349 relations: Accusative case, Active voice, Adjective, Aeneid, Agreement (linguistics), Ahatanhel Krymsky, Aleksey Shakhmatov, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Lebed, Alfred Jensen (slavist), Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Apophony, Apostrophe, Argentina, Arkhangelsk, Article (grammar), Austria-Hungary, Autonomous administrative division, Balachka, Balto-Slavic languages, Belarus, Belarusian language, Belgorod Oblast, Bessarabia, Black Sea, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Bolsheviks, BoomBox (Ukrainian band), Bourgeois nationalism, Boykos, Brazil, Brest Region, Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Bryansk Oblast, Bukovina, Burlesque, Buzhans, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canadian Ukrainian, Caucasus, Central Asia, Chełm, Cherkasy Oblast, Chernigov Governorate, Chernihiv Oblast, Chernivtsi Oblast, Chinese language, Chronology of Ukrainian language suppression, Church Slavonic language, ..., City with special status, Colonization, Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union), Cornell University Press, Cossack Hetmanate, Cossacks, Council of Europe, Crimea, Croatia, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Cyrillic script, Danish language, Dative case, Declension, Delirium (2013 film), Dialect, Dialect continuum, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dnieper Ukraine, Don Host Oblast, Don River (Russia), Donetsk, Donetsk Oblast, Drevlians, Duke University Press, Dulebes, Early Slavs, East Slavic languages, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ems Ukaz, Epic poetry, Europe, European Russia, Executed Renaissance, Federal cities of Russia, Federal subjects of Russia, Final-obstruent devoicing, First language, Fusional language, Future tense, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Gemination, Genitive case, Geographical distribution of Russian speakers, George Shevelov, Ghe with upturn, Glasnost, Governorate (Russia), Grammatical aspect in Slavic languages, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Great Purge, Great Russian language, Gregory Skovoroda, Halych, Harvard University Press, Heidelberg, History of the Soviet Union, History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), Hobby, Hokkaido University, Holodomor, Hungarian language, Hungary, Hutsuls, Ilarion Ohienko, Imperfective aspect, Indiana University Press, Inflection, Instrumental case, Intelligentsia, Iotation, Israel, Ivan Franko, Ivan Kotliarevsky, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Jonathan Steele, Kharkiv, Kharkiv Oblast, Khazars, Kherson Governorate, Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Kiev, Kiev Governorate, Kiev Oblast, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kirovohrad Oblast, Kobzar, Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, Korenizatsiya, Kuban, Kuban Cossack Choir, Kuban Cossacks, Kursk Oblast, Languages of Ukraine, Latin, Lemkivshchyna, Lemkos, Lesya Ukrainka, Life (magazine), Linguistic discrimination, Linguistic purism, Linguistics, List of Ukrainian words of Turkic origin, Little Russia, Loanword, Locative case, Lublin Voivodeship, Luhansk Oblast, Lviv Oblast, M. E. Sharpe, Mediopassive voice, Metropolitan bishop, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Lomonosov, Modern Ukrainian language, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mutual intelligibility, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Mykola Skrypnyk, Mykolaiv Oblast, NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National identity, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolay Kostomarov, Nominative case, Nominative–accusative language, North America, North Caucasus, Null-subject language, Odessa, Odessa Oblast, Official language, Okean Elzy, Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic, Oleg of Novgorod, Olexander Beyderman, Osnova, Palatalization (phonetics), Pannonian Rusyn language, Panteleimon Kulish, Paraguay, Participle, Past tense, Paul Robert Magocsi, Paul Wexler (linguist), Pavlo Chubynsky, Perestroika, Pereyaslav Council, Perfect (grammar), Perfective aspect, Peter Mogila, Petite bourgeoisie, Petro Shelest, Phoneme, Plural, Podkarpackie Voivodeship, Podolia, Poland, Polans (eastern), Polish language, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polonization, Poltava, Poltava Governorate, Poltava Oblast, Post-Soviet states, Prešov, Prešov