69 relations: Afghanistan, Alexander Vovin, Battle of Dafei River, Buddhism, Chanyu, Chinese historiography, Chinese name, Chinese surname, Emperor Taizong's campaign against Tuyuhun, Five Dynasties, Former Yan, Gansu, Gonghe County, Hotan, Jun (country subdivision), Kashmir, Khagan, Khitan language, Later Han (Five Dynasties), Liaodong Peninsula, Linxia City, List of Bronze Age states, List of Classical Age states, List of Iron Age states, List of medieval great powers, Liu Zhiyuan, Mongolic languages, Murong, Murong Fuyun, Murong Hui, Murong Nuohebo, Murong Shun, Ningxia, Nomad, Northern and Southern dynasties, Northern Wei, Ordos Plateau, Proto-Mongolic language, Qiang (historical people), Qilian Mountains, Qinghai, Qinghai Lake, Rouran Khaganate, Shaanxi, Shatuo, Sichuan, Silk Road, Sister group, Songtsen Gampo, Songyun, ..., Standard Tibetan, Tang dynasty, Tangut people, Thonmi Sambhota, Tibet, Tibetan Empire, Tiele people, Tuyuhun, Tuyuhun language, Western Qin, Western Xia, Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms), Xianbei, Xianbei state, Xinjiang, Xue Rengui, Yellow River, Yin Mountains, Zizhi Tongjian. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Alexander Vladimirovich Vovin (Александр Владимирович Вовин, born 1961 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian-American linguist and philologist, currently directeur d'études at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)) in Paris, France.
The Battle of Dafei River was fought in mid-670 between the forces of the Chinese Tang dynasty and the Tibetan Empire, for control over the Tarim Basin (the "Anxi Protectorate" in Chinese parlance).
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Chanyu (short form for Chengli Gutu Chanyu) was the title used by the nomadic supreme rulers of Inner Asia for eight centuries and was superseded by the title "Khagan" in 402 CE.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), the second emperor of Tang China faced challenges throughout his reign from Tang's western neighbor, the state of Tuyuhun, whose Busabuo Khan Murong Fuyun constantly challenged Chinese authority in the border regions.
The Five Dynasties was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century China.
The Former Yan (337-370) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gonghe County, also known as Kungho, is a county of Qinghai Province, China under the administration of Hainan Prefecture.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Zhou dynasty (c. 7th century BCE) until the early Tang (c. 7th century CE).
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).
The Later Han was founded in 947.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
Linxia City, once known as Hezhou, is a county-level city in the province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China, and the capital of the multi-ethnic Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture.
The Bronze Age is a period, 3300 – 1200 BC, characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze and proto-writing, and other features of urban civilization, circa 3300 BC to 1200 BC.
The classical age (also the classical antiquity, classical period or classical era) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history generally centered on the Mediterranean Sea and Near East, comprising the interlocking ancient civilizations, c. 600 BC to 200 AD.
The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron, circa 1200 BC to 600 BC.
This is a list of great powers during the medieval period.
Liu Zhiyuan (劉知遠) (March 4, 895 – March 10, 948), later changed to Liu Gao (劉暠), formally Emperor Gaozu of (Later) Han ((後)漢高祖), was the ethnically-Shatuo founder of the Later Han, the fourth of the Five Dynasties in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history. It, if the subsequent Northern Han is not considered part of its history, was also one of the shortest-lived states in Chinese history, lasting only three years.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Murong or Muren refers to an ethnic Xianbei tribe who are a Mongolic people attested from the time of Tanshihuai (reigned 156-181).
Murong Fuyun (慕容伏允) (597–635), formal title Busabo Khan (步薩鉢可汗), was a ruler of the Xianbei state Tuyuhun.
Murong Hui (慕容廆), (269–333) Xianbei chief and Duke Xiang of Liaodong, posthumously honored as Prince Wuxuan of Yan.
Murong Nuohebo (慕容諾曷鉢) (died 688), regal title Wudiyebaledou Khan (烏地也拔勒豆可汗) or, in short, Ledou Khan (勒豆可汗), Tang Dynasty noble title Prince of Qinghai (青海王), was the last khan of the Xianbei state Tuyuhun.
Murong Shun (慕容順) (died 635), regal title Zhugulüwugandou Khan (趉故呂烏甘豆可汗) or, in short, Gandou Khan (甘豆可汗), Tang Dynasty noble title Prince of Xiping (西平王), was briefly a khan of the Xianbei state Tuyuhun.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
The Ordos Loop is a large rectangular bend of the Yellow River in central China.
Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages.
Qiang was a name given to various groups of people at different periods in ancient China.
The Qilian Mountains also known as Richthofen Range, (Tsilien Mountains;; Mongghul: Chileb), together with the Altyn-Tagh (Altun Shan) also known as Nan Shan (literally "Southern Mountains"), as it is to the south of Hexi Corridor, is a northern outlier of the Kunlun Mountains, forming the border between Qinghai and the Gansu provinces of northern China.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinghai Lake, Koko Nor (Mongolian: Хөх нуур) or Tso Ngonpo (Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་པོ།) is the largest lake in China.
The Rouran Khaganate, Ruanruan, Ruru, or Tantan was the name of a state established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shatuo (or, also: Shato, Sha-t'o, Sanskrit Sart Zuev Yu.A., "Horse Tamgas from Vassal Princedoms (Translation of Chinese composition "Tanghuyao" of 8-10th centuries)", Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences, Alma-Ata, I960, p. 127 (In Russian)) were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.
Songyun (1752-1835) was a military governor during the Qing dynasty of Imperial China, from 1802-1809.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
Thonmi Sambhota (Thönmi Sambhoṭa, aka Tonmi Sambhodha;, Tib. ཐོན་མི་སམྦྷོ་ཊ་, Wyl. thon mi sam+b+ho Ta; b. seventh cent.) is traditionally regarded as the inventor of the Tibetan script and author of the Sum cu pa and Rtags kyi 'jug pa in the 7th century AD.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The Tiele (Turkic *Tegreg " Carts"), also transliterated Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine Turkic peoples living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu.
Tuyuhun (Tibetan: ‘A-zha) was a powerful kingdom established by nomadic peoples related to the Xianbei in the Qilian Mountains and upper Yellow River valley.
Tuyuhun is an extinct language once spoken by the Tuyuhun of northern China about 1,500 years ago.
The Western Qin (385-400, 409-431) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
Tiefu was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156-234.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xue Rengui (614–683), formal name Xue Li (薛禮) but went by the courtesy name of Rengui, was one of the most famous Chinese generals during the early Tang Dynasty, due to references to him in popular literature.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Yin Mountains, also known colloquially as the Daqing Mountains, and in Mongolian as Dalan Qara, Dalan Terigün, Dalan Khar, Moni Agula, and Moni Uul, are mountains in the steppe forming the southern border of the eastern Gobi Desert of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, as well as the northern part of Hebei province.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.