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Ulcerative colitis

Index Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum. [1]

201 relations: Abdominal pain, Abscess, Adalimumab, Alicaforsen, Alternative medicine, Aminosalicylate, Anastomosis, Anemia, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anus, Aphthous stomatitis, Arthritis, Ashkenazi Jews, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Autoimmunity, Azathioprine, Beta oxidation, Bile duct, Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, Biopsy, Blood, Breastfeeding, Budesonide, Butyrate, C-reactive protein, Canada, Carcinoma, Chemical colitis, Chronic condition, Clinical urine tests, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Coeliac disease, Colectomy, Colic flexures, Colitis, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Comorbidity, Complete blood count, Complication (medicine), Concordance (genetics), Constipation, Correlation and dependence, Corticosteroid, Crohn's disease, Culture, Death, Deep vein thrombosis, Dermatitis herpetiformis, ..., Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Diet (nutrition), Dietary fiber, Dysentery, Dysplasia, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Electrolyte, Endoscopy, Entamoeba histolytica, Episcleritis, Epithelium, Erythema, Erythema nodosum, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Ethnic group, Etrolizumab, Europe, Exsanguination, Fecal microbiota transplant, Fever, Fexofenadine, Fish oil, Friability, Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal perforation, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic linkage, Genetic marker, Genetics, Genome, Golimumab, Gut flora, Haustrum (anatomy), Heart failure, Helminthic therapy, Helminths, Herbal, Human leukocyte antigen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hygiene hypothesis, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, ICAM-1, Ileo-anal pouch, Ileocecal valve, Ileum, Immunodeficiency, Immunosuppression, In vitro, Infection, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Infliximab, Internal bleeding, Intestinal gland, Intestinal mucosal barrier, Ion channel, Iron supplement, Ischemic colitis, Isotretinoin, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactose intolerance, Lamina propria, Large intestine, Leukocyte apheresis, Leukotriene, Liver function tests, Locus (genetics), Low-fiber/low-residue diet, Low-sulfur diet, Lupus erythematosus, Lymphocyte, Malignancy, Medical diagnosis, Megacolon, Melatonin, Mesalazine, Methotrexate, Microscopic colitis, Mucous membrane, Mucus, Mutaflor, Nail clubbing, Nicotine patch, Pancolitis, Panniculitis, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Platelet, Porphyria, Prednisone, Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Probiotic, Proctitis, Proctocolectomy, Pseudopolyps, Pulmonary embolism, Pyoderma gangrenosum, Quality of life, Radiation colitis, Radiation therapy, Randomized controlled trial, Rectal tenesmus, Rectum, Renal function, Rheumatoid arthritis, RNA, S-Methylmethionine, Sacroiliitis, Scleritis, Scleroderma, Serous membrane, Short-chain fatty acid, Sigmoidoscopy, Simple clinical colitis activity index, Sjögren syndrome, Skin, Spondyloarthropathy, Stenosis, Sugar, Sulfasalazine, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, Symptom, Systemic disease, T cell, T helper cell, Tachycardia, Thrombocythemia, TNF inhibitor, Tofacitinib, Toxic megacolon, Trichuris suis, Trichuris trichiura, Tuberculosis, Turmeric, Twin, Twin study, Ulcer, United Kingdom, United States, Unsaturated fat, Uveitis, Vedolizumab, Vitamin B6, Vitamin D, Weight loss, Western pattern diet, White blood cell, X-ray. Expand index (151 more) »

Abdominal pain

Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.

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An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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Alicaforsen is an antisense oligonucleotide therapeutic that targets the messenger RNA for the production of human ICAM-1 protein.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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An aminosalicylate is a class of medications that is often used to treat ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

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An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Aphthous stomatitis

Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers (aphthae) in otherwise healthy individuals.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (or autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran among others, is an immunosuppressive medication.

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Beta oxidation

In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.

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Bile duct

A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.

