the Italian region Tuscany, located about west of Florence and about southeast of Pisa.
Castelnuovo di Garfagnana is a town and comune in the province of Lucca, Toscana, central Italy.
Castiglion Fiorentino is a small, walled city in eastern Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Arezzo, between the cities of Arezzo and Cortona.
Castiglione della Pescaia, regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, Italy.
Castiglione di Garfagnana is a medieval walled town and comune of 1,878 inhabitants in the province of Lucca.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Catherine de Medici (Italian: Caterina de Medici,; French: Catherine de Médicis,; 13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589), daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II.
Cecco Angiolieri (c. 1260 - c. 1312) was an Italian poet.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Certaldo is a town and comune of Tuscany, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Florence, in the middle of Valdelsa.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
The Chianina is an Italian breed of cattle, formerly principally a draught breed, now raised mainly for beef.
A Chianti wine is any wine produced in the Chianti region, in central Tuscany, Italy.
Chiantishire is an informal nickname given to an area of Tuscany, Italy, where many upper class British citizens have moved or usually spend their holidays.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
Cimabue (1240 – 1302),Vasari, G. Lives of the Artists.
The Cinta Senese is a breed of domestic pig from the province of Siena, in Tuscany, central Italy.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A classic stamp is a postage stamp of a type considered distinctive by philatelists, typically applied to stamps printed in the early period of stamp production, e.g., before about 1870.
A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.
Colle di Val d'Elsa or Colle Val d'Elsa is a town and comune in Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Siena.
The Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta, San Gimignano is a Roman Catholic collegiate church and minor basilica located in San Gimignano, Tuscany, central Italy, situated in the Piazza del Duomo at the town's heart.
The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy.
Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.
Cosimo I de' Medici (12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574) was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death.
Costanzo Ciano, 1st Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (30 August 1876 – 26 June 1939) was an Italian naval officer and politician.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Dante da Maiano was a late thirteenth-century poet who composed mainly sonnets in Italian and Occitan.
Della Robbia is a surname.
The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
Marquis Dino Perrone Compagni (born 22 October 1879 in Florence – died 5 January 1950 in Florence) was a leading figure in the early years of Italian fascism.
A Discovery Network (DN) is a community that can include commercial, academic, governmental and independent entities collaborating and coordinating their efforts to enrich society with new material goods and services, and extracting some value from doing so.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Dolce Stil Novo (Italian for "sweet new style", modern Italian stile nuovo), or stilnovismo, is the name given to the most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy.
Domenico di Bartolo (birth name Domenico Ghezzi), born in Asciano, Siena, was a Sienese painter who became active during the early Renaissance period.
Domenico di Pace Beccafumi (1486May 18, 1551) was an Italian Renaissance-Mannerist painter active predominantly in Siena.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
Duccio di Buoninsegna (c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319) was an Italian painter active in Siena, Tuscany, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
Edison is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.
Empoli is a town and comune in Tuscany, Italy, about southwest of Florence, to the south of the Arno in a plain formed by the river.
Enrico Rossi (born 25 August 1958) is an Italian politician, since 2010 President of Tuscany.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Parliament election of 2014 in Italy took place on 25 May 2014.
Fibonacci (c. 1175 – c. 1250) was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
Fiesole is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, northeast of that city.
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was an Italian designer and a key figure in architecture, recognised to be the first modern engineer, planner and sole construction supervisor.
Fra' Filippo Lippi, O.Carm. (c. 1406 – 8 October 1469), also called Lippo Lippi, was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento (15th century).
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Fivizzano is a comune in the province of Massa and Carrara, Tuscany, central Italy.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (in English "Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower") is the cathedral of Florence, Italy, or Il Duomo di Firenze, in Italian.
The Florentine Camerata, also known as the Camerata de' Bardi, were a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in late Renaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama.
Florentine painting or the Florentine School refers to artists in, from, or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in Florence in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of Western painting.
Folgóre da San Gimignano, pseudonym of Giacomo di Michele or Jacopo di Michele (c. 1270 – c. 1332) was an Italian poet.
