345 relations: Acheroraptor, Acrocanthosaurus, Alamosaurus, Albertosaurinae, Albertosaurus, Alioramus, Alligator, Allosauroidea, Allosaurus, Amateur, American Museum of Natural History, Ammonoidea, Anatomical terms of location, Ancient Greek, Ankylosauria, Ankylosaurus, Apex predator, Apposition, Araucaria araucana, Arctometatarsal, Arthur Lakes, Asia, Association football, Aublysodon, Australopithecine, Avulsion fracture, Bambiraptor, Barnum Brown, Bayou, BBC News, Biceps, Binocular vision, Binomial nomenclature, Biofilm, Biomechanics, Bipedalism, Bird, Bistahieversor, Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Blood cell, Blood vessel, Bone, Bone marrow, Brachialis muscle, Brachiosaurus, Bravoceratops, Buffalo, South Dakota, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, Burpee Museum of Natural History, Calcium, ..., Calorie, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Cannibalism, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Carnivore, Carnosauria, Carrion, Ceratopsia, Ceratopsidae, Charles W. Gilmore, Cheetah, Chevron (anatomy), Chicken, Cladistics, Cnemial crest, Cochlea, Coelurosauria, Collagen, Common ostrich, Compsognathus, Cooperative hunting, Coprolite, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodile, Crocodilia, Dactyloidae, Dakotaraptor, Darwinius, Daspletosaurus, Deinonychus, Deltoid muscle, Denversaurus, Depth perception, Diagenesis, Digitigrade, Dilong paradoxus, Dinosaur, Dinosaur Park Formation, Dinosaur renaissance, Dinosaur size, Dracorex, Dromaeosauridae, Ecological niche, Ectotherm, Edmontonia, Edmontosaurus, Edmontosaurus annectens, Edward Drinker Cope, Egg, Eggshell, Elephant, Encephalization quotient, Endothermic process, Estrogen, Evgeny Maleev, Evolution, Faith, South Dakota, Family (biology), Feather, Femur, Fenestra, Fibula, Field Museum of Natural History, Flowering plant, Footprint, Fossil, Framboid, Genus, Geochemistry, Geological formation, Geological period, Geological Society of America, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Giganotosaurus, Gigantothermy, Giraffe, Glyptodontopelta, Golden, Colorado, Gorgosaurus, Greek language, Gregory M. 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Currie, Philmont Scout Ranch, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Physiology, PLOS One, Popular culture, Pound (force), Pounds per square inch, Predation, Premaxilla, Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Protein, Pterosaur, Qianzhousaurus, Quetzalcoatlus, Rabbit, Ratite, Reproductive system, Rhinoceros, Richardoestesia, Robert T. Bakker, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Rudolph F. Zallinger, Saskatchewan, Sauropoda, Scavenger, Science (journal), Science News, Sea turtle, Sensory neuron, Serengeti, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual intercourse, Simon & Schuster, Sister group, Skeletal pneumaticity, Smithsonian (magazine), Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Soft tissue, Species, Specimens of Tyrannosaurus, Sphaerotholus, Squamosal bone, Standard deviation, Stephen L. Brusatte, Stereopsis, Stimulus (physiology), Stress fracture, Struthiomimus, Stygimoloch, Sue (dinosaur), Sue Hendrickson, Synonym (taxonomy), Tarbosaurus, Taxonomy (biology), Teratophoneus, Teres major muscle, The Age of Reptiles, The Company of Biologists, The Dinosaur Heresies, The Guardian, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Thermoregulation, Theropoda, Thescelosaurus, Thomas Carr (paleontologist), Thomas R. Holtz Jr., Tibia, Timeline of tyrannosaur research, Titanosaur, Toe, Tooth enamel, Torosaurus, Trackway, Triceratops, Trichomonas, Troodon, Troodontidae, Two Medicine Formation, Type (biology), Tyrannosauridae, Tyrannosauripus, Tyrannosauroidea, University of Washington, USA Today, Varanidae, Velociraptor, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vestigiality, Vulture, Warm-blooded, Western Interior Seaway, William Abler, Wyoming, Yale University, Year, Yixian Formation, Yutyrannus, Zhuchengtyrannus. Expand index (295 more) » « Shrink index
Acheroraptor is an extinct genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur known from the latest Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation of Montana, United States.