Region, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Proto-Indo-European language, Pyotr Valuyev, Raion, Religion, Republics of the Soviet Union, Rivne Oblast, Rock music in Ukraine, Romance languages, Romanian language, Romanization, RT (TV network), Rural area, Russia, Russian Census (2010), Russian Empire, Russian Empire Census, Russian language, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russification, Russification of Ukraine, Rusyn language, Ruthenian language, Sarmatians, Scythian languages, Scythians, Serbia, Sevastopol, Severians, Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors, Shelest, Siberia, Siedlce Voivodeship, Slavic languages, Slavic second palatalization, Slavic vocabulary, Slovakia, Soft sign, Stalinism, Standard language, Starodub, Statistics Canada, Stavropol Krai, Stepan Smal-Stotsky, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Sumy Oblast, Surzhyk, Suzdal, Swedish language, Taras Kuzio, Taras Shevchenko, Tatar language, Tatars, Taurida Governorate, T–V distinction, Ternopil Oblast, The Ukrainians, Tivertsi, Transliteration, Transnistria, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turkish language, Ukraine, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian Braille, Ukrainian Brazilians, Ukrainian Census (2001), Ukrainian diaspora, Ukrainian nationalism, Ukrainian People's Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainians, Ukrainization, Ulichs, Union of Brest, Union of Lublin, University of Toronto Press, Uralic languages, Urban area, Uzbek language, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, Valuev Circular, Varangians, Veliky Novgorod, Verb framing, Vergonha, Vinnytsia Oblast, Virgil, Vistula Land, Vocative case, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voiced glottal fricative, Vojvodina, Volhynia, Volhynians, Volodymyr Shcherbytsky, Volyn Oblast, Vopli Vidopliassova, Voronezh Oblast, Vyacheslav Molotov, West Slavic languages, West Ukrainian People's Republic, Western Ukraine, White Croats, Wikisource, Word order, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Yer, Yiddish, Zakarpattia Oblast, Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Host, Zhytomyr Oblast, 1954 transfer of Crimea. 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The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Ahatanhel Yukhymovych Krymsky (Агатангел Юхимович Кримський, Агафангел Ефимович Крымский; – 25 January 1942) was an Ukrainian Orientalist, linguist and polyglot (knowing up to 35 languages), literary scholar, folklorist, writer, and translator.
Alexei Alexandrovich Shakhmatov (Алексе́й Алекса́ндрович Ша́хматов, – 16 August 1920) was a Russian philologist and historian credited with laying foundations for the science of textology.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Lieutenant General Alexander Ivanovich Lebed (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ле́бедь; April 20, 1950 – April 28, 2002) was a Russian military officer and politician who held senior positions in the Airborne Troops before attempting to run for President of Russia in the 1996 election.
Alfred Anton Jensen (30 September 1859 — 15 September 1921) was a Swedish historian, slavist, writer, poet, and translator.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Balachka is a term used to label the dialects spoken by Cossacks living in Russia.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belgorod Oblast (Белгоро́дская о́бласть, Belgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boombox (also: БумБокс, Bumboks) is a Ukrainian pop band formed in 2004 by singer Andriy Khlyvnyuk and Andriy “Fly” Samoylo on guitar.
In Marxism, bourgeois nationalism is the practice by the ruling classes of deliberately dividing people by nationality, race, ethnicity, or religion, so as to distract them from initiating class warfare.
Boykos (Бойки, Bojkowie, Pujďáci), or simply Highlanders (verkhovyntsi) are a Ukrainian ethnographic group located in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brest Region or Brest Oblast or Brest Voblast (Брэ́сцкая во́бласць; Bresckaja vobłasć; Бре́стская о́бласть; Brestskaya Oblast) is one of the regions of Belarus.
The Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius (Кирило-Мефодіївське братство) was a short-lived secret political society that existed in Kiev, Ukraine, at the time a part of the Russian Empire.
Bryansk Oblast (Бря́нская о́бласть, Bryanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.
