213 relations: 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf, 'Amr ibn al-'As, A History of the Arab Peoples, Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, Abdullah ibn Masud, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abu Bakr, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Administrative court, Aelia Capitolina, Ahmad ibn A'tham, Al Farooq Omar Bin Al Khattab Mosque, Al-Farooq (book), Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Shahrastani, Al-Suyuti, Al-Tabari, Albert Hourani, Ali, Amir al-Mu'minin, Amr ibn Hishām, Amsar, Amu Darya, Anatolia, Ansar (Islam), Ansariye (town), Arabian Peninsula, Armenia, Asim ibn Umar, Atiqa bint Zayd, Autonomy, Azerbaijan, Bactria, Banu 'Adiy, Banu Aws, Banu Hashim, Banu Khazraj, Banu Makhzum, Banu Nadir, Banu Qurayza, Barnaby Rogerson, Basra, Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, Battle of Badr, Battle of Hunayn, Battle of Khaybar, Battle of Mu'tah, Battle of Nahāvand, ..., Battle of Oxus River, Battle of the Trench, Battle of Uhud, Battle of Yarmouk, Bayt al-mal, Bedouin, Blood money (restitution), Byzantine Armenia, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Sasanian wars, Caliphate, Caucasus, Central Asia, Chief judge, Chief of police, Christianity, Conquest of Mecca, Constitution of Medina, Cyrenaica, Dome of the Rock, Edward Gibbon, Egypt (Roman province), Eilat, Election of Uthman, Emergency management, Epithet, Euphrates, Eutychius of Alexandria, Expedition to Tabouk, Fajr prayer, Faqīh, Farewell Pilgrimage, Farooqi, Fars Province, Fatimah, Fezzan, Fiqh, Giorgio Levi Della Vida, Great Mosque of Mecca, Greater Khorasan, Hadith of the ten with glad tidings of paradise, Hafsa bint Umar, Hajj, Hasan ibn Ali, Hejaz, Helena (empress), Heraclius, Hijri year, History of the Prophets and Kings, Homs, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Sa'd, Ibn `Asakir, Indus River, Iraq, Islam, Islamic calendar, Jamila bint Thabit, Jaroudiah, Jerusalem, Jews, Jurisprudence, Jurist, Ka’b al-Ahbar, Kerman, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Khattab ibn Nufayl, Khaybar, Kitab, Kufa, Levant, Libya, Lower Egypt, Majlis-ash-Shura, Makran, Martial arts, Mawla, Mecca, Medina, Mesopotamia, Michael Bonner, Migration to Abyssinia, Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, Mosque, Muawiya, Muhajirun, Muhammad, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Muhammad ibn Maslamah, Muhsin ibn Ali, Muslim conquest of Persia, Najran, Omar (TV series), Pact of Umar, Palestine (region), Persian Empire, Piruz Nahavandi, Plague (disease), Primary source, Quran, Qurayba bint Abi Umayya, Quraysh, Ramla, Rashidun, Rashidun army, Rashidun Caliphate, Religious conversion, Riyadh, Sa'd ibn Ubadah, Sa'id bin Zayd, Sahabah, Sahih Muslim, Salafi movement, Salim Mawla Abu Hudhayfa, Saqifah, Sasanian Empire, Saudi Arabia, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sharia, Shia Islam, Siege of Ta'if, Siloam, Sistan, Stoning of the Devil, Suhayb ar-Rumi, Sunni Islam, Surah, Syria, Ta-Ha, Talhah, Temple Mount, The event of Ghadir Khumm, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Succession to Muhammad, Tigris, Treasury, Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Tripolitania, Twelver, Umar at Fatimah's house, Umar II, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Hakim, Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr, Umm Kulthum bint Ali, Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, Ummah, Umrah, Unitary state, Upper Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, Usama ibn Zayd, Uthman, Wali, Wilferd Madelung, Yazdegerd III, Zaidiyyah, Zayd ibn Ali, Zayd ibn Thabit, Zaynab bint Madhun, Zubayr ibn al-Awam. Expand index (163 more) » « Shrink index
'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
A History of the Arab Peoples is a book written by the British-born Lebanese historian Albert Hourani.
Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr (died 666The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung. Page 340.Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: A-I, Volume 1 edited by R. Khanam. Page 543) was the eldest son of Abu Bakr, the first caliph in Sunni Islam.
ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿūd (عبدالله بن مسعود; c.594-c.653) was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Abdullah ibn Umar (عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (c.610–693 CE) was the son of the second Caliph Umar and a brother-in-law and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (أبو موسى الأشعري) (d. ca. 662 or 672) was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history.
Sakhr ibn Harb (صخر بن حرب), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (560–650), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia.
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ (أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
An administrative court is a type of court specializing in administrative law, particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power.