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Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

Biological therapy refers to the use of medication that is tailored to specifically target an immune or genetic mediator of disease.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Budesonide (BUD), sold under the brand name Pulmicort among others, is a medication of the corticosteroid type.

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Butyrate (also known as butanoate) is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butyric acid (also known as butanoic acid).

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.

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Chemical colitis

Chemical colitis is a type of colitis, an inflammation of the large intestine or colon, caused by the introduction of harsh chemicals to the colon by an enema or other procedure.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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Clostridium difficile (bacteria)

Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon).

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Colic flexures

There are two colic flexures, or curvatures in the transverse colon.

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Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.

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Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Complication (medicine)

Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.

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Concordance (genetics)

Concordance, as used in genetics, usually means the presence of the same trait in both members of a pair of twins.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Dermatitis herpetiformis

Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a chronic blistering skin condition, characterised by blisters filled with a watery fluid.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).

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Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.

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Entamoeba histolytica

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba.

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Episcleritis is a benign, self-limiting inflammatory disease affecting part of the eye called the episclera.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.

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Erythema nodosum

Erythema nodosum (EN), also known as subacute migratory panniculitis of Vilanova and Piñol, is an inflammatory condition characterized by inflammation of the fat cells under the skin, resulting in tender red nodules or lumps that are usually seen on both shins.

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Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Etrolizumab (rhuMAb Beta7) is a biopharmaceutical drug candidate being developed for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Exsanguination is the loss of blood to a degree sufficient to cause death.

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Fecal microbiota transplant

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Fexofenadine, sold under the trade name Allegra among others is an antihistamine pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of allergy symptoms, such as hay fever and urticaria.

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Fish oil

Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish.

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Friability, the condition of being friable, describes the tendency of a solid substance to break into smaller pieces under duress or contact, especially by rubbing.

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Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.

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Gastrointestinal perforation

Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Golimumab (CNTO 148) is a human monoclonal antibody which is used as an immunosuppressive drug and marketed under the brand name Simponi.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Haustrum (anatomy)

The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Helminthic therapy

Helminthic therapy, an experimental type of immunotherapy, is the treatment of autoimmune diseases and immune disorders by means of deliberate infestation with a helminth or with the ova of a helminth.

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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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A herbal is a book containing the names and descriptions of plants, usually with information on their medicinal, tonic, culinary, toxic, hallucinatory, aromatic, or magical powers, and the legends associated with them.

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Human leukocyte antigen

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.

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Hydrogen cyanide

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hygiene hypothesis

In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.

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Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypomagnesemia, also spelled hypomagnesaemia, is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the blood.

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ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM1 gene.

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Ileo-anal pouch

In medicine, the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), also known as an ileo-anal pouch, restorative proctocolectomy, ileal-anal pullthrough, or sometimes referred to as a j-pouch, s-pouch, w-pouch or an internal pouch (or Kock pouch), is a surgically constructed internal reservoir; usually situated near where the rectum would normally be.

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Ileocecal valve

The ileocecal valve (ileal papilla, ileocaecal valve, Tulp's valve, Tulpius valve, Bauhin's valve, ileocecal eminence, valve of Varolius or colic valve) is a sphincter muscle valve that separates the small intestine and the large intestine.

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The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.

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Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Internal bleeding

Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space.

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Intestinal gland

In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (colon).

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Intestinal mucosal barrier

The intestinal mucosal barrier, also referred to as intestinal barrier, refers to the property of the intestinal mucosa that ensures adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients.

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Iron supplement

Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.

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Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis (also spelled ischaemic colitis) is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the large intestine result from inadequate blood supply.

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Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid (and colloquially referred to by its former brand name Accutane or Roaccutane), is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne.

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Lactobacillus acidophilus

Lactobacillus acidophilus (New Latin 'acid-loving milk-bacillus') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus.

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Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.