The Buzhans (Busani) were one of the tribal unions of Early Slavs, belonging to the Northern group of Slavic culture.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian Ukrainian is a dialect of the Ukrainian language specific to the Ukrainian Canadian community descended from the first two waves of historical Ukrainian emigration to Western Canada.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chełm (Kulm, Холм) is a city in eastern Poland with 63,949 inhabitants (2015).
Cherkasy Oblast (Черкаська область, translit. Cherkas’ka oblast’,; also referred to as Черкащина, Cherkashchyna) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine located along the Dnieper River.
The Chernigov Governorate (Черниговская губерния; translit.: Chernigovskaya guberniya), also known as the Government of Chernigov, was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the Malorossiya Governorate with an administrative centre of Chernihiv.
Chernihiv Oblast (Чернігівська область, translit. Chernihivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Chernihivshchyna - Чернігівщина) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Černivećka oblasť, Regiunea Cernăuți) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The chronology of Ukrainian language suppression.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
City with special status (місто зі спеціальним статусом) (formerly, "city of republican subordinance") refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична Партія України Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, КПУ, KPU; Коммунистическая партия Украины), was the founding and ruling political party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic operated as the Ukrainian branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Cossack Hetmanate (Гетьманщина), officially known as Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке), was a Cossack state in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
Delirium is a 2013 Ukrainian film produced and directed by Ihor Podolchak, premiered in Director’s Week Competition in Fantasporto (Portugal, 2013), awarded with the "First Prize" at Baghdad International Film Festival (2013).
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The term Dnieper Ukraine ("over Dnieper land"), usually refers to territory on either side of the middle course of the Dnieper River.
The Province (Oblast) of the Don Cossack Host (Oblast’ Voyska Donskogo) of Imperial Russia was the official name of the territory of Don Cossacks, roughly coinciding with today's Rostov Oblast of Russia.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
Donetsk Oblast (Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast', also referred to as Donechchyna, Донеччина Donechchyna, Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine.
The Drevlians (Drevliany) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories of Polesia and Right-bank Ukraine, west of the eastern Polans and along the lower reaches of the rivers Teteriv, Uzh, Ubort, and Stviga.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
The Dulebs (Dulebes) or (more correctly) Dulibyh (Дуліби) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Емський указ, Ems’kyy ukaz), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The term Executed Renaissance (Розстріляне відродження, Rozstrilyane vidrodzhennya) is used to describe the generation of Ukrainian writers and artists of 1920s and early 1930s who were performing in the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic and were executed or repressed by Stalin's totalitarian regime.
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
This article details the geographical distribution of Russian speakers.
George Yurii Shevelov (Schneider) (Юрий Владимирович Шевелёв, Юрій Володимирович Шевельов) (pseud: Yurii Sherekh, Hryhory Shevchuk, Šerech, Sherekh, Sher; Гр. Ш., Ю. Ш. and others) (December 17, 1908 – April 12, 2002) was a Ukrainian-American professor, linguist, philologist, essayist, literary historian, and literary critic.
Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ; italics: Ґ ґ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
A governorate, or a guberniya (p; also romanized gubernia, guberniia, gubernya), was a major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR and Ukrainian SSR.
Nearly universally in Slavic languages, only one type of aspectual opposition governs verbs, verb phrases and verb-related structures, manifesting in two grammatical aspects: perfective and imperfective (in contrast with English verb grammar, which conveys several aspectual oppositions: perfect vs. neutral; progressive vs. nonprogressive; and in the past tense, habitual ("used to...") vs. neutral).
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Great Russian language (Russian: Великорусский язык, Velikorusskiy yazyk) is a name given in the 19th century to the Russian language as opposed to the other two major East Slavic languages: Belarusian and Ukrainian.
Gregory Skovoroda, also Hryhorii Skovoroda, or Grigory Skovoroda (Gregorius Scovoroda, Григорій Савич Сковорода, Hryhorii Savych Skovoroda; Григо́рий Са́ввич Сковорода́, Grigory Savvich Skovoroda; 3 December 1722 – 9 November 1794) was a philosopher of Cossack origin, who wrote primarily in the Sloboda Ukraine dialect of the Russian language.