Aelia Capitolina (Latin in full) was a Roman colony, built under the emperor Hadrian on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins following the siege of 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 AD.
Abū Muḥammad Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī, known as Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī (أبو محمد أحمد بن أعثم الكوفي) (d. AH 314, AD 926-927 A.D) was a Muslim historian.
The Al Farooq Omar Bin Al Khattab Mosque (مسجد ومركز الفاروق عمر بن الخطاب) is a mosque located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Al-Farooq: The Life of Omar The Great is the biography of Umar (also spelled Omar) written by Islamic scholar Shibli Nomani.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī (1086–1153 CE), also known as Muhammad al-Shahrastānī, was an influential Persian historian of religions, a historiographer, Islamic scholar, philosopher and theologian.
Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī (جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي; 1445–1505 AD) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages of Persian origin, whose works deal with Islamic theology.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Albert Habib Hourani CBE (ألبرت حبيب حوراني Albart Ḥabīb Ḥūrānī; 31 March 1915 – 17 January 1993) was a British historian, specialising in the Middle East.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
Amr ibn Hisham (عمرو بن هشام), often known as Abu Jahl (أبو جهل), (born 556? — died 17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshi leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muhammad the Islamic prophet and the early Muslims in Mecca.
Amṣar (أمصار), singular miṣr, is a term used in the first centuries of Islam to refer to the 'garrison towns' or settlements that were established by Muslim warriors in conquered lands.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
Al-Ansariyyah, Ansariyeh, or Insariye (Insârîyé) (الأنصارية) is a town in South Governorate in Lebanon, 62 km from Beirut and 20 km south of Sidon.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Asim ibn Umar (عاصم بن عمر) (628–689) is the son of Umm Kulthum bint Asim and Umar, the second Sunni Caliph.
Atiqa bint Zayd was a companion of the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad and a wife of Umar bin Al-Khattab, the second Caliph.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Banu 'Adiy was a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from 'Adiy ibn Ka'b.
The Banū Aws (بنو أوس, "Sons of Aws") or simply Aws (أوس, also romanised as Aus) was one of the main Arab tribes of Medina.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Banu al-Khazraj (بنو الخزرج) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Prophet Muhammad's era.
Banū Makhzūm was one of the wealthy clans of Quraysh.
The Banu Nadir (بنو النضير, בני נצ'יר) were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina.
The Banu Qurayza (بنو قريظة, בני קוריט'ה; alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) were a Jewish tribe which lived in northern Arabia, at the oasis of Yathrib (now known as Medina), until the 7th century, when their alleged violation of a pact brokered by Muhammad led to their massacre.
Barnaby Rogerson (born 17 May 1960) is a British author, television presenter and publisher.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (معركة القادسيّة; transliteration, Ma'rakatu al-Qādisiyyah; alternative spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya, Ghadesiyeh, نبرد قادسیه; transliteration: Nabard-e Qādsieh), fought in 636, was a decisive battle between the Arab Muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army during the first period of Muslim expansion.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Hunayn (غَـزوة حُـنـيـن, Ghazwat Hunayn) was fought by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif, in 630 CE, in the Hunayn valley, on the route from Mecca to At-Ta’if.
The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia.
The Battle of Mu'tah (معركة مؤتة, غزوة مؤتة) was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire.
The Battle of Nahāvand (also Nihāvand or Nahāwand) (معركة نهاوند, Persian: نبرد نهاوند) was fought in 642 between Arab Muslims and Sassanid armies.
The Battle of Oxus River was a significant battle in the 7th century, fought between the combined armies of the Sassanid and Göktürk Empires against the Muslim Arab army that had overrun Persia.
The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.
The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Bayt al-mal (بيت المال) is an Arabic term that is translated as "House of money" or "House of Wealth." Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states, particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Blood money, also called bloodwit, is money or some sort of compensation paid by an offender (usually a murderer) or his/her family group to the family or kin group of the victim.
Byzantine Armenia, sometimes Western Armenia, is the name given to the parts of Kingdom of Armenia that became part of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chief judge is the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge.
A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The conquest of Mecca (فتح مكة) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad on 11 January, 630 AD, (Julian), 20 Ramadan, 8 AH.
The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the Hijra and the document was amended later, after the Battle of Badr (AH 2,.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Eilat (help; 'aylaat or 'aylat, also 'Um 'al-Rashrash) is Israel's southernmost city, a busy port and popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea, on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Uthman ibn Affan, the third caliph, was chosen by a council meeting in Medina, in northwestern Arabia, in.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Eutychius of Alexandria (Arabic: Sa'id ibn Batriq or Bitriq; 10 September 877 – 12 May 940) was the Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria.
