101 relations: Adobe FrameMaker, Adobe PageMaker, Adobe Systems, Antenna House Formatter, Apache FOP (Formatting Objects Processor), Arbortext Advanced Print Publisher, Artisan, Bell Labs, Brian Kernighan, Byte (magazine), Cathode ray tube, Column (typography), Composing stick, Computer, Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Desktop publishing, Digital image, Dingbat, Document Style Semantics and Specification Language, Donald Knuth, Fairchild Semiconductor, Film, Flong, Font, Formula editor, Galley proof, Glyph, GNU, GNU TeXmacs, Groff (software), Hewlett-Packard, History of Western typography, HTML, IBM Generalized Markup Language, Imposition, Iowan Old Style, Joe Ossanna, Laser printing, LaTeX, Leading, Leslie Lamport, Letter-spacing, Letterpress printing, Line length, Linotype machine, Lout (software), Lua (programming language), LuaTeX, Ludlow Typograph, LyX, ..., Macintosh, Markup language, Minicomputer, Monotype System, Offset printing, Open-source model, Orthography, Page (paper), Paige Compositor, Papier-mâché, Paste up, PDF, Phototypesetting, Plaster, Point (typography), PostScript, Prepress, Prince (software), Printer Command Language, Printing, Printing press, Punched tape, QuarkXPress, Raster image processor, Rendering (computer graphics), RenderX, Scailex Corporation, Scientific WorkPlace, SCRIPT (markup), Signature, Sort (typesetting), Standard Generalized Markup Language, Stereotype (printing), Strut (typesetting), Technical writing, TeX, The Long Short Cut, Type case, Type metal, Typeface, Typewriter, Typographic ligature, Unix, Unix-like, Wang Laboratories, WordPerfect, Written language, XML, XML Professional Publisher, XSL Formatting Objects, Z/OS. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Adobe FrameMaker is a document processor designed for writing and editing large or complex documents, including structured documents.
PageMaker was one of the first desktop publishing programs, introduced in 1985 by Aldus on the Apple Macintosh.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
Antenna House Formatter (AH Formatter) is a proprietary software program that uses either XSL-FO or Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to convert XML and HTML documents into PDF, SVG, INX, MIF, XPS, text, and Microsoft Word formats AH Formatter is developed by Antenna House Co., Ltd, based in Tokyo, Japan.
Formatting Objects Processor (FOP, also known as Apache FOP) is a Java application that converts XSL Formatting Objects (XSL-FO) files to PDF or other printable formats.
Arbortext Advanced Print Publisher (APP, formerly Advent 3B2) is a commercial typesetting software application sold by Parametric Technology Corporation.
An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Brian Wilson Kernighan (born January 1, 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix.
Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
In typography, a column is one or more vertical blocks of content positioned on a page, separated by gutters (vertical whitespace) or rules (thin lines, in this case vertical).
In letterpress printing and typesetting, a composing stick is a tool used to assemble pieces of metal type into words and lines, which are then transferred to a galley before being locked into a forme and printed.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century.
Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.
A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.
In typography, a dingbat (sometimes more formally known as a printer's ornament or printer's character) is an ornament, character, or spacer used in typesetting, often employed for the creation of box frames.
The Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL) is an international standard developed to provide a stylesheets for SGML documents.
Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
Flong is a term used in relief printing (also called a stereo mould), which refers to an intermediate step in making of a stereo plate typically used in a rotary press though not exclusively.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
A formula editor is a name for a computer program that is used to typeset mathematical works or formulae.
In printing and publishing, proofs are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra-wide margins.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
GNU TeXmacs is a scientific word processor and typesetting component of the GNU Project.
Groff (pronounced "gee-roff") (also called GNU troff) is a typesetting system that creates formatted output when given plain text mixed with formatting commands.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
Contemporary typographers view typography as a craft with a very long history tracing its origins back to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
Generalized Markup Language (GML) is a set of macros that implement intent-based (procedural) markup tags for the IBM text formatter, SCRIPT.
Imposition is one of the fundamental steps in the prepress printing process.
Iowan Old Style is a digital serif typeface designed by John Downer and released by Bitstream in 1990.
Joseph F. Ossanna (December 10, 1928, Detroit, Michigan – November 28, 1977, Morristown, New Jersey) worked as a member of the technical staff at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
In typography, leading refers to the distance between adjacent lines of type; however, the exact definition has become confused.