Halych (Halyč; Halici; Halicz; Galič; Halytsch) is a historic city on the Dniester River in western Ukraine.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.
, or, is a Japanese national university in Sapporo, Hokkaido.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hutsuls (гуцули, hutsuly; Hucuł, plural Huculi, Hucułowie; huțul, plural huțuli) is an ethno-cultural group of Ukrainians,Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Richard T.Schaefer (ed.), 2008, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Volume 1, SAGE Publications, p. 1341.
Metropolitan Ilarion (secular name Ivan Ivanovitch Ohienko; Іван Іванович Огієнко; 2 January (14 January), 1882 in Brusilov, Kiev Governorate – 29 March 1972 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada) was a Ukrainian Orthodox cleric, linguist, church historian, and historian of Ukrainian culture.
The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivan Yakovych Franko (Іван Якович Франко) (&ndash) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language.
Ivan Petrovych Kotliarevsky (Іван Петрович Котляревський) (in Poltava – in Poltava, Russian Empire, now Ukraine), was a Ukrainian writer, poet and playwright, social activist, regarded as the pioneer of modern Ukrainian literature.
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, translit. Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Prykarpattia – Прикарпаття or formerly as Stanislavshchyna or Stanislavivshchyna – Ukrainian: Станіславщина or Станиславівщина) is an oblast (region) in western Ukraine.
Jonathan Steele (born 15 February 1941) is a British journalist and the author of several books on international affairs.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, translit. Charkivśka oblastj; also referred to as Kharkivshchyna – Харківщина, Charkivščyna, Харьковская область) is an oblast (province) in eastern Ukraine.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Kherson Governorate (1802–1922) (Херсонская губерния, translit.: Khersonskaya guberniya; Херсонська губернія, translit.: Khersons`ka huberniya) or Government of Kherson was a guberniya, or administrative territorial unit, between the Dnieper and Dniester Rivers, of the Russian Empire.
Khmelnytskyi Oblast (Хмельницька область, translit. Khmel’nyts’ka oblast’; also referred to as Khmelnychchyna—Хмельниччина) is an oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kiev Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and Ukraine in 1796 until the Soviet administrative reform of the 1920s.
Kiev Oblast or Kyiv Oblast (Київська область, translit. Kyivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Kyivshchyna – Київщина) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
Kirovohrad Oblast (Кіровоградська область, translit. Kirovohrads’ka oblast’; also referred to as Kirovohradschyna - Кіровоградщина) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
A Kobzar (кобзар, pl. kobzari кобзарі) was an itinerant Ukrainian bard who sang to his own accompaniment played on a multistringed bandura or kobza.
Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski (2 February 1526 – 13 or 23 February 1608, also known as Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky, Костянтин-Василь Острозький, Канстантын Васіль Астрожскi, Konstantinas Vasilijus Ostrogiškis) was an Orthodox magnate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a Ruthenian prince, starost of Volodymyr-Volynskyi, marshal of Volhynia and voivode of the Kiev Voivodeship.
Korenizatsiya (p, "putting down roots") was an early policy of the Soviet Union for the integration of the non–Russian nationalities into the governments of their specific soviet republic.
Kuban (Кубань; Пшызэ; Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
Kuban Cossack Chorus (Кубанский Казачий Хор, Кубанський козачий хор) is one of the leading Folkloric ensembles in Russia.
Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские кaзаки, Kubanskiye Kаzaki; Кубанські козаки, Kubans'ki Kozaky) or Kubanians (кубанцы, кубанці) are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia.
Kursk Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
The official language of Ukraine is Ukrainian, an East Slavic language which is the native language of 67.5% of Ukraine's population (including Surzhyk).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lemkivshchyna or Lemkovyna (Łemkowszczyzna; /Lemkovyna; Лемківщина Lemkivshchyna) is a region in Europe that is traditionally inhabited by the Lemko people.