The Expedition to Tabouk, also known as the Expedition of Usra, was a military expedition, which, was initiated by Muhammad in October, AD 630, 8 AH.
The Fajr prayer (صلاة الفجر, "dawn prayer") is the 2 raka'at obligatory prayer ('Subuh' prayer) of the five daily prayers offered by practising Muslims.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: حجة الوداع) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH).
Farooqi (فاروقي); also transliterated as Farooqui, Faruki or Al Farooqi), is a distinct name or surname or last name of Arabic origin.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
Giorgio Levi Della Vida (22 August 1886, Venice – 25 November 1967, Rome) was an Italian Jewish linguist whose expertise lay in Hebrew, Arabic, and other Semitic languages, as well as on the history and culture of the Near East.
The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque") or Grand Mosque of Makkah, is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer), that is the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca (مَـكَّـة, Makkah), Saudi Arabia.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, specified ten of his companions who were promised paradise.
Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar (حفصة بنت عمر; c. 605–665) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Helena, or Saint Helena (Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē, Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; –), was an Empress of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
The History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (تاریخ طبری) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923).
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī kātib al-Wāqidī or simply Ibn Sa'd (ابن سعد) and nicknamed "Scribe of Waqidi" (Katib al-Waqidi), was a scholar and Arabian biographer.
Ibn Asakir (Ibn ‘Asākir; 1106–1175) was a Sunni Islamic scholar, a historian and a disciple of the Sufi mystic Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Jamila bint Thabit (جميلة بنت ثابت), originally named Asiya, was a wife of Umar and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Jaroudiah (Persian:جارودیه) is among the first branches of Zaidiyyah, attributed to Abul Jaroud Ziyad Ibn Mansur.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
Ka‘b al-Aḥbār (كعب الأحبار, full name Abū Isḥāq Ka‘b ibn Mati‘ ibn Haysu‘ or Haynu‘) was a 7th-century Yemenite Jew who converted to Islam.
Kerman (كرمان, also Romanized as Kermān, Kermun, and Kirman; also known as Carmania) is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
Khattab ibn Nufayl was an Arab from the tribe of Quraish.
KhaybarOther standardized Arabic transliterations: /. Anglicized pronunciation:,. (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia.
Kitab (کتاب), also transcribed as kitaab, kitáb, or kitāb, is the Arabic word for book, from the root K-T-B. The word is also used in the Persian, Hindi, Bengali, Sylheti, Nepalese, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Punjabi, Indonesian, Urdu, as (kitab), while in Assamese (as "kitap"), Swahili (as "kitabu"), Tatar, Kyrgyz, Turkish (as "kitap"), Serbo-Croatian (as "ćitap") languages and in some contexts in Greek ("κιτάπι").
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
In Arabic culture, a Majlis-ash-Shura (مجلس الشورى) is an advisory council or consultative council.
Makran (مکران), (pronounced) is a semi-desert coastal strip in Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Mawlā (مَوْلًى), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Michael Bonner is a scholar of Islamic studies.
The Migration to Abyssinia (الهجرة إلى الحبشة, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (هِجْرَة hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca.
Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussain Fadlallah (also Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh; محمد حسين فضل الله; 16 November 1935 – 4 July 2010) was a prominent but controversial Shia cleric from a Lebanese family, but born in Najaf, Iraq, Fadlallah studied Islam in Najaf before moving to Lebanon in 1952.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning.
Muhajirun (المهاجرون The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as ''The Hijra''.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mohammed Hussein Haekal (also spelled Haikal or Heikal or Haykal محمد حسين هيكل; August 20, 1888 – December 8, 1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt.
Muhammad ibn Maslamah (محمد بن مسلمة الأنصاري) (c.591-c.666) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Mohsin ibn Ali, also spelled Moshin ibn Ali, (Arabic: محسن بن علي), was a son of Fatimah bint Muhammad and Ali ibn Abi Talib.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
Najran (نجران), is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen.
Omar (عُمَرْ) or Farouk Omar (عمر فاروق) is a historical Arab television drama miniseries-serial that was produced and broadcast by MBC1 and directed by the Syrian director Hatem Ali.
The Pact of Umar (also known as the Covenant of Umar, Treaty of Umar or Laws of Umar; شروط عمر or عهد عمر or عقد عمر), is an apocryphal treaty between the Muslims and the Christians of either Syria, Mesopotamia or Jerusalem that later gained a canonical status in Islamic jurisprudence.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Piruz Nahavandi also spelled Pirouz Nahawandi (پیروز نهاوندی, Pīruz Nahāvandī or فیروز نهاوندی Fīruz Nahāvandī), also known by the Arabic teknonymy Abu Lululah (أَبُو لُؤْلُؤَة) was a Persian Sasanian general who served under the chief-commander of the Sassanian army Rostam Farrokhzad, but was captured in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (or Battle of Nahavand) in 636 CE when the Sasanians were defeated by the Muslim army of Umar ibn al-Khattab on the western bank of the Euphrates River.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Qurayba "the Younger" bint Abi Umayya, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was in succession a wife of Umar the second Caliph and of Muawiyah I the Umayyad Caliph.
