53 relations: Arawakan languages, Bangime language, Bantu languages, Basque language, Bayot language, Bung language, Cacán language, Chad, Cypro-Minoan syllabary, Extinct language, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Gutian language, Harappan language, Hunnic language, Iberian language, Imeraguen language, Jalaa language, Kujargé language, Kukurá language, Kwaza language, Laal language, Language contact, Language isolate, Lemnian language, Lemnos, List of language families, List of unclassified languages according to the Ethnologue, List of unclassified languages of North America, List of unclassified languages of South America, Lufu language, Luo language (Cameroon), Maba language, Maban languages, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Mawa language (Nigeria), Mimi of Decorse, Mpra language, Nam language, Nemadi dialect, Nilo-Saharan languages, Omaio language, Ongota language, Oropom language, Pama–Nyungan languages, Philistine language, Rer Bare people, Ruanruan language, Sentinelese language, Shabo language, Solano language, ..., Wawu language, Weyto language, Wutana language. Expand index (3 more) » « Shrink index
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
Bangime (bàŋɡí–mɛ̀, or, in full, Bàŋgɛ́rí-mɛ̀) is a language isolate spoken by 1,500 ethnic Dogon in seven villages in southern Mali, who call themselves the bàŋɡá–ndɛ̀ ("hidden people").
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bayot (Baiot, Baiote, Bayotte) is a language of southern Senegal, southwest of Ziguinchor in a group of villages near Nyassia, in northwestern Guinea-Bissau, along the Senegalese border, and in the Gambia.
The Bung language is a nearly extinct, endangered language of Cameroon spoken by 3 people (in 1995) at the village of Boung on the Adamawa Plateau.
Cacán (also Cacan, Kakán, Calchaquí, Chaka, Diaguita, and Kaka) is an extinct language that was spoken by the Diaguita and Calchaquí tribes in northern Argentina and Chile.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Cypro-Minoan syllabary (CM) is an undeciphered syllabary used on the island of Cyprus during the late Bronze Age (ca. 1550–1050 BC).
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Gutian (also Qutian) is an extinct unclassified language that was spoken by the Gutian people, who briefly ruled over Sumer as the Gutian dynasty in the 22nd century BCE (middle chronology).
The Harappan language (the Indus or Mohenjo-Daro language) is the unknown language or languages of the Bronze Age (2nd millennium BC) Harappan civilization (Indus Valley Civilization, or IVC).
The Hunnic language, or Hunnish, was the language spoken by Huns in the Hunnic Empire, a heterogeneous, multi-ethnic tribal confederation which ruled much of Eastern Europe and invaded the West during the 4th and 5th centuries.
The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
Imeraguen (or Imraguen) is a spurious unclassified language spoken by the Imraguen people who inhabit coastal Mauritania.
Jalaa (autonym: bàsàrə̀n dà jàlààbè̩), also known as Cèntûm, Centúúm or Cen Tuum, is an endangered language of northeastern Nigeria (Loojaa settlement in Balanga Local Government Area, Bauchi State), of uncertain origins.
The Kujargé language is spoken in seven villages in Chad near Jebel Mirra and in Sudan in villages scattered along the lower Wadi Salih and Wadi Azum.
Kukurá (Cucurá, Kokura) is a spurious language, fabricated by an interpreter in Brazil.
Kwaza (also written Kwazá or Koaiá) is an endangered language spoken by the Kwaza people of Brazil.
Laal is an endangered language isolate spoken by 749 people in three villages in the Moyen-Chari prefecture of Chad on opposite banks of the Chari River, called Gori (lá), Damtar (ɓual), and Mailao.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
The Lemnian language was a language spoken on the island of Lemnos in the 6th century BC.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
The following is a list of language families.
The following languages are listed as unclassified by the Ethnologue (17th edition), though in their descriptions some are identified with an established family, or have been retired as spurious.
A number of languages of North America are too poorly attested to classify.
Campbell & Grondona (2012:116-130) list the following 395 languages of South America as unclassified.
The Lufu language is a Yukubenic language of Nigeria is a language still spoken mostly by older adults among the Lufu people of the Takum Local Government Authority, Taraba State; its speakers have mostly shifted to Jukun.
The Luo language is an unclassified language spoken in a section of the Atta region of Cameroon.
Maba (Maban, Mabang) is a Maban language spoken in Chad and Sudan.
The Maban languages are a small family of languages which have been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan family.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
Mawa is an extinct and unattested language of Nigeria.
Mimi of Decorse, also known as Mimi of Gaudefroy-Demombynes and Mimi-D, is a language of Chad that is attested only in a word list labelled "Mimi" that was collected ca.
Mpra, or Mpre, is an extinct language spoken in the village of Butei in central Ghana, located between the towns of Techiman and Tamale near the confluence of the Black and White Voltas.
Nam is an undeciphered language preserved in Tibetan transcriptions in a number of Dunhuang manuscript fragments currently held at the British Library and the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.
The Nemadi are small hunting tribe of eastern Mauritania.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
Omaio (Omaiyo) is an obscure "Dorobo" language of Tanzania.
Ongota (also known as Birale, Birayle) is a moribund language of southwest Ethiopia.
Oropom (Oworopom, Oyoropom, Oropoi) is an African language, possibly spurious and, if real, almost certainly extinct.
The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of indigenous Australian languages, containing perhaps 300 languages.
The Philistine language is the extinct language of the Philistines, spoken and rarely inscribed along the coastal strip of southwestern Canaan.
The Rer Bare (or Rerebere, Adona) are a tribe in Ethiopia's eastern Ogaden region on the Shabele River, near Somalia, who currently speak Somali.
Ruan-ruan (also called Rouran) is an unclassified extinct language of Mongolia and northern China, spoken in the Rouran Khaganate from the 4th to the 6th centuries CE.
Sentinelese is the presumed language of the Sentinelese of North Sentinel Island in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
Shabo (or preferably Chabu; also called Mikeyir) is an endangered language and likely language isolate spoken by about 400 former hunter-gatherers in southwestern Ethiopia, in the westernmost part of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region.
Solano is an unclassified extinct language formerly spoken in northeast Mexico and perhaps also in the neighboring U.S. state of Texas.
Wawu (or perhaps Vavu,, Russian transcription Вавуски) is an obscure language formerly spoken in West Africa that has not been classified.
Weyto is a speculative extinct language thought to have been spoken in the Lake Tana region of Ethiopia by the Weyto, a small group of hippopotamus hunters who now speak Amharic.
A hypothetical Wutana language was mentioned in early editions of the Ethnologue as spoken in Nigeria, but has now been removed.