Lemkos (Лeмки, Łemkowie, Lemko: Лeмкы, translit. Lemkŷ; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna.
Lesya Ukrainka (Леся Українка) (born Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka (Лариса Петрівна Косач-Квітка) (–) is one of Ukrainian literature's foremost writers, best known for her poems and plays. She also was an active political, civil, and feminist activist. Among her most well-known works are the collections of poems On the wings of songs (1893), Thoughts and Dreams (1899), Echos (1902), the epic poem Ancient fairy tale (1893), One word (1903), plays Princess (1913), Cassandra (1903—1907), In the Catacombs (1905), and Forest song (1911).
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Linguistic discrimination (also called linguicism and languagism) is the unfair treatment of an individual based solely on his or her use of language.
Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The following is a partial list of Ukrainian of Turkic origin.
Little Russia, sometimes Little Rus' (Малая Русь, Malaya Rus', Малая Россия, Malaya Rossiya, Малороссия, Malorossiya; Мала Русь, Mala Rus'; or Rus' Minor from Μικρὰ Ῥωσία, Mikrá Rosía), is a geographical and historical term first used by Galician ruler Bolesław-Jerzy II who in 1335 signed his decrees as Dux totius Russiæ minoris.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province (in Polish, województwo lubelskie), is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland.
Luhansk Oblast (Луганська область, translit. Luhanśka oblastj, Луганская область, translit. Luganskaja oblastj; also referred to as Luhanshchyna, translit) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine.
Lviv Oblast (Львівська область, translit. L’vivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as L’vivshchyna, Львівщина) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
The mediopassive voice is a grammatical voice that subsumes the meanings of both the middle voice and the passive voice.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.
The Modern Ukrainian language (Сучасна українська мова) is the form of the Ukrainian language commonly used since the late 17th century.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Mykhailo Mykhailovych Kotsiubynsky (Михайло Михайлович Коцюбинський), (September 17, 1864 – April 25, 1913) was a Ukrainian author whose writings described typical Ukrainian life at the start of the 20th century.
Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk (Микола Олексійович Скрипник, also known as Nikolai Alekseevich Skrypnik, 25 January [O.S. 13 January, 1872 – 7 July 1933) was a Ukrainian Bolshevik leader who was a proponent of the Ukrainian Republic's independence, and led the cultural Ukrainization effort in Soviet Ukraine.
Mykolaiv Oblast (Миколаївська область, Mykolajivśka oblasť; also referred to as Mykolaivshchyna, Миколаївщина), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev Oblast (Николаевская область, Nikoláyevskaya óblasť), is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
The Institute for the Ukrainian Language (Інститут української мови) of the NAS of Ukraine is a research organization in Ukraine created to do thorough studying of the Ukrainian language.
The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU; Національна академія наук України, Natsional’na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny, abbr: NAN Ukraine) is a self-governing state-funded organization in Ukraine that coordinates a system of research institutes in the country.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA) (Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» (НаУКМА), Natsional'nyi universytet "Kyyevo-Mohylians'ka akademiya") is a national, coeducational research university located in Kiev, Ukraine.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolay Ivanovich Kostomarov (Никола́й Ива́нович Костома́ров, Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov, Ukrainified: Микола Іванович Костомарiв, Mykola Ivanovych Kostomariv; May 16, 1817, vil. Yurasovka, Voronezh Governorate, Russian Empire – April 19, 1885, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was one of the most distinguished Russian historians, a Professor of History at the St. Vladimir University of Kiev and later at the St. Petersburg University, an Active State Councillor of Russia, an author of many books, including his famous biography of the seventeenth century Hetman of Zaporozhian Cossacks Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and his fundamental 3-volume Russian History in Biographies of its main figures (Russkaya istoriya v zhizneopisaniyakh yeyo glavneyshikh deyateley).