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
Sa'd ibn Ubadah ibn Dulaym (سعد بن عبادة بن دليم) (d. 637) was the chief of the Sa'ida clan of the Khazraj tribe in Medina in the early seventh century.
Sa'īd bin Zayd, (Arabic: سعيد بن زيد) (c.593-c.671), also known by his kunya Abu'l-Aawar, was a companion (الصحابة) of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Sahih Muslim (صحيح مسلم, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim; full title: Al-Musnadu Al-Sahihu bi Naklil Adli) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) in Sunni Islam.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salim Mawla Abu Hudhayfa (سالم مولى أبي حذيفة) was one of the sahaba of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Saqīfah (السقيفة), also known as Saqīfah Banī Sā'idah (سقيفة بني ساعدة), was a roofed building used by a Jewish tribe called Banu Sa'idah, a faction of Banu Khazraj tribe of the city of Madinah in Hejaz, western Arabia.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Siege of Ta'if took place in 630, as the Muslims besieged the city of Ta'if after their victory in the Battle of Hunayn and Autas.
Siloam (سلوانHebrew: Shiloah; Arabic: Silwan) is an ancient site in Jerusalem, located in the East Jerusalem neighborhood of Silwan, south of the Old City.
Sīstān (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: سیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan (Nimruz, Kandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
The Stoning of the Devil (رمي الجمرات, "stoning of the ") is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia.
Suhayb ar-Rumi (صهيب الرومي) (born c. 587), also known as Suhayb ibn Sinan, was a former slave in the Byzantine Empire who went on to become an esteemed companion of Muhammad and revered member of the early Muslim community.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A Surah (also spelled Sura; سورة, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Sūrat Ṭā-Hā (سورة طه) is the 20th sura (chapter) of the Qur'an with 135 ayat (verses).
Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House "), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") and the Al Aqsa Compound is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam alike.
The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.
The Succession to Muhammad is a book by Wilferd Madelung published by the Cambridge University Press in 1997.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
A treasury is either.
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an important event that took place during the formation of Islam.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Umar at Fatimah's house refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umm Hakim (أم حكيم) (died after 634), was a female Sahaba.
Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr (أم كلثوم بنت ابي بكر) (born c.634 (13 AH)), was a daughter of Abu Bakr and Habiba bint Kharija.
Zaynab al-Sughra (Zaynab the Younger), also known by her kunya Umm Kulthum bint Ali, was the granddaughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the daughter of Imam Ali.
Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, also known as Mulayka, was a wife of Umar and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The ʿUmrah (عُمرَة) is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Hijaz, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Ḥajj (حَـجّ) which has specific dates according to the Islamic lunar calendar.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Usama bin Zayd (أسامة بن زيد) was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, Muhammad's freed slave, whom he adopted as his son.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
According to Islamic traditions, Zayd ibn Thabit (زيد بن ثابت) was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was from the ansar (helpers).
Zainab bint Madh'uwn was the first wife of Umar.
Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (594–656) was a companion of Muhammad and a commander in the Rashidun army.
'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 'Umar ibn-al-Khattab, Calif Omar, Caliph 'Umar, Caliph 'Umar I, Caliph Omar, Caliph Umar, Farooq the Great, Hazarath Omar, Hazrat Umar, Khalif Omar, Khalif Umar Al-Khattab, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, Omar Bin Alkahttab, Omar Farooq, Omar I, Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, Omar Ibn Alkhattab, Omar Ibn El Khattab, Omar bin Khattab, Omar bin al-Khattab, Omar ibn Al Khattwaab, Omar ibn Al-Khattab, Omar ibn al-Khattab, Omar ibn al-Khattāb, Omar khattab, Omer Bin Khattab, Umar Farooq, Umar Farooq (RA), Umar I, Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, Umar Ibn al-Khattab, Umar Son of Al-Khattab, Umar Son of Al-Khittab, Umar al Shaykh, Umar al-Khattab, Umar b. al-Khattab, Umar bin Al-Khattab, Umar bin Khattab, Umar bin al-Khat'tab, Umar bin al-Khattab, Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Umar ibn Khattab, Umar ibn al-Khat'tab, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Umar ibn al-Khattāb, `Umar, `Umar ibn al-Khattab, `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, عمر بن الخطاب, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab.