249 relations: Abugida, Acronym, Affricate consonant, Alchemical symbol, Alchemy, Aleph, Allah, Amalgam (chemistry), American manual alphabet, American Sign Language, Ampersand, Aqua regia, Aqua vitae, Arabic alphabet, Astronomy, Attic numerals, Æ, ß, Œ, Backward compatibility, Bain-marie, Bind rune, Blackletter, Boundary (real estate), Brahmic scripts, Byzantine Empire, Capital ẞ, Cascading Style Sheets, Cedilla, Ch (digraph), Chinese characters, Chinese New Year, Circumflex, Close back rounded vowel, Close-mid back rounded vowel, Code point, Collation, Comma, Complex text layout, Computer Modern, Contemporary art, CTAN, Cuneiform script, Cursive, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Danish language, Db ligature, Desktop publishing, Devanagari, ..., Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Digraph (orthography), Dollar sign, Donald Knuth, Dotted and dotless I, Dotted I (Cyrillic), Duden, Dutch language, Dwarf planet, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dz (digraph), Dzze, Early New High German, El (Cyrillic), Eliot Indian Bible, En (Cyrillic), Encyclopedia, English language, English orthography, Esperanto, Et cetera, Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, Fai Chun, FF Scala, Finnish orthography, Fjord, Fraktur, French franc, French language, Fricative consonant, Full stop, Futura (typeface), Georgian scripts, German language, German orthography, German orthography reform of 1996, Gha, Gill Sans, Glagolitic script, Glyph, Gothic language, Grapheme, Grass Mud Horse, Greek alphabet, Handwriting, Hebrew alphabet, Hindi, Hiragana, Hoefler Text, Hot metal typesetting, Hungarian language, Hwair, Hyphen, Ice, Icelandic language, IJ (digraph), Initial Teaching Alphabet, InPage, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, International System of Units, Internet meme, Iotated A, Iotated E, Iotation, Italic type, Jacques Paul Migne, Japanese language, Johannes Bureus, John Eliot (missionary), Jonathan Hoefler, Journeyman, Judeo-Arabic languages, Kana ligature, Katakana, Kerning, Ko (kana), Koto (kana), Lamedh, Lao language, LaTeX, Latin, Latin alphabet, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Linux Libertine, Lisp, List of words that may be spelled with a ligature, Lje, Ll, Logogram, MacOS, Martin Majoor, Massachusett language, Massachusett writing systems, Medieval Latin, Mem, Microsoft Office, Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Word, Middle High German, Middle Welsh, Migration Period, Monogram, Morpheme, Mrs Eaves, Nabataean alphabet, Nasalization, Nastaʿlīq script, Netherlands, Neville Chamberlain, New High German, Nje, Normans, North Germanic languages, Norwegian language, Old English, Old Norse, Oni (letter), OpenType, Operating system, Ornamental Dingbats, Ot (Cyrillic), Ou (ligature), Palatal nasal, Patrologia Latina, Philology, Phonetic transcription, Phototypesetting, Pi (letter), Pluto, Portuguese language, Printing press, Qp ligature, Ri (kana), Ring (diacritic), Runes, Runic inscriptions, Sans-serif, Sanskrit, Scandinavian Mountains, Scribal abbreviation, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Sing Tao Daily, Soft sign, Spanish language, Spanish peseta, TeX, The New York Times, Tilde, Tittle, To (kana), Transliteration, Trebuchet MS, Turkish alphabet, Typeface, Typesetting, Typography, U, U (Cyrillic), Uk (Cyrillic), Uni (letter), Unicode, Unicode Consortium, Unicode symbols, Urdu, V, Vie (letter), Virama, Voiced alveolar affricate, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless postalveolar affricate, Vowel, Vuk Karadžić, W, Web browser, Welsh language, Writing, Written Chinese, Wynn, XeTeX, Xu Bing, Ya (Cyrillic), Yae (Cyrillic), Yery, Yo (kana), Yori (kana), Yu (Cyrillic), Yus, Z, Zapfino, Zhwe, Zuzana Licko. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
The American Manual Alphabet (AMA) is a manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
Aqua vitae (Latin for "water of life") or aqua vita is an archaic name for a concentrated aqueous solution of ethanol.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Attic numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC.
Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
Œ (minuscule: œ) is a Latin alphabet grapheme, a ligature of o and e. In medieval and early modern Latin, it was used to represent the Greek diphthong οι and in a few non-Greek words, usages that continue in English and French.
Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.