Acrocanthosaurus (meaning "high-spined lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that existed in what is now North America during the Aptian and early Albian stages of the Early Cretaceous.
Alamosaurus (meaning "Ojo Alamo lizard") is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs, containing a single known species, Alamosaurus sanjuanensis, from the late Cretaceous Period of what is now southern North America.
Albertosaurines, or dinosaurs of the subfamily Albertosaurinae, lived in the Late Cretaceous of United States and Canada.
Albertosaurus (meaning "Alberta lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaurs that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, about 70 million years ago.
Alioramus (meaning 'different branch') is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period of Asia.
An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.
Allosauroidea is a superfamily or clade of theropod dinosaurs which contains four families — the Metriacanthosauridae, Allosauridae, Carcharodontosauridae, and Neovenatoridae.
Allosaurus is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early TithonianTurner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). "Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A." Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D.D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.). The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard" alluding to its unique concave vertebrae (at the time of its discovery).
An amateur (French amateur "lover of", from Old French and ultimately from Latin amatorem nom. amator, "lover") is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income.
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ankylosauria is a group of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs of the order Ornithischia.
Ankylosaurus is a genus of armored dinosaur.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition.
Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, or Chilean pine) is an evergreen tree growing to 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height.
An arctometatarsalian organism is one in which the proximal part of the middle metatarsal is pinched between the surrounding metatarsals.
Arthur Lakes (December 21, 1844 – November 21, 1917) was a notable geologist, artist, writer, teacher and minister.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aublysodon (uncertain derivation; perhaps "backwards-flowing tooth"?) is a genus of carnivorous dinosaurs known only from the Judith River Formation in Montana, which has been dated to the late Campanian age of the late Cretaceous period (about 75 million years ago).
Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.
An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma.
Bambiraptor is a Late Cretaceous, 72-million-year-old, bird-like dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur described by scientists at the University of Kansas, Yale University, and the University of New Orleans.
Barnum Brown (February 12, 1873 – February 5, 1963), commonly referred to as Mr.
In usage in the United States, a bayou (or, from Cajun French) is a body of water typically found in a flat, low-lying area, and can be either an extremely slow-moving stream or river (often with a poorly defined shoreline), or a marshy lake or wetland.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bistahieversor (meaning "Bistahi destroyer") is a genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur.
The Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc. (BHI) is a private corporation specializing in the excavation and preparation of fossils, as well as the sale of both original fossil material and museum-quality replicas.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The brachialis (brachialis anticus) is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint.
Brachiosaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Jurassic Morrison Formation of North America.
Bravoceratops is an extinct genus of large chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur that lived approximately 70 million years ago, and is known from the Late Cretaceous Javelina Formation in what is now Texas, United States.
Buffalo is a town in Harding County, South Dakota, United States.
The Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture (Burke Museum) is a natural history museum in Seattle, Washington, in the United States.
The Burpee Museum of Natural History is located along the Rock River in downtown Rockford, Illinois, United States, at 737 North Main Street.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Carnegie Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as CMNH) located at 4400 Forbes Avenue in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, was founded by the Pittsburgh-based industrialist Andrew Carnegie in 1896.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Carnosauria is a large group of predatory dinosaurs that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.
Ceratopsia or Ceratopia (or; Greek: "horned faces", Κερατόψια) is a group of herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs that thrived in what are now North America, Europe, and Asia, during the Cretaceous Period, although ancestral forms lived earlier, in the Jurassic.
Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a family of marginocephalian dinosaurs including Triceratops, Centrosaurus, and Styracosaurus.