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Lamina propria

The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue that forms part of the moist linings known as mucous membranes or mucosa, which line various tubes in the body, such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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Leukocyte apheresis

Leukocyte apheresis is a medical device therapy (selective granulocyte/monocyte adsorptive apheresis; GMDN code: 47306) for the treatment of inflammation of the colon.

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Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Low-fiber/low-residue diet

A low-fiber/low-residue diet is a diet whose goal is fewer and smaller bowel movements each day.

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Low-sulfur diet

A low-sulfur diet is a diet with reduced sulfur content.

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Lupus erythematosus

Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Megacolon is an abnormal dilation of the colon (also called the large intestine).

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug.

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Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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Microscopic colitis

Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacterial strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.

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Nail clubbing

Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.

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Nicotine patch

A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin.

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Pancolitis or universal colitis is a very severe form of ulcerative colitis.

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Panniculitis is a group of diseases whose hallmark is inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (the fatty layer under the skin – panniculus adiposus).

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

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Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.

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Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a long-term progressive disease of the liver and gallbladder characterized by inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts which normally allow bile to drain from the gallbladder.

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Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.

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Proctitis is an inflammation of the anus and the lining of the rectum, affecting only the last 6 inches of the rectum.

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Proctocolectomy is the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon.

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Pseudopolyps are projecting masses of scar tissue that develop from granulation tissue during the healing phase in repeated cycle of ulceration (especially in inflammatory bowel disease).

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pyoderma gangrenosum

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a condition that causes tissue to become necrotic, causing deep ulcers that usually occur on the legs.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Radiation colitis

Radiation colitis is injury to the colon caused by radiation therapy.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Rectal tenesmus

Rectal tenesmus (tēnesmus, from Greek τεινεσμός teinesmos, from τείνω teínō to stretch, strain) is a feeling of incomplete defecation.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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S-Methylmethionine (SMM) is a derivative of methionine with the chemical formula (CH3)2S+CH2CH2CH(NH3+)CO2−.

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Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tus) is a medical condition caused by any inflammation within one, or both, of the sacroiliac joints.

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Scleritis is a serious inflammatory disease that affects the white outer coating of the eye, known as the sclera.

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Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune diseases that may result in changes to the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs.

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Serous membrane

In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.

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Short-chain fatty acid

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.

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Sigmoidoscopy (from the Greek term for letter "s/ς" + "eidos" + "scopy": namely, to look inside an "s"/"ς"-like object) is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the nearest part of the colon, the sigmoid colon.

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Simple clinical colitis activity index

The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) is a diagnostic tool and questionnaire used to assess the severity of symptoms in people who suffer from Ulcerative colitis.

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Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Spondyloarthropathy or spondyloarthrosis refers to any joint disease of the vertebral column.

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A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sulfasalazine (SSZ), sold under the trade name Azulfidine among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease.

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Sulfate-reducing microorganisms

Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Systemic disease

A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Thrombocythemia (also thrombocytosis) is the presence of high platelet (thrombocyte) counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential thrombocythemia, and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or secondary (also termed reactive).

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TNF inhibitor

A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response.

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Tofacitinib, sold under the brand Xeljanz among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis.

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Toxic megacolon

Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is an acute form of colonic distension.

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Trichuris suis

Trichuris suis is a whipworm; the variations in thickness of the anterior and posterior segments give the parasite the characteristic “whip-like” appearance.

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Trichuris trichiura

The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura or Trichocephalus trichiuris) is a round worm (a type of helminth) that causes trichuriasis (a type of helminthiasis which is one of the neglected tropical diseases) when it infects a human large intestine.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Twin study

Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.

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An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Unsaturated fat

An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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Vedolizumab (trade name Entyvio) is a monoclonal antibody developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc (a subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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Western pattern diet

The Western pattern diet or Standard American Diet (SAD) is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of red and processed meat, butter, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, potatoes, and high-sugar drinks.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulcerative_colitis

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