A bain-marie (also known as a water bath or double boiler), a type of heated bath, is a piece of equipment used in science, industry, and cooking to heat materials gently and gradually to fixed temperatures, or to keep materials warm over a period of time.
A bind rune (bandrún) is a ligature of two or more runes.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
A unit of real estate or immovable property is limited by a legal boundary (sometimes also referred to as a property line or a lot line).
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the eszett (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography (ß).
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
Complex text layout (abbreviated CTL) or complex text rendering refers to the typesetting of writing systems in which the shape or positioning of a grapheme depends on its relation to other graphemes.
Computer Modern is the original family of typefaces used by the typesetting program TeX.
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.
CTAN (an acronym for "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network") is the authoritative place where TeX related material and software can be found for download.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The db ligature, ȸ, is a typographic ligature of Latin d and b, and used in Africanist linguistics for the transcription of certain African languages to represent, for example in the Zulu sequence.
Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
The dollar sign ($ or) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world.
Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.
Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.
The dotted i (І і; italics: І і ), also called decimal i (и десятеричное), is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.
Dzze (Ꚉ ꚉ; italics: Ꚉ ꚉ) is a letter of the old Abkhaz alphabet and the old Komi alphabet.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Eliot Indian Bible (officially: Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God, a.k.a.: Algonquian Bible) was the first Bible published in British North America.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Et cetera (in English), abbreviated to etc., etc, &c., or &c, is a Latin expression that is used in English to mean "and other similar things", or "and so forth".
The extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, also extIPA symbols for disordered speech or simply extIPA, are a set of letters and diacritics devised by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association to augment the International Phonetic Alphabet for the phonetic transcription of disordered speech.
Fai Chun (揮春) is a traditional decoration that is frequently used during Chinese New Year.
FF Scala is an old-style serif typeface designed by Dutch typeface designer Martin Majoor in 1990 for the Muziekcentrum Vredenburg in Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
Futura is a geometric sans-serif typeface designed by Paul Renner and released in 1927.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The German orthography reform of 1996 (Reform der deutschen Rechtschreibung von 1996) was a change to German spelling and punctuation that was intended to simplify German orthography and thus to make it easier to learn, without substantially changing the rules familiar to users of the language.
The letter Ƣ (minuscule: ƣ) has been used in the Latin orthographies of various, mostly Turkic languages, such as Azeri or the Jaꞑalif orthography for Tatar.
Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill and released by the British branch of Monotype from 1928 onwards.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Grass Mud Horse or Cǎonímǎ (草泥马) is a Chinese Internet meme widely used as a form of symbolic defiance of the widespread Internet censorship in China.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
Hoefler Text is an old-style serif font by Jonathan Hoefler and released by Apple Computer in 1991 to showcase advanced type technologies.
In printing and typography, hot metal typesetting (also called mechanical typesetting, hot lead typesetting, hot metal, and hot type) is a technology for typesetting text in letterpress printing.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hwair (also) is the name of, the Gothic letter expressing the or sound (reflected in English by the inverted wh-spelling for). Hwair is also the name of the Latin ligature ƕ (capital Ƕ) used to transcribe Gothic.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
The Initial Teaching Alphabet (I.T.A. or i.t.a.) is a variant of the Latin alphabet developed by Sir James Pitman (the grandson of Sir Isaac Pitman, inventor of a system of shorthand) in the early 1960s.
InPage is a word processor and page layout software for languages such as Urdu, Persian, Pashto and Arabic under Windows and Mac which was first developed in 1994.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.
Iotated A is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used today only in Church Slavonic.
Iotated E is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 – 24 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias, and the texts of the Church Fathers, with the goal of providing a universal library for the Catholic priesthood.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Johannes Thomae Bureus Agrivillensis (Johan Bure) (1568–1652) was a Swedish antiquarian, polymath and mystic.
John Eliot (c. 1604 – May 21, 1690) was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians whom some called "the apostle to the Indians" and the founder of Roxbury Latin School in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1645.
Jonathan Hoefler (born August 22, 1970) is an American typeface designer.
A journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft.
The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.
In the Japanese writing system are typographic ligatures in the kana writing system, both hiragana and katakana.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
In typography, kerning is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result.
こ, in hiragana, or コ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora.
ヿ, read as koto, is a kana ligature – typographic ligature in the Japanese language – consisting of a combination of the katakana graphs of コ and ト, and thus represents their combined sound, コト.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Linux Libertine is a digital typeface created by the Libertine Open Fonts Project, which aims to create free and open alternatives to proprietary typefaces such as Times New Roman.