Leslie B. Lamport (born February 7, 1941) is an American computer scientist.
Examples of headline letter-spacing In typography, letter-spacing, also referred to as tracking by typographers working with pre-WYSIWYG digital systems, refers to an optically consistent degree of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect visual density in a line or block of text.
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper.
In typography, line length is the width of a block of typeset text, usually measured in units of length like inches or points or in characters per line (in which case it is a measure).
The Linotype machine is a "line casting" machine used in printing sold by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and related companies.
Lout is a batch document formatter invented by Jeffrey H. Kingston.
Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.
LuaTeX is a TeX-based computer typesetting system which started as a version of pdfTeX with a Lua scripting engine embedded.
A Ludlow Typograph is a hot metal typesetting system used in letterpress printing.
LyX (styled as \mathbf\!_\mathbf\!\mathbf; pronounced) is an open source document processor based on top of the LaTeX typesetting system.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
The Monotype system is system for printing by hot-metal typesetting from a keyboard.
Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
A page is one side of a leaf (or sheet) of paper, parchment or other material (or electronic media) in a book, magazine, newspaper, or other collection of sheets, on which text or illustrations can be printed, written or drawn, to create documents.
The Paige Compositor was an invention developed by James W. Paige (1842–1917) between 1872 and 1888.
Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.
Paste up refers to a method of creating or laying out publication pages that predates the use of the now-standard computerized page design desktop publishing programs.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Phototypesetting is a method of setting type, rendered obsolete with the popularity of the personal computer and desktop publishing software, that uses a photographic process to generate columns of type on a scroll of photographic paper.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
In typography, the point is the smallest unit of measure.
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
Prepress is the term used in the printing and publishing industries for the processes and procedures that occur between the creation of a print layout and the final printing.
Prince (formerly Prince XML) is a proprietary software program that converts XML and HTML documents into PDF files by applying Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
Printer Command Language, more commonly referred to as PCL, is a page description language (PDL) developed by Hewlett-Packard as a printer protocol and has become a de facto industry standard.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
QuarkXPress is a desktop publishing software for creating and editing complex page layouts in a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) environment.
A raster image processor (RIP) is a component used in a printing system which produces a raster image also known as a bitmap.
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
RenderX, Inc is a commercial software development company that provides standards-based software products, used for typeset-quality electronic and print output of business content.
Scailex Corporation Ltd. was known as Scitex Corporation Ltd. until December 2005.
Scientific WorkPlace (often abbreviated to SWP) is a software package for scientific word processing on Microsoft Windows and OS X. Although advertised as a WYSIWYG LaTeX-based word processor, it is actually a graphical user interface for editing LaTeX source files with the same ease-of-use of a word processor, while maintaining a screen view that resembles but is not identical to the eventual output that LaTeX produces.
SCRIPT,Stuart E. Madnick and Allen G. Moulton (1968) IEEE Transactions on Engineering Writing and Speech, Vol.
A signature (from signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent.
In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort or type is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mold and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a form from which a page is printed.
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents.
In printing, a stereotype, also known as a cliché, stereoplate or simply a stereo, was originally a "solid plate of type metal, cast from a papier-mâché or plaster mould (called a flong) taken from the surface of a forme of type" used for printing instead of the original.
In typesetting, a strut is an invisible character or element, used to ensure that a text has a minimum height and depth, even if no other elements are included.
Technical writing is any written form of writing or drafting technical communication used in a variety of technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, medical, consumer electronics, and biotechnology.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
The Long Short Cut is a 192-page novel by English author Paul Winterton using the pseudonym Andrew Garve.
A type case is a compartmentalized wooden box used to store movable type used in letterpress printing.
In printing, type metal (sometimes called hot metal) refers to the metal alloys used in traditional typefounding and hot metal typesetting.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
Wang Laboratories was a computer company founded in 1951, by An Wang and G. Y. Chu.
WordPerfect (WP) is a word processing application owned by Corel with a long history on multiple personal computer platforms.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
XML Professional Publisher (XPP) is an automated XML based publishing system that was developed out of a proprietary typesetting system.
XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects) is a markup language for XML document formatting that is most often used to generate PDF files.
z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM.
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