403 relations: 'Phags-pa script, Abugida, Acute accent, Adobe Systems, Ahom alphabet, Alchemical symbol, Alphabet, Alphabetic Presentation Forms, Anatolian hieroglyphs, Ancient North Arabian, Ancient South Arabian script, ANSI escape code, Apple Advanced Typography, Apple Inc., Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging, April Fools' Day Request for Comments, Arabic script, Armenian alphabet, Arrows (Unicode block), ASCII, Avestan alphabet, Śāradā script, Balinese script, Bamum script, Base64, Basic Latin (Unicode block), Bassa alphabet, Batak script, Baybayin, Bengali alphabet, Bhaiksuki alphabet, Bi-directional text, Binary Ordered Compression for Unicode, Block Elements, Bob Belleville, Bopomofo, Box Drawing, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Braille, Buhid alphabet, Burmese script, Byte, Byte order mark, Byzantine music, C0 and C1 control codes, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, Cangjie input method, Capital ẞ, Carian alphabets, ..., Caucasian Albanian alphabet, Chakma alphabet, Cham 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The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.
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An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
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The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
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Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
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The Ahom script is an abugida that is used to write the Ahom language, a nearly-extinct (but being revived) Tai language spoken by the Ahom people who ruled eastern part of Brahmaputra valley—about one-third of the length of Brahmaputra valley—in the Indian state of Assam between the 13th and the 18th centuries.
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Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century.
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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
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Alphabetic Presentation Forms
Alphabetic Presentation Forms is a Unicode block containing standard ligatures for the Latin, Armenian, and Hebrew scripts.
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Anatolian hieroglyphs are an indigenous logographic script native to central Anatolia, consisting of some 500 signs.
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Ancient North Arabian
Ancient North Arabian (ANA)http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf refers to all South Semitic scripts excluding Ancient South Arabian (ASA) used in central and northern Arabia from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE.
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Ancient South Arabian script
The Ancient South Arabian script (Old South Arabian 𐩣𐩯𐩬𐩳 ms3nd; modern المُسنَد musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic script in about the 9th century BC.
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ANSI escape code
ANSI escape sequences are a standard for in-band signaling to control the cursor location, color, and other options on video text terminals.
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Apple Advanced Typography
Apple Advanced Typography (AAT) is Apple Inc.'s computer software for advanced font rendering, supporting internationalization and complex features for typographers, a successor to Apple's little-used QuickDraw GX font technology of the mid-1990s.
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Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
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Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging
The Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) is the set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text introduced in Mac OS 8.5 and carried forward into Mac OS X. It replaced the WorldScript engine for legacy encodings.
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April Fools' Day Request for Comments
A Request for Comments (RFC), in the context of Internet governance, is a type of publication from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Society (ISOC), usually describing methods, behaviors, research, or innovations applicable to the working of the Internet and Internet-connected systems.
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The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
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The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
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Arrows (Unicode block)
Arrows is a Unicode block containing line, curve, and semicircle symbols terminating in barbs or arrows.
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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
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The Avestan alphabet is a writing system developed during Iran's Sassanid era (226–651 CE) to render the Avestan language.
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The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
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The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit.
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The Bamum scripts are an evolutionary series of six scripts created for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon at the turn of the 19th century.
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Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation.
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Basic Latin (Unicode block)
The Basic Latin or C0 Controls and Basic Latin Unicode block is the first block of the Unicode standard, and the only block which is encoded in one byte in UTF-8.
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The Bassa script, known as Bassa vah or simply vah ('throwing a sign' in Bassa) is an alphabet for writing the Bassa language of Liberia.
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The Batak script, natively known as surat Batak, surat na sampulu sia (the nineteen letters), or si-sia-sia, is a writing system used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
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Baybayin (pre-kudlit:, post-kudlit:, kudlit + pamudpod), is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
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The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
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Bhaiksuki (Sanskrit: भैक्षुकी, Bhaiksuki:𑰥𑰹𑰎𑰿𑰬𑰲𑰎𑰱) is a Brahmi-based script that was used around the 11th and 12th centuries CE.
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Bi-directional text is text containing text in both text directionalities, both right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral).