Fosdinovo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Massa and Carrara in the Italian region Tuscany, located about northwest of Florence and about northwest of Massa.
Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francesco Guicciardini (6 March 1483 – 22 May 1540) was an Italian historian and statesman.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
A fumarole (or fumerole – the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (22 December 1858 29 November 1924) was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
Gian Gastone de' Medici (Giovanni Battista Gastone; 24 May 1671 – 9 July 1737) was the seventh and last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni di Cosimo I de' Medici (29 September 1544 – 20 November 1562), also known as Giovanni de' Medici the Younger, was an Italian cardinal.
Girolamo Savonarola (21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence.
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Grosseto is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto.
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (guelfi e ghibellini) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.
Guido Cavalcanti (between 1250 and 1259 – August 1300) was an Italian poet and troubadour, as well as an intellectual influence on his best friend, Dante Alighieri.
Guido Guinizelli (c. 1230–1276), born in Bologna, in present-day Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, was an Italian poet and 'founder' of the Dolce Stil Novo.
Guido of Arezzo (also Guido Aretinus, Guido Aretino, Guido da Arezzo, Guido Monaco, or Guido d'Arezzo, or Guy of Arezzo also Guy d'Arezzo) (991/992 – after 1033) was an Italian music theorist of the Medieval era.
Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
High culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.
The historic centre of Florence is part of quartiere 1 of the Italian city of Florence.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Il Sodoma (1477 – 14 February 1549) was the name given to the Italian Renaissance painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Isola del Giglio (Giglio Island) is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, and is part of the Province of Grosseto.
A constitutional referendum was held in Italy on Sunday 4 December 2016.
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
A general election took place on 24–25 February 2013 to determine the 630 members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 315 elective members of the Senate of the Republic for the 17th Parliament of the Italian Republic.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana,; RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a German puppet state with limited recognition that was created during the later part of World War II, existing from the beginning of German occupation of Italy in September 1943 until the surrender of German troops in Italy in May 1945.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Larderello is a frazione of the comune of Pomarance, in Tuscany in central Italy.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
The Leccino olive is one of the primary olive cultivars used in the production of Italian olive oil.
Legambiente is an Italian environmentalist association with roots in the anti-nuclear movement that developed in Italy and throughout the Western world in the second half of the '70s.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Liber Abaci (1202, also spelled as Liber Abbaci) is a historic book on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nickname Fibonacci.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
The Ligurian Sea (Mar Ligure; Mer Ligurienne) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera (Liguria) and the island of Corsica.
Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1860, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities.
The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions.
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy.
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The Lucchese School, also known as the School of Lucca and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a school of painting and sculpture that flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries in Pisa and Lucca in Tuscany with affinities to painters in Volterra.
Lucignano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Arezzo in the Italian region Tuscany, located about southeast of Florence and about southwest of Arezzo.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.
The Maremma is a coastal area of western central Italy, bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.
Masolino da Panicale (nickname of Tommaso di Cristoforo Fini; c. 1383 – c. 1447) was an Italian painter.
Massa Marittima is a town and comune of the province of Grosseto, southern Tuscany, Italy, 49 km NNW of Grosseto.
Matteo di Giovanni (c. 1430 – 1495) was an Italian Renaissance artist from the Sienese School.
Matteo Renzi (born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Italy from February 2014 until December 2016.
The Medici villas are a series of rural building complexes in Tuscany which were owned by members of the Medici family between the 15th century and the 17th century.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
The Metropolitan City of Florence (Città Metropolitana di Firenze) is a metropolitan city in the Tuscany region, Italy.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Montalcino is a hill town and comune in Tuscany, Italy.
Monte Argentario is a comune (municipality) and a peninsula belonging to the Province of Grosseto in the Italian region Tuscany, located about south of Florence and about south of Grosseto.
Montecatini Terme is an Italian municipality (commune) of 21,095 inhabitants within the province of Pistoia in Tuscany, Italy.
Montepulciano is a medieval and Renaissance hill town and comune in the Italian province of Siena in southern Tuscany.