Charles Whitney Gilmore (March 11, 1874 – September 27, 1945) was an American paleontologist who gained renown in the early 20th century for his work on vertebrate fossils during his career at the United States National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
A chevron is one of a series of bones on the ventral (under) side of the tail in many reptiles, including dinosaurs (such as Diplodocus; see picture), and some mammals such as kangaroos and manatees.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
The cnemial crest is a crestlike prominence located at the front side of the head of the tibiotarsus or tibia in the legs of many mammals and reptiles (including birds and other dinosaurs).
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
Coelurosauria (from Greek, meaning "hollow tailed lizards") is the clade containing all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs. Coelurosauria is a subgroup of theropod dinosaurs that includes compsognathids, tyrannosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans; Maniraptora includes birds, the only dinosaur group alive today. Most feathered dinosaurs discovered so far have been coelurosaurs. Philip J. Currie considers it probable that all coelurosaurs were feathered. In the past, Coelurosauria was used to refer to all small theropods, this classification has since been abolished.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
Compsognathus (Greek kompsos/κομψός; "elegant", "refined" or "dainty", and gnathos/γνάθος; "jaw") is a genus of small, bipedal, carnivorous theropod dinosaur.
Cooperative hunting is when meat-eating animals hunt together in groups that contain both division of labor and role specialization.
A coprolite is fossilized feces.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
Dactyloidae are a family of lizards commonly known as anoles and native to warmer parts of the Americas, ranging from southeastern United States to Paraguay.
Dakotaraptor is a genus of large carnivorous dromaeosaurid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of North America.
Darwinius is a genus within the infraorder Adapiformes, a group of basal strepsirrhine primates from the middle Eocene epoch.
Daspletosaurus (meaning "frightful lizard") was a genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur that lived in western North America between about 77 and 74 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous Period.
Deinonychus (δεινός, 'terrible' and ὄνυξ, genitive ὄνυχος 'claw') is a genus of carnivorous dromaeosaurid coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur with one described species, Deinonychus antirrhopus.
The deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the human shoulder.
Denversaurus (meaning "Denver lizard") is a genus of herbivorous nodosaurid ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian) of western North America.
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.
Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.
A digitigrade, is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes.
Dilong (帝龍, which means 'emperor dragon') is a genus of basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
The Dinosaur Park Formation is the uppermost member of the Belly River Group (also known as the Judith River Group), a major geologic unit in southern Alberta.
The dinosaur renaissance was a small-scale scientific revolution that started in the late 1960s, and led to renewed academic and popular interest in dinosaurs.
Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public and to scientists.
Dracorex is a dubious dinosaur genus of the family Pachycephalosauridae, from the Late Cretaceous of North America.
Dromaeosauridae is a family of feathered theropod dinosaurs.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
Edmontonia was an armoured dinosaur, part of the nodosaur family from the Late Cretaceous Period.
Edmontosaurus (meaning "lizard from Edmonton") is a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur.
Edmontosaurus annectens (meaning "connected lizard from Edmonton) is a species of flat-headed or saurolophine hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur (a "duck-billed dinosaur") from the very end of the Cretaceous Period, in what is now North America.
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
An eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Evgeny/Evgenii Aleksandrovich Maleev (25 February 1915 – 12 April 1966) was a Soviet paleontologist who named the ankylosaur Talarurus; the theropods Tarbosaurus and Therizinosaurus; and the family Therizinosauridae.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Faith is a city in Meade County, South Dakota, United States.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
A fenestra (plural fenestrae) in anatomy, zoology and biology, is any small opening or pore.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
The Field Museum of Natural History, also known as The Field Museum, is a natural history museum in the city of Chicago, and is one of the largest such museums in the world.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Footprints are the impressions or images left behind by a person walking or running.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The term framboid describes a micromorphological feature common to certain sedimentary minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS2).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
The German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig is a central facility of the University of Leipzig (UL), Germany, and is jointly hosted by the universities of Halle, Jena and Leipzig, the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, and other research institutions.
Giganotosaurus is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now Argentina, during the early Cenomanian age of the Late Cretaceous period, approximately 98 to 97 million years ago.