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Odessa Oblast (Одеська область, Odes’ka oblast’, Одесская область, Odesskaya oblast’) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea, consisting of the eastern part of the historical region of Novorossiya, and the southern part of the historical region of Bessarabia (also known as Budjak), the latter being a former oblast incorporated into the Odessa Oblast, in 1954.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Okean Elzy (Океан Ельзи, translation: Elza's Ocean) is one of the most successful and popular Ukrainian rock bands.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.
Olexander Abramovytsch Beyderman (Ukrainian Олександр Абрамович Бейдерман, Scientific transliteration Oleksandr Abramovyč Bejderman; also: Bejderman; * 1949 in Odessa) is a Soviet-Ukrainian writer of Jewish descent.
The Ukrainian magazine Osnova (meaning Basis in English) was published between 1861 and 1862 in St Petersburg.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Pannonian Rusyn (руски язик or руска бешеда), or simply Rusyn (or Ruthenian), is a dialect of Rusyn language spoken by the Pannonian Rusyns, in north-western Serbia (Bačka region) and eastern Croatia.
Panteleimon Oleksandrovych Kulish (also spelled Panteleymon or Pantelejmon Kuliš, Пантелеймон Куліш, August 7, 1819 – February 14, 1897) was a Ukrainian writer, critic, poet, folklorist, and translator.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
Paul Robert Magocsi (born January 26, 1945, Englewood, New Jersey, United States) is an American professor of history, political science, and Chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto.
Paul Wexler (born November 6, 1938, פאול וקסלר) is an American-born Israeli linguist, and Professor Emeritus of linguistics at Tel Aviv University.
Pavlo Platonovych Chubynsky (Павло Платонович Чубинський; 1839 – January 26, 1884) was a Ukrainian poet and ethnographer whose poem Shche ne vmerla Ukraina (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished) was set to music and adapted as the Ukrainian national anthem.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The Pereyaslav Council (Переяславская рада), was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Muscovy in the town of Pereyaslav (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in central Ukraine) in January 1654.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.
Metropolitan Peter (secular name Pyotr Simeonovich Mogila, Петро Симеонович Могила, Piotr Mohyła, Petru Movilă, Петр Симеонович Могила; 21 December 1596 –) was an influential Orthodox theologian and reformer, Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and All Rus' from 1633 until his death.
Petite bourgeoisie, also petty bourgeoisie (literally small bourgeoisie), is a French term (sometimes derogatory) referring to a social class comprising semi-autonomous peasantry and small-scale merchants whose politico-economic ideological stance in times of socioeconomic stability is determined by reflecting that of a haute ("high") bourgeoisie, with which the petite bourgeoisie seeks to identify itself and whose bourgeois morality it strives to imitate.
Petro Yukhymovych Shelest (Петро Юхимович Шелест; Пётр Ефи́мович Ше́лест) (February 14, 1908January 22, 1996) was the First Secretary of the Communist party in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and a deputy of the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Podkarpackie Voivodeship or Podkarpackie Province (in Polish: województwo podkarpackie), also known as Subcarpathian Voivodeship or Subcarpathia Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in extreme-southeastern Poland.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polans (Polyany), also Polianians, were an East Slavic tribe between the 6th and the 9th century, which inhabited both sides of the Dnieper river from Liubech to Rodnia and also down the lower streams of the rivers Ros', Sula, Stuhna, Teteriv, Irpin', Desna and Pripyat.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.
The Poltava Governorate (Полтавская губернія; translit.: Poltavskaya guberniya, Полтавська Губернія) or Government of Poltava was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the disbanded Malorossiya Governorate which was split between the Chernigov Governorate and Poltava Governorate with an administrative center of Poltava.
Poltava Oblast (Полтавська область, translit. Poltavs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Poltavshchyna – Полтавщина) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Prešov (Eperjes, Eperies, Preschau, Пряшів) is a city in Eastern Slovakia.
