109 relations: Acetoacetic acid, Acetyl-CoA, Adrenaline, Albinism, Alkaloid, Alkaptonuria, Almond, Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, Alzheimer's disease, Antibody, Arene substitution pattern, Arthritis, Avocado, Banana, Betalain, Brain, Cactus, Casein, Catecholamine, Cell (biology), Cheese, Chicken as food, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Citric acid cycle, Coenzyme Q10, Cofactor (biochemistry), Colloid, Cottage cheese, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary supplement, Dopamine, Enzyme, Essential amino acid, Fatty acid synthesis, Fish as food, Food additive, Fumaric acid, Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, Fumarylacetoacetic acid, Functional group, Genetic code, Genetic engineering, Glutamic acid, Glutathione, Greek language, Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, Homogentisic acid, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, ..., Industrial fermentation, Justus von Liebig, Ketone bodies, L-DOPA, Lima bean, Maleylacetoacetate isomerase, Mammal, Medication, Melanin, Mescaline, Milk, Morphine, Neurotransmitter, Norepinephrine, Oxidative decarboxylation, Oxidative stress, P-Coumaric acid, Papaver somniferum, Parkinson's disease, Pauly reaction, Peanut, Phenol, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylpropanoid, Phloretic acid, Phosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Photosystem II, Prephenic acid, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein kinase, Proteinogenic amino acid, Pumpkin seed, Radical (chemistry), Rate-determining step, Redox, Sesame, Shikimate pathway, Signal transduction, Soybean, Structural isomer, Thyroid, Thyroid hormones, Transamination, Triiodothyronine, Turkey as food, Tyramine, Tyrosine aminotransferase, Tyrosine ammonia-lyase, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Tyrosine phenol-lyase, Tyrosine sulfation, Tyrosinemia, Yogurt, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-Maleylacetoacetic acid. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Alkaptonuria is a rare inherited genetic disorder in which the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which occur in protein.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Betalains are a class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments found in plants of the Caryophyllales, where they replace anthocyanin pigments.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Cottage cheese is a fresh cheese curd product with a mild flavor.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
Many species of fish are consumed as food in virtually all regions around the world.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.
Fumarylacetoacetase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FAH gene located on chromosome 15.
Fumarylacetoacetic acid (fumarylacetoacetate) is an intermediate in the metabolism of tyrosine.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (homogentisic acid oxidase, homogentisicase) is an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to 4-maleylacetoacetate.
Homogentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is a phenolic acid usually found in Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree) honey.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Phaseolus lunatus, commonly known as the lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans.
In enzymology, a maleylacetoacetate isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 4-maleylacetoacetate, and one product, 4-fumarylacetoacetate.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Oxidative decarboxylation reactions are oxidation reactions in which a carboxylate group is removed, forming carbon dioxide.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
p-Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The Pauly reaction is a chemical test used for detecting the presence of tyrosine or histidine in proteins.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.
The phenylpropanoids are a diverse family of organic compounds that are synthesized by plants from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Phloretic acid is a phenolic compound.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Photosystem II (or water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase) is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis.
Prephenic acid, commonly also known by its anionic form prephenate, is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, as well as of a large number of secondary metabolites of the shikimate pathway.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
A pumpkin seed, also known as a pepita (from the Mexican pepita de calabaza, "little seed of squash"), is the edible seed of a pumpkin or certain other cultivars of squash.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
In chemical kinetics, the overall rate of a reaction is often approximately determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
The shikimate pathway (shikimic acid pathway) is a seven step metabolic route used by bacteria, fungi, algae, some protozoan parasites and plants for the biosynthesis of folates and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan).
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
Turkey meat, commonly referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
Tyrosine aminotransferase (or tyrosine transaminase) is an enzyme present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate.
Tyrosine ammonia lyase (L-tyrosine ammonia-lyase, TAL or Tyrase) is an enzyme in the natural phenols biosynthesis pathway.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
In enzymology, a tyrosine phenol-lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-tyrosine and H2O, whereas its 3 products are phenol, pyruvate, and NH3.
Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine residue of a protein molecule.
Tyrosinemia or tyrosinaemia is an error of metabolism, usually inborn, in which the body cannot effectively break down the amino acid tyrosine.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), also known as α-ketoisocaproate dioxygenase (KIC dioxygenase), is an Fe(II)-containing non-heme oxygenase that catalyzes the second reaction in the catabolism of tyrosine - the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate into homogentisate.
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA) is an intermediate in the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
4-Maleylacetoacetate (4-maleylacetoacetate) is an intermediate in the metabolism of tyrosine.
2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylalanine, 4-Hydroxyphenylalanine, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, HOC6H4CH2CH(NH2)COOH, Hydroxyphenylalanine, L-Tyrosine, L-m-tyrosine, L-tyrosine, Meta-tyrosine, Phosphotyrosine, Rxosine, Tyrosin, Tyrosine Power, Tyrosine biosynthesis, Tyrosine metabolism, Tyrosines, Tyrosyl.