Morellino di Scansano DOCG is an Italian red wine made in the hilly environs of the village of Scansano, GR, in the Maremma region of coastal Tuscany, which has an ancient but obscure tradition of winemaking.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
A notary public (or notary or public notary) of the common law is a public officer constituted by law to serve the public in non-contentious matters usually concerned with estates, deeds, powers-of-attorney, and foreign and international business.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Orbetello is a town and comune in the province of Grosseto (Tuscany), Italy.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast, mainly Renaissance, palace in Florence, Italy.
Paolo Uccello (1397 – 10 December 1475), born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art.
Pescia is an Italian city in the province of Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The Piazza dei Miracoli (Square of Miracles), formally known as Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square), is a walled 8.87-hectare area located in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, recognized as an important center of European medieval art and one of the finest architectural complexes in the world.
Pienza, a town and comune in the province of Siena, in the Val d'Orcia in Tuscany (central Italy), between the towns of Montepulciano and Montalcino, is the "touchstone of Renaissance urbanism." In 1996, UNESCO declared the town a World Heritage Site, and in 2004 the entire valley, the Val d'Orcia, was included on the list of UNESCO's World Cultural Landscapes.
Pier Luigi Bersani (born 29 September 1951) is an Italian politician and was Secretary of the Democratic Party (DP), Italy's leading centre-left party, from 2009 to 2013.
Piero di Cosimo de' Medici (the Gouty), (Italian: Piero "il Gottoso") (1416 – 2 December 1469) was the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance.
Piero di Tommaso Soderini (May 18, 1450 – June 13, 1522) also known as Pier Soderini, was an Italian statesman of the Republic of Florence.
Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (15 February 1472 – 28 December 1503), called Piero the Unfortunate, was the gran maestro of Florence from 1492 until his exile in 1494.
Pietrasanta is a town and comune on the coast of northern Tuscany in Italy, in the province of Lucca.
Pietro Lorenzetti (or Pietro Laurati; c. 1280 – 1348) was an Italian painter, active between c.1306 and 1345.
Pietro Antonio Stefano Mascagni (7 December 1863 – 2 August 1945) was an Italian composer most noted for his operas.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
Pinocchio is a fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi.
Piombino is an Italian town and comune of about 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno (Tuscany).
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Pisa Cathedral (Cattedrale Metropolitana Primaziale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Pisa) is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy.
Pistoia is a city and comune in the Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of a province of the same name, located about west and north of Florence and is crossed by the Ombrone Pistoiese, a tributary of the River Arno.
Pitigliano is a town in the province of Grosseto, located about south-east of the city of Grosseto, in Italy.
Poggio a Caiano is a town and comune in the province of Prato, Tuscany region Italy.
Pontedera (Latin: Pons Herae) is an industrial town in the province of Pisa, Tuscany, central Italy.
Pontremoli (Latin Apua; Pontrémal in the local dialect) is a small city, comune former Latin Catholic bishopric in the province of Massa and Carrara, Tuscany region, central Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Poppi is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Arezzo in the Italian region Tuscany, located about east of Florence and about northwest of Arezzo.
Populonia or Populonia Alta (Etruscan: Pupluna, Pufluna or Fufluna, all pronounced Fufluna; Latin: Populonium, Populonia, or Populonii) today is a frazione of the comune of Piombino (Tuscany, central Italy).
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
Prato is a city and comune in Tuscany, Italy, the capital of the Province of Prato.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The province of Arezzo or Arretium (provincia di Arezzo) is the easternmost province in the Tuscany region of northern Italy.
The Province of Florence (Provincia di Firenze) was a province in the northeast of Tuscany region of Italy.
The Province of Grosseto (Provincia di Grosseto) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy.
The province of Livorno or, traditionally, province of Leghorn (provincia di Livorno) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy.
The Province of Lucca (Provincia di Lucca) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy.
The Province of Massa-Carrara (Provincia di Massa-Carrara) is a province in the Tuscany region of central Italy.
The Province of Pisa (Provincia di Pisa) is a province in the Tuscany region of central Italy.