The Prešov Region (Prešovský kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions and consists of 13 districts (okresy) and 666 municipalities, from which 23 have a town status.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuev (p; 22 September 1815, Tsaritsyno, Moscow Governorate – 27 January 1890) was a Russian statesman and writer.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Rivne Oblast (Рівненська область, translit. Rivnenska oblast, Obwód rówieński) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
Ukrainian rock (Український рок) is rock music from Ukraine.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russification of Ukraine was a body of laws, decrees, and other actions undertaken by the Imperial Russian and later Soviet authorities to strengthen Russian national, political and linguistic positions in Ukraine.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Scythian languages are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antiquity (Middle Iranian) period, spoken in a vast region of Eurasia named Scythia.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Severians or Severyans or Siverians (Северяне; Сiверяни; Севяране; Сeверяни) were a tribe or tribal union of early East Slavs occupying areas to the east of the middle Dnieper river, and Danube.
Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (Тіні забутих предків, Tini zabutykh predkiv), also called Shadows of Our Forgotten Ancestors, Shadows of Our Ancestors, or Wild Horses of Fire – is a 1965 film by the Soviet filmmaker Sergei Parajanov based on the classic book by Ukrainian writer Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky.
Shelest (Шелест) is a gender-neutral Slavic surname that may refer to.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Siedlce Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodeship and Lublin Voivodeship.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Slavic second palatalization is a Proto-Slavic sound change that manifested as a regressive palatalization of inherited Balto-Slavic velar consonants that occurred after the first and before the third Slavic palatalizations.
Proto-Slavic and its development into today's Slavic languages have been reconstructed using the comparative method (which has also been used to reconstruct its mother tongue, Proto-Indo-European).--> The following list is a comparison of basic Proto-Slavic vocabulary and the corresponding reflexes in the modern languages, for assistance in understanding the discussion in Proto-Slavic and History of the Slavic languages.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Starodub (p, old oak) is a town in Bryansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Babinets River (the Dnieper basin), southwest of Bryansk.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Stavropol Krai (p) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia.
Stepan Yosypovych Smal-Stotsky (Степан Смаль-Стоцький) was a Ukrainian linguist and academician, slavist, cultural and political figure, member of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine, and ambassador of the West Ukrainian People's Republic in Prague.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Sumy Oblast (Сумська область, translit. Sums’ka oblast; also referred to as Sumshchyna – Сумщина) is an oblast (province) in the northeastern part of Ukraine.
Surzhyk refers to a range of mixed (macaronic) sociolects of Ukrainian and Russian languages used in certain regions of Ukraine and adjacent lands.
Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Taras Kuzio (born 1958 in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England) is a British academic and expert in Ukrainian political, economic and security affairs.
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Taurida Governorate (Таврическая губернія, modern spelling Таврическая губерния, Tavricheskaya guberniya; Таврiйська губернія, Tavrijśka gubernija; Tavrida guberniyası, Таврида губерниясы) or the Government of Taurida was an historical governorate of the Russian Empire.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Ternopil Oblast (Тернопільська область, translit. Ternopilska oblast; also referred to as Ternopilshchyna - Тернопільщина, Obwód Tarnopolski) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
The Ukrainians are a British band, which plays traditional Ukrainian music, heavily influenced by western post-punk.
The Tivertsi (Тиверці, Тиверцы, Tiverți), were a tribe of early East Slavs or of the ancestors of Romanians which lived in the lands near the Dniester, and probably the lower Danube, that is in modern-day western Ukraine and Moldova and possibly in eastern Romania and southern Odessa oblast of Ukraine.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
Ukrainian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Ukrainian language.
Ukrainian Brazilians (Ucraino-brasileiro, Ucraniano-brasileiro; Українські бразильці, Ukrayins'ki Brazyl'tsi) are Brazilian citizens born in Ukraine, or Brazilians of Ukrainian descent who remain connected, in some degree, to Ukrainian culture.
The first Ukrainian census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on 5 December 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census in 1989 and was so far the only census held in independent Ukraine.
The Ukrainian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Ukrainians, especially those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Ukrainian national identity within their own local community.
Ukrainian nationalism refers to the Ukrainian version of nationalism.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainization (also spelled Ukrainisation or Ukrainianization) is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.