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Binary Ordered Compression for Unicode
Binary Ordered Compression for Unicode (BOCU) is a MIME compatible Unicode compression scheme.
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Block Elements is a Unicode block containing square block symbols of various fill and shading.
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Robert L. Belleville is an American computer engineer who was an early head of engineering at Apple from 1982 until 1985.
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Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
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Box Drawing is a Unicode block containing characters for compatibility with legacy graphics standards that contained characters for making bordered charts and tables, i.e. box-drawing characters.
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Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
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The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
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Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
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Buhid is a Brahmic suyat script of the Philippines, closely related to Baybayin and Hanunó'o, and is used today by the Mangyans, found mainly on island of Mindoro, to write their language, Buhid.
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The Burmese script is the basis of the alphabets used for modern Burmese, Mon, Shan and Karen.
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The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
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Byte order mark
The byte order mark (BOM) is a Unicode character,, whose appearance as a magic number at the start of a text stream can signal several things to a program consuming the text.
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Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire.
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C0 and C1 control codes
The C0 and C1 control code or control character sets define control codes for use in text by computer systems that use the ISO/IEC 2022 system of specifying control and graphic characters.
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Canadian Aboriginal syllabics
Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) used to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families.
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Cangjie input method
The Cangjie input method (Tsang-chieh input method, sometimes also Changjie, Cang Jie, or Changjei) is a system by which Chinese characters may be entered into a computer using a standard keyboard.
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Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the eszett (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography (ß).
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The Carian alphabets are a number of regional scripts used to write the Carian language of western Anatolia.
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Caucasian Albanian alphabet
The Caucasian Albanian alphabet was an alphabet used by the Caucasian Albanians, one of the ancient and indigenous Northeast Caucasian peoples whose territory comprised parts of present-day Azerbaijan and Daghestan.
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The Chakma alphabet (Ajhā pāṭh), also called Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language.
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The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Chams in Vietnam and Cambodia.
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In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
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Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
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Charis SIL is a transitional serif typeface developed by SIL International based on Bitstream Charter, one of the first fonts designed for laser printers.
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The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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Chinese character description language
The Chinese character description languages are several proposed languages to most accurately and completely describe Chinese (or CJKV) characters and information such as their list of components, list of strokes (basic and complex), their order, and the location of each of them on a background empty square.
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Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
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In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.
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CJK Unified Ideographs
The Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) scripts share a common background, collectively known as CJK characters.
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In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.
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In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
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In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
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Comparison of Unicode encodings
This article compares Unicode encodings.
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ConScript Unicode Registry
The ConScript Unicode Registry is a volunteer project to coordinate the assignment of code points in the Unicode Private Use Area for the encoding of artificial scripts including those for constructed languages.
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The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
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Core Text is a Core Foundation style API in macOS, first introduced in Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger, made public in Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, and introduced for the iPad with iPhone SDK 3.2.
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Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
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Currency Symbols (Unicode block)
Currency Symbols is a Unicode block containing characters for representing unique monetary signs.
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The Cypriot or Cypriote syllabary is a syllabic script used in Iron Age Cyprus, from about the 11th to the 4th centuries BCE, when it was replaced by the Greek alphabet.
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Cyrillic (Unicode block)
Cyrillic is a Unicode block containing the characters used to write the most widely used languages with a Cyrillic orthography.
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The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
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A Data file is a computer file which stores data to be used by a computer application or system.
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The Deseret alphabet (Deseret: 𐐔𐐯𐑅𐐨𐑉𐐯𐐻 or 𐐔𐐯𐑆𐐲𐑉𐐯𐐻) is a phonemic English-language spelling reform developed between 1847 and 1854 by the board of regents of the University of Deseret under the leadership of Brigham Young, the second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
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In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
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In typography, a dingbat (sometimes more formally known as a printer's ornament or printer's character) is an ornament, character, or spacer used in typesetting, often employed for the creation of box frames.
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DirectWrite is a text layout and glyph rendering API by Microsoft.
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Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
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Domain Name System
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
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Dominoes is a family of tile-based games played with rectangular "domino" tiles.
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When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
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Duplicate characters in Unicode
Unicode has a certain amount of duplication of characters.
