114 relations: Accuracy and precision, Actuarial science, Ambiguity, Ambiguity tolerance–intolerance, American Journal of Botany, Applied information economics, Brady Haran, Calibrated probability assessment, Cambridge University Press, Causality, Certainty, Chemical element, Cognitive psychology, Committee on Data for Science and Technology, Confidence interval, Decision theory, Dempster–Shafer theory, Dennis Lindley, Ecology, Economics, Effectuation, EMBO Reports, Engineering, Entrepreneurship, Entropy (information theory), Error, Error bar, Expectation (epistemic), Finance, Financial market, Frank Knight, Frank Luntz, Further research is needed, Fuzzy logic, Fuzzy set, Gambling, Game, Game theory, Global warming, Hamlet, Heuristic, Ignorance, Information, Information deficit model, Information science, Information theory, Insurance, International Organization for Standardization, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interval finite element, ..., Jean-Jacques Laffont, John Quiggin, John Wiley & Sons, Knightian uncertainty, Laziness, List of chemical elements, Lotfi A. Zadeh, Margin of error, Martin Creed, Mathematical optimization, Measurement uncertainty, Measuring instrument, Meteorology, Metrology, MIT Press, Morphological analysis (problem-solving), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Normal distribution, Observational error, Partially observable system, Peter Norvig, Philosophy, Physics, Physics Today, Probability, Probability density function, Probability distribution, Probability theory, Propagation of uncertainty, Psychology, Quantum mechanics, Random variable, Randomness, Risk, Scenario optimization, Schrödinger's cat, Science journalism, Scientific consensus, Scientific modelling, Sebastian Thrun, Self-information, Sigma, Significant figures, Sociology, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard deviation, Standard error, Statistical mechanics, Statistics, Stochastic, Stochastic optimization, Subjective logic, The Scientist (magazine), Udacity, Uncertainty (film), Uncertainty principle, Uncertainty quantification, University of Chicago, University of Nottingham, Vagueness, Variance, Volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity, Weather forecasting, William Buckley (convict). Expand index (64 more) » « Shrink index
Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
Ambiguity tolerance–intolerance is a psychological construct which describes the relationship that individuals have with ambiguous stimuli or events.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
Applied information economics (AIE) is a decision analysis method developed by Douglas W. Hubbard and partially described in his book How to Measure Anything: Finding the Value of Intangibles in Business (2007; 2nd ed. 2010; 3rd ed. 2014).
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
Calibrated probability assessments are subjective probabilities assigned by individuals who have been trained to assess probabilities in a way that historically represents their uncertainty.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council for Science.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
The theory of belief functions, also referred to as evidence theory or Dempster–Shafer theory (DST), is a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, with understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.
Dennis Victor Lindley (25 July 1923 – 14 December 2013) was an English statistician, decision theorist and leading advocate of Bayesian statistics.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Effectuation is a way of thinking that serves entrepreneurs in the processes of opportunity identification and new venture creation.
EMBO Reports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research related to biology at a molecular level.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.
An error (from the Latin error, meaning "wandering") is an action which is inaccurate or incorrect.
Error bars are graphical representations of the variability of data and used on graphs to indicate the error or uncertainty in a reported measurement.
In the case of uncertainty, expectation is what is considered the most likely to happen.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
Frank Hyneman Knight (November 7, 1885 – April 15, 1972) was an American economist who spent most of his career at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the founders of the Chicago school.
Frank I. Luntz (born February 23, 1962) is an American political consultant, pollster, and "public opinion guru" best known for developing talking points and other messaging for various Republican causes.
The phrases "further research is needed" (FRIN), "more research is needed" and other variants are commonly used in research papers.
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.
In mathematics, fuzzy sets (aka uncertain sets) are somewhat like sets whose elements have degrees of membership.
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.
A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
Ignorance is a lack of knowledge.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
In studies of the public understanding of science, the information deficit model (or simply deficit model) or science literacy/knowledge deficit model attributes public scepticism or hostility to science and technology to a lack of understanding, resulting from a lack of information.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
In numerical analysis, the interval finite element method (interval FEM) is a finite element method that uses interval parameters.
Jean-Jacques Marcel Laffont (April 13, 1947 – May 1, 2004) was a French economist specializing in public economics and information economics.
John Quiggin (born 29 March 1956) is an Australian economist, a Professor at the University of Queensland.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
In economics, Knightian uncertainty is an informal term to distinguish true unknowns from more quantifiable risks, e.g. statistical noise or a parameter's confidence interval.
Laziness (also known as indolence) is disinclination to activity or exertion despite having the ability to act or exert oneself.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
Lotfi Aliasker Zadeh (Lütfəli Rəhim oğlu Ələsgərzadə; لطفی علیعسگرزاده; February 4, 1921 – September 6, 2017) was a mathematician, computer scientist, electrical engineer, artificial intelligence researcher and professor emeritus of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley.
The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results.
Martin Creed (born 1968) is a British artist and musician.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.
A measuring instrument is a device for measuring a physical quantity.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Metrology is the science of measurement.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Morphological analysis or general morphological analysis is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified complex problem.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.
A partially observable system is one in which the entire state of the system is not fully visible to an external sensor.
Peter Norvig (born December 14, 1956) is an American computer scientist.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function, whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would equal that sample.
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties (or errors, more specifically random errors) on the uncertainty of a function based on them.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.
Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
The scenario approach or scenario optimization approach is a technique for obtaining solutions to robust optimization and chance-constrained optimization problems based on a sample of the constraints.
Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935.
Science journalism conveys reporting about science to the public.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
Sebastian Thrun (born May 14, 1967) is an innovator, entrepreneur educator, and computer scientist from Germany.
In information theory, self-information or surprisal is the surprise when a random variable is sampled.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
The standard error (SE) of a statistic (usually an estimate of a parameter) is the standard deviation of its sampling distribution or an estimate of that standard deviation.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
Stochastic optimization (SO) methods are optimization methods that generate and use random variables.
Subjective logic is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and source trust into account.
The Scientist is a professional magazine intended for life scientists.
Udacity, Inc. is a for-profit educational organization founded by Sebastian Thrun, David Stavens, and Mike Sokolsky offering massive open online courses (MOOCs).
Uncertainty is a 2008 indie crime drama thriller film written, produced, and directed by U.S. independent filmmakers Scott McGehee and David Siegel and starring Joseph Gordon-Levitt and Lynn Collins.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the science of quantitative characterization and reduction of uncertainties in both computational and real world applications.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
In analytic philosophy and linguistics, a concept may be considered vague if its extension is deemed lacking in clarity, if there is uncertainty about which objects belong to the concept or which exhibit characteristics that have this predicate (so-called "border-line cases"), or if the Sorites paradox applies to the concept or predicate.
In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.
VUCA is an acronym used to describe or to reflect on the volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of general conditions and situations.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
William Buckley (178030 January 1856) was an English convict who was transported to Australia, escaped, was given up for dead and lived in an Aboriginal community for many years.
Concise notation, I don't even know at this point, Lack of certainty, Scientific uncertainty, Standard uncertainty, Uncertainity, Uncertainty bracket notation, Uncertainty brackets notation, Uncertanty.