Gigantothermy (sometimes called ectothermic homeothermy or inertial homeothermy) is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature than smaller animals by virtue of their smaller surface area to volume ratio.
The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.
Glyptodontopelta (meaning "Glyptodon shield", a reference to the similarity of its pelvic armor to that of Glyptodon) is a genus of dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous.
Golden is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States.
Gorgosaurus (meaning "dreadful lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, between about 76.6 and 75.1 million years ago.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregory M. Erickson, Ph.D. in paleobiology at Florida State University.
Gryposaurus (meaning "hooked-nosed (Greek grypos) lizard"; sometimes incorrectly translated as "griffin (Latin gryphus) lizard") was a genus of duckbilled dinosaur that lived about 83 to 74 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous (late Santonian to late Campanian stages) of North America.
Hadrosaurids (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae.
Hadrosaurus (from Greek ἁδρός, hadros, meaning "bulky" or "large", and σαῦρος, sauros, meaning "lizard") is a valid genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur that lived in North America during the Late Cretaceous Period. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only species in this genus, is known from a single specimen consisting of much of the skeleton and parts of the skull. The specimen was collected in 1858 from the Woodbury Formation in New Jersey, USA, representing the first dinosaur species known from more than isolated teeth to be identified in North America. Using radiometric dating of bivalve shells from the same formation, the sedimentary rocks where the Hadrosaurus fossil was found have been dated at some time between 80.5 and 78.5 million years ago.Gallagher, W.B. (2005). "" Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84(3): 241. In 1868 the only known specimen became the first ever mounted dinosaur skeleton and since 1991 the species H. foulkii has become the official state dinosaur of New Jersey.
A haemal arch (also spelled hemal arch) is a bony arch on the ventral side of a tail vertebra of a vertebrate.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The Hell Creek Formation is an intensively-studied division of mostly Upper Cretaceous and some lower Paleocene rocks in North America, named for exposures studied along Hell Creek, near Jordan, Montana.
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sr. (August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist.
In anatomy, a heterodont (from Greek, meaning "different teeth") is an animal which possesses more than a single tooth morphology.
Hill City is the oldest existing city in Pennington County, South Dakota, United States.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The term human equivalent is used in a number of different contexts.
The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Hypsilophodontidae is a potentially invalid family of ornithopod dinosaurs.
An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as "a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism", that is, the non-human equivalent of an artifact.
The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
In biology and botany, indeterminate growth is growth that is not terminated in contrast to determinate growth that stops once a genetically pre-determined structure has completely formed.
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals".
There are three known stable isotopes of oxygen (8O): 16O, 17O, and 18O.
John R. "Jack" Horner (born June 15, 1946) is an American paleontologist most famous for discovering and naming Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that some dinosaurs cared for their young.
John Bell Hatcher (October 11, 1861 – July 3, 1904) was an American paleontologist and fossil hunter best known for discovering Torosaurus.
John Harold Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet.
Joseph Mellick Leidy (September 9, 1823 – April 30, 1891) was an American paleontologist, parasitologist, and anatomist.
The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.
The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science-fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
Kenneth Carpenter (born September 21, 1949 in Tokyo, Japan) is a paleontologist.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees; food resources could also be in the form of hosts of parasitic or parasitoid wasps).
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.
Kritosaurus is an incompletely known genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur.
The Lance (Creek) Formation is a division of Late Cretaceous (dating to about 69 - 66 Ma) rocks in the western United States.
The Lancian was a North American faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous.
Laramidia was an island continent that existed during the Late Cretaceous period (99.6–66 Ma), when the Western Interior Seaway split the continent of North America in two.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence Morris Lambe (1863–1919) was a Canadian geologist and palaeontologist from the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC).
Lawrence Witmer is an American paleontologist.
Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
Leptoceratops (meaning 'little-horned face' and derived from Greek lepto-/λεπτο- meaning 'small', 'insignificant', 'slender', 'meagre' or 'lean', kerat-/κερατ- meaning 'horn' and -ops/ωψ meaning face), is a genus of primitive ceratopsian dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous Period (late Maastrichtian age, 66.8-66 Ma ago) of what is now Western North America.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Lucy is the common name of AL 288-1, several hundred pieces of bone fossils representing 40 percent of the skeleton of a female of the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis.
Lythronax is an extinct genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived around 80.6 to 79.9 million years ago in what is now southern Utah, USA.
The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age (uppermost stage) of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem.
Mapusaurus ("Earth lizard") was a giant carnosaurian dinosaur from the early Late Cretaceous (late Cenomanian to early Turonian stage) of what is now Argentina and possibly Chile.
Marginocephalia (/mär′jə-nō-sə-făl′ē-ən/ Latin: margin-head) is a clade of ornithischian dinosaurs that is characterized by a bony shelf or margin at the back of the skull.
Martin Lockley (born 1950) is a Welsh palaeontologist.
Mary Higby Schweitzer is a paleontologist at North Carolina State University, who lead the groups that discovered the remains of blood cells in dinosaur fossils and later discovered soft tissue remains in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen MOR 1125, as well as evidence that the specimen was a gravid female when she died.
Megalosauroidea (meaning 'great/big lizard forms') is a superfamily (or clade) of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm.
Metasequoia (dawn redwood) is a fast-growing, deciduous tree, and the sole living species, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, is one of three species of conifers known as redwoods.
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Montana State University (MSU) is a land-grant university located in Bozeman, Montana, United States.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Museum of the Rockies is a museum in Bozeman, Montana.
Nanotyrannus ("dwarf tyrant") is a potentially dubious genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur.
The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.
The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County is the largest natural and historical museum in the western United States.
The Natural History Museum (in German: Museum für Naturkunde) is a natural history museum located in Berlin, Germany.
The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.
A neck frill is the relatively extensive margin seen on the back of the heads of reptiles with either a bony support such as those present on the skulls of dinosaurs of the suborder Marginocephalia or a cartilaginous one as in the frill-necked lizard.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newsvine was a community-powered, collaborative journalism news website which draws content from its users and syndicated content from mainstream sources such as The Associated Press.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
A nomen oblitum (Plural: nomina oblita; Latin for "forgotten name") is a technical term, used in zoological nomenclature, for a particular kind of disused scientific name.
North Carolina State University (also referred to as NCSU, NC State, or just State) is a public research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus (Οἰδίπους Τύραννος IPA), or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC.
Ojoceratops (meaning "Ojo Alamo horned face") is a genus of ceratopsian dinosaur which lived in what is now New Mexico, United States.
Ojoraptorsaurus is a genus of oviraptorosaurian dinosaur from the late Cretaceous.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
Ornithischia is an extinct clade of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs characterized by a pelvic structure similar to that of birds.
Ornithomimidae (meaning "bird-mimics") is a group of theropod dinosaurs which bore a superficial resemblance to modern ostriches.
Ornithomimus ("bird mimic") is a genus of ornithomimid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America.
Ornithopods or members of the clade Ornithopoda are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape.
Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 – March 18, 1899) was an American paleontologist.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Pachycephalosaurus (meaning "thick-headed lizard," from Greek pachys-/παχυς- "thick", kephale/κεφαλη "head" and sauros/σαυρος "lizard") is a genus of pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Parasaurolophus (meaning "near crested lizard" in reference to Saurolophus) is a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur that lived in what is now North America and possibly Asia during the Late Cretaceous Period, about 76.5–73 million years ago.
Paronychodon (meaning "beside claw tooth") was a theropod dinosaur genus.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University is among the oldest, largest, and most prolific university natural history museums in the world.
Pectinodon is a genus of dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period (66 mya).
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Peter Dodson (born August 20, 1946) is an American paleontologist who has published many papers and written and collaborated on books about dinosaurs.
Peter Lars Larson (born 1952) is an American paleontologist, fossil collector, and president of the Black Hills Institute of Geological Research.