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The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography (Sténographie Duployé), was created by Father Émile Duployé in 1860 for writing French.
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E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
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Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
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The Elbasan script is a mid 18th-century alphabetic script used for the Albanian language.
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Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
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are ideograms and smileys used in electronic messages and web pages.
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An emoticon (rarely pronounced) is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using characters—usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person's feelings or mood, or as a time-saving method.
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Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.
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The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
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European Committee for Standardization
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN, Comité Européen de Normalisation) is a public standards organization whose mission is to foster the economy of the European Union (EU) in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for the development, maintenance and distribution of coherent sets of standards and specifications.
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Extended ASCII (EASCII or high ASCII) character encodings are eight-bit or larger encodings that include the standard seven-bit ASCII characters, plus additional characters.
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Extended Unix Code
Extended Unix Code (EUC) is a multibyte character encoding system used primarily for Japanese, Korean, and simplified Chinese.
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A fallback font is a reserve typeface containing symbols for as many Unicode characters as possible.
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The Fitzpatrick scale (also Fitzpatrick skin typing test; or Fitzpatrick phototyping scale) is a numerical classification schema for human skin color.
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In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
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Font substitution is the process of using one font in place of another when the intended font either is not available or does not contain glyphs for the required characters.
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The Fraser alphabet or Old Lisu Alphabet is an artificial script invented around 1915 by Sara Ba Thaw, a Karen preacher from Myanmar, and improved by the missionary James O. Fraser, to write the Lisu language.
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FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
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Gardiner's sign list
Gardiner's Sign List is a list of common Egyptian hieroglyphs compiled by Sir Alan Gardiner.
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GB 18030 is a Chinese government standard, described as Information technology — Chinese coded character set and defines the required language and character support necessary for software in China.
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Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
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General Punctuation is a Unicode block containing punctuation, spacing, and formatting characters for use with all scripts and writing systems.
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Geometric Shapes is a Unicode block of 96 symbols at code point range U+25A0-25FF.
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The lari (ლარი; ISO 4217: GEL) is the currency of Georgia.
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The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
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The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
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In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
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Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google.
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GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
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GNU Compiler Collection
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
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Gondi has typically been written in Devanagari script or Telugu script, but native scripts are in existence.
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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
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The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
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The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
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In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
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Graphite is a programmable Unicode-compliant smart-font technology and rendering system developed by SIL International as free software, distributed under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License and the Common Public License.
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The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
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Greek and Coptic
Greek and Coptic is the Unicode block for representing modern (monotonic) Greek.
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Greek Extended is a Unicode block containing the accented vowels necessary for writing polytonic Greek.
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GTK+ (formerly GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces.
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The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
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Gunjala Gondi Lipi
The Gunjala Gondi lipi or Gunjala Gondi script is a recently discovered script used to write the Gondi language, a Dravidian language spoken by the Gond people of northern Telangana, eastern Maharashtra, southeastern Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.
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Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
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Halfwidth and fullwidth forms
In CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) computing, graphic characters are traditionally classed into fullwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 全形; in CJK: 全角) and halfwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 半形; in CJK: 半角) characters.
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Han unification is an effort by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the so-called CJK languages into a single set of unified characters.
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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
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Hangul consonant and vowel tables
The following tables of consonants and vowels of the Korean alphabet (jamo) display the basic forms in blue in the first row, and their derivatives in the following rows.
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Hanifi Rohingya script
The Hanifi Rohingya script is a unified script for the Rohingya language.
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Hanunó’o is one of the indigenous suyat scripts of the Philippines and is used by the Mangyan peoples of southern Mindoro to write the Hanunó'o language.
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The Hatran alphabet is the script used to write Aramaic of Hatra, also known as Ashurian Aramaic, a dialect that was spoken from approximately 98-97 BC (year 409 of the Seleucid calendar) to 240 AD by early inhabitants of present-day northern Iraq.
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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
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In the Japanese writing system, are obsolete or nonstandard hiragana.
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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
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Hexagram (I Ching)
The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams.
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High-level programming language
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
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Horizontal square script
The horizontal square script (Хэвтээ Дөрвөлжин бичиг, Khevtee Dörvöljin bichig or Хэвтээ Дөрвөлжин Үсэг, Khevtee Dörvöljin Üseg) is an abugida developed by the monk and scholar Zanabazar to write Mongolian.