The Uliches or Ugliches (Уличи (Угличи) in Russian, Уличі (Угличі) in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs who, between the eighth and the tenth centuries, inhabited (along with the Tivertsi) Bessarabia, and the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea littoral.
The Union of Brest, or Union of Brześć, was the 1595-96 decision of the Ruthenian Orthodox Church eparchies (dioceses) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to break relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church and to enter into communion with, and place itself under the authority of the Pope of Rome.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan is the common English name for the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) and later, the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi, Ўзбекистон Республикаси), that refers to the period of Uzbekistan from 1924 to 1991.
The Valuev Circular (Валуевский циркуляр, Valuyevskiy tsirkulyar; Валуєвський циркуляр, Valuievs'kyi tsyrkuliar) of 18 July 1863 was a secret decree (ukaz) of the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire Pyotr Valuev (Valuyev) by which a large portion of the publications (religious, and literature used for school training) in the Ukrainian language was forbidden.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
In linguistics, verb-framing and satellite-framing are typological descriptions of a way that verb phrases in a language can describe the path of motion or the manner of motion, respectively.
La vergonha (meaning "shame") is what Occitans call the effects of various policies of the government of France on its citizens whose native language was a so-called patois, a language other than French, such as Occitan or one of the dialects of the langues d'oc.
Vinnytsia Oblast (Вінницька область, translit. Vinnyts’ka oblast’; also referred to as Vinnychchyna - Вінниччина) is an oblast of Ukraine.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Vistula Land or Vistula Country (Привислинский край, Privislinsky krai; Kraj Nadwiślański) was the name applied to the former lands of Congress Poland from the 1880s, following the defeats of the November Uprising (1830–31) and January Uprising (1863-1864) as it was increasingly stripped of autonomy and incorporated into Imperial Russia.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
The Volhynians (Волиняни, Volyniany, Wołynianie) were an East Slavic tribe of the Early Middle Ages and the Principality of Volhynia in 987–1199.
Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbytsky (Володи́мир Васи́льович Щерби́цький IPA:, p; 17 February 1918, Verkhnodniprovsk — 16 February 1990) was a Ukrainian and Soviet politician.
Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, translit. Volyns’ka oblast’, Obwód wołyński; also referred to as Volyn’ or Wołyń) is an oblast (province) in north-western Ukraine.
Vopli Vidopliassova (also VV) (Воплі Відоплясова, ВВ) is a Ukrainian rock band.
Voronezh Oblast (Воро́нежская о́бласть, Voronezhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
The West Ukrainian People's Republic (Західноукраїнська Народна Республіка., Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
White Croats (Bijeli Hrvati, Biali Chorwaci, Bílí Chorvati, Білі хорвати tr. Bili Khorvaty) were a group of Slavic tribes who lived among other West and East Slavic tribes in the area of Bohemia, Lesser Poland, Galicia (north of Carpathian Mountains) and modern-day Western Ukraine.
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
The Yekaterinoslav Governorate (Екатеринославская губернія; translit.: Yekaterinoslavskaya guberniya; Катеринославська губернія) or Government of Yekaterinoslav was a governorate in the Russian Empire.
A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets: ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Zakarpattia Oblast (Закарпатська область, translit.; see other languages) is an administrative oblast (province) located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
Zaporozhian Host (or Zaporizhian Host) is a term for a military force inhabiting or originating from Zaporizhia, the territory beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River in what is Central Ukraine today, from the 15th to the 18th centuries.
Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область, translit. Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Zhytomyrshchyna - Житомирщина) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
The transfer of the Crimean Oblast in 1954 was an administrative action of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union which transferred the government of the Crimean Peninsula from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian SSR.
ISO 639:uk, ISO 639:ukr, Red Ruthenian language, Ukr, Ukrainian (language), Ukrainian Language, Ukrainian word, Ukrainian-language, Ukrainian-language literaturateurs, Ukrainophonic, Ukrainska, Ukrainska mova, Ukranian language, Ykpaihcbka, Українська, Українська мова.