Philip John Currie, (born March 13, 1949) is a Canadian palaeontologist and museum curator who helped found the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta and is now a professor at the University of Alberta in Edmonton.
Philmont Scout Ranch is a large, rugged, mountainous ranch located near the town of Cimarron, New Mexico, covering 140,177 acres (219 sq mi; 567 km²) of wilderness in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.
The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Доклады Академии Наук СССР, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (DAN SSSR), Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
Qianzhousaurus is a genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur.
Quetzalcoatlus northropi is a pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Maastrichtian stage) and one of the largest-known flying animals of all time.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
Richardoestesia is a medium-sized (about) genus of theropod dinosaur from the late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America.
Robert Thomas Bakker (born March 24, 1945) is an American paleontologist who helped reshape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were endothermic (warm-blooded).
The Royal Tyrrell Museum is a Canadian tourist attraction and a centre of palaeontological research known for its collection of more than 130,000 fossils.
Rudolph Franz Zallinger (November 12, 1919 – August 1, 1995) was an American-based Austrian-Russian artist notable for his mural The Age of Reptiles (1947) at Yale University's Peabody Museum of Natural History.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
The Serengeti ecosystem is a geographical region in Africa.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Skeletal pneumaticity is the presence of air spaces within bones.
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) was founded in the US in 1940 for people with an interest in vertebrate paleontology; by 2014 it had about 2,000 members internationally, and holds annual meetings, mostly but not all in North America.
In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Tyrannosaurus rex, one of the most iconic dinosaurs, is known from numerous specimens, some of which have acquired a degree of notability in their own right because of their scientific importance and coverage by the media.
Sphaerotholus is a genus of pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of the western United States and Canada.
The squamosal is a bone of the head of higher vertebrates.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
Stephen Louis Brusatte (born April 24, 1984) is an American paleontologist and evolutionary biologist, who specializes in the anatomy and evolution of dinosaurs.
Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning "solid", and ὄψις opsis, "appearance, sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Stress fracture is a fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time.
Struthiomimus (meaning "ostrich mimic", from the Greek στρούθειος/stroutheios meaning "of the ostrich" and μῖμος/mimos meaning "mimic" or "imitator") is a genus of ornithomimid dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous of North America.
Stygimoloch (meaning "Styx devil" in Latin) is a dubious genus of pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from the end of the Cretaceous period, roughly 66 million years ago.
Sue is the nickname given to FMNH PR 2081, which is the largest, most extensive and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex specimen ever found at over 90% recovered by bulk.
Susan Hendrickson (born December 2, 1949) is an American paleontologist.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.
Tarbosaurus (meaning "alarming lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that flourished in Asia about 70 million years ago, at the end of the Late Cretaceous Period.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Teratophoneus ("monstrous murderer" (Greek: teras, "monster" and phoneus, "murderer")) is a genus of carnivorous tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur which lived during the late Cretaceous period (late Campanian age, about 77 to 76 million years ago) in what is now Utah, United States.
The teres major muscle is a muscle of the upper limb.
The Age of Reptiles is a mural depicting the period of ancient history when reptiles were the dominant creatures on the earth, painted by Rudolph F. Zallinger.
The Company of Biologists is a UK-based charity and not-for-profit publisher that was established in 1925 by George Parker Bidder III with the aim of promoting research and study across all branches of biology.
The Dinosaur Heresies: New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosaurs and Their Extinction is a 1986 book written by Robert T. Bakker.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.
Thescelosaurus (ancient Greek θέσκελος-/theskelos- meaning "godlike", "marvelous", or "wondrous" and σαυρος/sauros "lizard") was a genus of small ornithopod dinosaur that appeared at the very end of the Late Cretaceous period in North America.
Thomas D. Carr is a vertebrate paleontologist who received his Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 2005.