A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants,. These misarticulations often result in unclear speech.
This list of words that may be spelled with a ligature in English encompasses words which have letters that may, in modern usage, either be rendered as two distinct letters or as a single, combined letter.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Martin Majoor (Baarn, 14 October 1960) is a Dutch type designer and graphic designer.
The Massachusett language is an Algonquian language of the Algic language family, formerly spoken by several peoples of eastern coastal and south-eastern Massachusetts and currently, in its revived form, in four communities of Wampanoag people.
Massachusett is an indigenous Algonquian language of the Algic language family.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Mrs Eaves is a transitional serif typeface designed by Zuzana Licko in 1996.
The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language.
Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Oni (asomtavruli, nuskhuri, mkhedruli ო) is the 16th letter of the three Georgian scripts.
OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Ornamental Dingbats is a Unicode block containing ornamental leaves, punctuation, and ampersands, quilt squares, and checkerboard patterns.
Ot (Ѿ ѿ; italics: Ѿ ѿ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet.
Ou (Majuscule: Ȣ, Minuscule: ȣ) is a ligature of the Greek letters ο and υ which was frequently used in Byzantine manuscripts.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
The Patrologia Latina (Latin for The Latin Patrology) is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1841 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Phototypesetting is a method of setting type, rendered obsolete with the popularity of the personal computer and desktop publishing software, that uses a photographic process to generate columns of type on a scroll of photographic paper.
Pi (uppercase Π, lowercase π; πι) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
The qp ligature, ȹ, is a typographic ligature of Latin q and p (also interpretable as a ligature of c and p), and is used in some phonetic transcription systems, particularly for African languages, to represent a voiceless labiodental plosive, for example in the Zulu sequence.
り, in hiragana, or リ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represent one mora.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets.
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
The Sing Tao Daily also known as Sing Tao Jih Pao is Hong Kong's second largest Chinese language newspaper.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.
と, in hiragana, or ト in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Trebuchet MS is a sans-serif typeface that Vincent Connare designed for the Microsoft Corporation in 1996.
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Uk (Оу оу; italics: Оу оу) is a digraph of the early Cyrillic alphabet, although commonly considered and used as a single letter.
Uni (asomtavruli, later, nuskhuri, later, mkhedruli უ) is the 23rd letter of the three Georgian scripts.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
In computing, a Unicode symbol is a Unicode character which is not part of a script used to write a natural language, but is nonetheless available for use as part of a text.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Vie (asomtavruli, nuskhuri, mkhedruli ჳ) is the 22nd letter of the three Georgian scripts.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.
XeTeX (or; see also Pronouncing and writing "TeX") is a TeX typesetting engine using Unicode and supporting modern font technologies such as OpenType, Graphite and Apple Advanced Typography (AAT).
Xu Bing (Chinese: 徐冰 /ɕý pīŋ/, born 1955) is a Chinese artist who lived in the United States for eighteen years.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.
Yae or Yæ (Ԙ ԙ; italics: Ԙ ԙ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, a ligature of Я (Ya) and Е (E); я and е. Yae was used in the old alphabet of the Mordvinic languages, where it represented the sounds, like the pronunciation of in "yak".
Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru (Ы ы; italics: Ы ы, usually called "Ы" in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
よ, in hiragana, or ヨ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, each of which represents one mora.
ゟ, read as yori, is a kana ligature – a typographic ligature in the Japanese language – consisting of a combination of the hiragana graphs of よ (/jo/) and り (/ri/), and thus represents their combined sound, より (/jori/) "from".
Yu (Ю ю; italics: Ю ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Zapfino is a calligraphic typeface designed for Linotype by typeface designer Hermann Zapf in 1998.
Zhwe (Ꚅ ꚅ; italics: Ꚅ ꚅ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zuzana Licko (born Zuzana Ličko, 1961) is a Slovak-born American type designer known for co-founding the graphic design magazine Emigre and for creating numerous typefaces, including Mrs Eaves.
Chinese ligature, Context-sensitive shaping, Contextual Ligatures, Latin alphabet ligatures, Ligature (language), Ligature (linguistics), Ligature (palaeography), Ligature (typography), List of Words Spelt With OE, Typographical ligature, ᵫ, Ꜳ, Ꜵ, Ꜷ, Ꜹ, ꜹ, Ꜻ, Ꜽ, Ꝏ, ꝏ, Ꝡ, ﬀ, ﬁ, ﬂ, ﬃ, ﬄ, ﬅ, ﬆ, ﭏ.