137 relations: Acetate, Actin, Affinity chromatography, Amino acid, Animal, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Apoptosis, Aromaticity, ATPase, Ångström, Bacillary dysentery, Bacteria, Bacterial adhesin, Bacterial effector protein, Bacterial growth, Biochemistry, Burkholderia, Butyrate, Caesium chloride, Calcium, Caspase 1, Cecum, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Centrifuge, Chelation, Chlamydia (genus), Cholesterol, Congo red, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Density gradient, Detergent, Diarrhea, Differential centrifugation, Dye, EGTA (chemical), Electron microscope, Electrophoresis, Enzyme, Erwinia, Escherichia coli, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Eukaryote, Fiber diffraction, Flagellum, Foodborne illness, ..., Formate, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene cassette, Gene expression, Gene knockout, Genome, Gentamicin protection assay, Glanders, Gram-negative bacteria, Growth medium, Guadinomine, Gut flora, Horizontal gene transfer, Human, Hydrophobe, Ileum, Immune system, In vitro, In vivo, Infection, Ion, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lipid, Lipopolysaccharide, Lysis buffer, Lysozyme, Macrophage, Mass spectrometry, Microarray, Molecular cloning, Monomer, Motility, Mutation, N-terminus, Nanometre, Nickel, Northern blot, Operon, Organism, Osmotic concentration, Oxygen, PH, Plague (disease), Plant, Plant pathology, Plasmid, Polyhistidine-tag, Polymerization, Precipitation (chemistry), Propionate, Protein, Protein folding, Protein sequencing, Protein superfamily, Protein tag, Proteolysis, Proteome, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Recombinant DNA, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Rhizobium, Royal Society of Chemistry, Salmonella, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, SDS-PAGE, Secretion, Sexually transmitted infection, Shigella, Shigella flexneri, Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, Streptomyces, TAL effector, Temperature, Tissue (biology), Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transformation (genetics), Translation (biology), Triton X-100, Typhoid fever, Unified atomic mass unit, Vibrio, X-ray, Xanthomonas, Yersinia. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery, and is a severe form of shigellosis.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Adhesins are cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion or adherence to other cells or to surfaces, usually the host they are infecting or living in.
Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion system (TTSS/T3SS), a type 4 secretion system (TFSS/T4SS) or a Type VI secretion system (T6SS).
Growth is shown as ''L''.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Burkholderia is a genus of Proteobacteria whose pathogenic members include the Burkholderia cepacia complex which attacks humans and Burkholderia mallei, responsible for glanders, a disease that occurs mostly in horses and related animals; Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis; and Burkholderia cepacia, an important pathogen of pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF).
Butyrate (also known as butanoate) is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butyric acid (also known as butanoic acid).
Caesium chloride or cesium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Congo red is an organic compound, the sodium salt of 3,3′-(-4,4′-diyl)bis(4-aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid).
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Density gradient is a spatial variation in density over an area.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in microbiology and cytology used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid), also known as egtazic acid (INN, USAN), is an aminopolycarboxylic acid, a chelating agent.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erwinia is a genus of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria containing mostly plant pathogenic species which was named for the famous plant pathologist, Erwin Frink Smith.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fiber diffraction is a subarea of scattering, an area in which molecular structure is determined from scattering data (usually of X-rays, electrons or neutrons).
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Formate (IUPAC name: methanoate) is the anion derived from formic acid.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A gene cassette is a type of mobile genetic element that contains a gene and a recombination site.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology.
Glanders (from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands; malleus, Rotz; also known as "equinia", "farcy", and "malleus") is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Guadinomines are anti-infective compounds produced by Streptomyces sp.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A lysis buffer is a buffer solution used for the purpose of breaking open cells for use in molecular biology experiments that analyze the compounds of the cells (e.g. western blot).
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
A polyhistidine-tag is an amino acid motif in proteins that consists of at least six histidine (His) residues, often at the N- or C-terminus of the protein.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
The propionate, or propanoate ion, is C2H5COO− (the conjugate base of propionic acid).
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide.
A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).
Protein tags are peptide sequences genetically grafted onto a recombinant protein.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Ralstonia is a genus of Proteobacteria, previously included in the genus Pseudomonas.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salmonella enterica subsp.
SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) is a variant of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, an analytical method in biochemistry for the separation of charged molecules in mixtures by their molecular masses in an electric field.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans.
Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is a kind of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, characterized by the presence of anisotropic (directionally dependent) interactions.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae.
TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors (often referred to as TALEs, but not to be confused with the three amino acid loop extension homeobox class of proteins) are proteins secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria via their type III secretion system when they infect various plant species.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Triton X-100 (n) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and an aromatic hydrocarbon lipophilic or hydrophobic group.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Xanthomonas is a genus of Proteobacteria, many of which cause plant diseases.
Yersinia is a genus of bacteria in the family Yersiniaceae.