The province of Pistoia (provincia di Pistoia) is a province in the Tuscany region of central Italy.
The Province of Prato (Provincia di Prato) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy.
The Province of Siena (Provincia di Siena) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The Republic of Siena (Repubblica di Siena) was a historic state consisting of the city of Siena and its surrounding territory in Tuscany, central Italy.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rusellae, situated in the archaeological area of Roselle, was an important ancient town of Etruria (roughly modern Tuscany), and subsequently of ancient Rome, which survived until the Middle Ages before being abandoned.
San Gimignano is a small walled medieval hill town in the province of Siena, Tuscany, north-central Italy.
San Miniato is a town and comune in the province of Pisa, in the region of Tuscany, Italy.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
Sansepolcro, formerly Borgo Santo Sepolcro, is a town and comune founded in the 11th century, located in the Italian Province of Arezzo in the eastern part of the region of Tuscany.
Sarcasm is "a sharp, bitter, or cutting expression or remark; a bitter gibe or taunt".
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
Siena Cathedral (Duomo di Siena) is a medieval church in Siena, Italy, dedicated from its earliest days as a Roman Catholic Marian church, and now dedicated to the Assumption of Mary.
The Sienese School of painting flourished in Siena, Italy, between the 13th and 15th centuries.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Simone Martini (– 1344) was an Italian painter born in Siena.
In music, solfège or solfeggio, also called sol-fa, solfa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music.
Sorano is a town and comune in the province of Grosseto, southern Tuscany (Italy).
Sovana is a small town in southern Tuscany, Italy, a frazione of Sorano, a comune in the province of Grosseto.
The State of the Presidi (Italian Stato dei Presidi, meaning "state of the garrisons") was a small state (300 km2) in Italy between 1557 and 1801.
For the village near Livorno, see Sassetta, Tuscany Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo, known as il Sassetta (ca.1392–1450 or 1451) was an Italian painter who is considered one of the most important representatives of Sienese Renaissance painting.
Suvereto is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Livorno in the Italian region Tuscany, located about southwest of Florence and about southeast of Livorno.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
The T-bone and porterhouse are steaks of beef cut from the short loin (called the sirloin in Commonwealth countries and Ireland).
Taddeo di Bartolo (c. 1363 – 26 August 1422), also known as Taddeo Bartoli, was an Italian painter of the Sienese School during the early Renaissance.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Birth of Venus (Nascita di Venere) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli probably made in the mid 1480s.
The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.
The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea, west of Tuscany, Italy.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
Tuscia is a historical region of Italy that comprised the territories under Etruscan influence and the name adopted for Etruria after the Roman conquest.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
The Uffizi Gallery (italic) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.
Umbria is a region of central Italy.
The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Confederation of Central Italy or Government General of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
The University of Wisconsin Press (sometimes abbreviated as UW Press) is a non-profit university press publishing peer-reviewed books and journals.
The Val d'Orcia, or Valdorcia, is a region of Tuscany, central Italy, which extends from the hills south of Siena to Monte Amiata.
The Val di Chiana, Valdichiana, or Chiana Valley is an alluvial valley of central Italy, lying on the territories of the provinces of Arezzo and Siena in Tuscany and the provinces of Perugia and Terni in Umbria.
The Versilia is a part of Tuscany in the north-western province of Lucca, and is named after the Versilia river.
The Via Francigena is the common name of an ancient road and pilgrim route running from France to Rome, though it is usually considered to have its starting point much further away, in the English cathedral city of Canterbury.
Viareggio is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Vicopisano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Pisa in the Italian region Tuscany, located about west of Florence and about east of Pisa.
Villa Basilica is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lucca in the Italian region Tuscany, located about northwest of Florence and about northeast of Lucca.
The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by the Etruscan civilization.
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano is a red wine with a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status produced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montepulciano, Italy.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Volterra is a walled mountaintop town in the Tuscany region of Italy of which its history dates to before the 7th century BC and has substantial structures from the Etruscan, Roman, and Medieval periods.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The Italian Plague of 1629–31 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague which ravaged northern and central Italy.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.