Thomas Richard Holtz Jr., Ph.D. (born 1965 in Los Angeles) is an American vertebrate palaeontologist and senior lecturer at the University of Maryland's Department of Geology.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
This timeline of tyrannosaur research is a chronological listing of events in the history of paleontology focused on the tyrannosaurs, a group of predatory theropod dinosaurs that began as small, long-armed bird-like creatures with elaborate cranial ornamentation but achieved apex predator status during the Late Cretaceous as their arms shrank and body size expanded.
Titanosaurs (members of the group Titanosauria) were a diverse group of sauropod dinosaurs which included Saltasaurus and Isisaurus.
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Torosaurus ("perforated lizard", in reference to the large openings in its frill) is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Cretaceous period, between 68 and 66 million years ago, though it is possible that the species range might extend to as far as 69 million years ago*Hicks, J.F., Johnson, K.R., Obradovich, J. D., Miggins, D.P., and Tauxe, L. 2003.
A trackway is an ancient route of travel for people or animals.
Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that first appeared during the late Maastrichtian stage of the late Cretaceous period, about 68 million years ago (mya) in what is now North America.
Trichomonas is a genus of anaerobic excavate parasites of vertebrates.
Troodon (Troödon in older sources) is a dubious genus of relatively small, bird-like dinosaurs known definitively from the Campanian age of the Cretaceous period (about 77 mya).
Troodontidae is a family of bird-like theropod dinosaurs.
The Two Medicine Formation is a geologic formation, or rock body, that was deposited between 83.5 ± 0.7 Ma and 70.6 ± 3.4 Ma (million years ago), during Campanian (Late Cretaceous) time, and is located in northwestern Montana and southern Alberta.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
Tyrannosauridae (or tyrannosaurids, meaning "tyrant lizards") is a family of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs that comprises two subfamilies containing up to thirteen genera, including the eponymous Tyrannosaurus.
Tyrannosauripus is an ichnogenus of dinosaur footprint.
Tyrannosauroidea (meaning 'tyrant lizard forms') is a superfamily (or clade) of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs that includes the family Tyrannosauridae as well as more basal relatives.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The Varanidae are a family of lizards in the superfamily Varanoidea.
Velociraptor (meaning "swift seizer" in Latin) is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 75 to 71 million years ago during the later part of the Cretaceous Period.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
The Western Interior Seaway (also called the Cretaceous Seaway, the Niobraran Sea, the North American Inland Sea, and the Western Interior Sea) was a large inland sea that existed during the mid- to late Cretaceous period as well as the very early Paleogene, splitting the continent of North America into two landmasses, Laramidia to the west and Appalachia to the east.
William L. Abler or simply known as Bill Abler is a paleontologist who has mostly studied the teeth of dinosaurs.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The Yixian Formation is a geological formation in Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, that spans 11 million years during the early Cretaceous period.
Yutyrannus (meaning "feathered tyrant") is a genus of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs which contains a single known species, Yutyrannus huali.
Zhuchengtyrannus (meaning "Zhucheng tyrant") is an extinct genus of large carnivorous theropod dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous period of Shandong Province, China.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Albertosaurus megagracilis, Aublysodon molnari, Deinodon cristatus (Marsh), Dinotyrannus, Dynamosaurus, Dynamosaurus Imperiosus, Dynamosaurus imperiosus, Gracile Tyrannosaurus, Infectious Saliva in Tyrannosaurus, Infectious saliva in Tyrannosaurus, LACM 23844, Largest carnivore tooth, Manospondylus, Manospondylus gigas, Stygivenator, T - Rex, T Rex, T rax, T rex, T-Rex, T-rex, T. Rex, T. rex, T.Rex, TMP97.12.229, Tyranasauras rex, Tyranasaurus Rex, Tyranasaurus rex, Tyrannasauras rex, Tyrannasaurus Rex, Tyrannosaurini, Tyrannosauris, Tyrannosaurus "x", Tyrannosaurus Rex, Tyrannosaurus rex, Tyrannosaurus x, Tyrannosaurus zhuchangensis, Tyrannosuarus, Tyranosaurus, Tyranosaurus Rex, Tyrant Lizard King, Tyrranosaurus, 🦖.