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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
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Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
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An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
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Ideographic Rapporteur Group
The Ideographic Rapporteur Group (IRG) is a subgroup of the ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 working group WG2.
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Indian rupee sign
The Indian rupee sign (sign:; code: INR) is the currency sign for the Indian rupee, the official currency of India.
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Indian Script Code for Information Interchange
Indian Script Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) is a coding scheme for representing various writing systems of India.
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Indic Siyaq Numbers (Unicode block)
Indic Siyaq Numbers is a Unicode block containing a specialized subset of the Arabic script that was used for accounting in India under the Mughals by the 17th century through the middle of the 20th century.
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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
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In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.
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An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.
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Inscriptional Pahlavi is the earliest attested form of Pahlavi scripts, and is evident in clay fragments that have been dated to the reign of Mithridates I (r. 171–38 BC).
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Inscriptional Parthian is a script used to write Parthian language on coins of Parthia from the time of Arsaces I of Parthia (250 BC).
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International Components for Unicode
International Components for Unicode (ICU) is an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization, and software globalization.
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International Organization for Standardization
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
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Internationalization and localization
In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
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Internationalized domain name
An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French.
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Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
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IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
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ISO/IEC 14755 is a joint ISO and IEC standard for input methods to enter characters defined in ISO/IEC 10646, the international standard corresponding to the Unicode Standard.
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ISO/IEC 2022 Information technology—Character code structure and extension techniques, is an ISO standard (equivalent to the ECMA standard ECMA-35) specifying.
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ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.
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ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
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ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 Coded character sets is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates standards within the field of coded character sets.
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Java (programming language)
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
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Java virtual machine
A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.
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The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia.
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Joe Becker (Unicode)
Joseph D. Becker is one of the co-founders of the Unicode project, and an Officer Emeritus of the Unicode Consortium.
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Jurchen script (Jurchen) was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries.
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Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar.
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Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
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The Kannada Script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka.
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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
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Kayah Li alphabet
The Kayah Li alphabet (Kayah Li) is used to write the Kayah languages Eastern Kayah Li and Western Kayah Li, which are members of Karenic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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KDE is an international free software community that develops Free and Open Source based software.
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The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
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Khitan small script
The Khitan small script was one of two Khitan writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language.
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The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
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Khojki, or Khojiki (خوجڪي (Arabic script) खोजकी (Devanagari)), is a script almost exclusively formerly used by the Khoja community of parts of South Asia such as Sindh.
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Khudabadi is a script generally used by some Sindhis in India to write the Sindhi language.
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Klingon alphabets are fictional alphabets used in the Star Trek movies and television shows to write the Klingon language.
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Languages of East Asia
The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.
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Lao script or Akson Lao (Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ) is the primary script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos.
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Latin Extended Additional
Latin Extended Additional is a Unicode block.
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Latin Extended-A is a Unicode block and is the third block of the Unicode standard.
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Latin Extended-B is the fourth block (0180-024F) of the Unicode Standard.
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Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
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Latin-1 Supplement (Unicode block)
The Latin-1 Supplement (also called C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement) is the second Unicode block in the Unicode standard.
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Lee Collins (Unicode)
Lee Collins is one of the three software engineers who created Unicode in late 1987, the other two being Joe Becker and Mark Davis.
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The Lepcha script, or Róng script, is an abugida used by the Lepcha people to write the Lepcha language.
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Letterlike Symbols is a Unicode block containing 80 characters which are constructed mainly from the glyphs of one or more letters.
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The Limbu script is used to write the Limbu language.
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Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).
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Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
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A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
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List of binary codes
This is a list of some binary codes that are (or have been) used to represent text as a sequence of binary digits "0" and "1".
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List of musical symbols
Musical symbols are the marks and symbols, used since about the 13th century in the musical notation of musical scores, styles, and instruments to describe pitch, rhythm, tempo and, to some degree, its articulation (a composition in its fundamentals).
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List of typefaces
This is a list of typefaces, which are separated into groups by distinct artistic differences.
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List of Unicode characters
This is a list of Unicode characters.
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List of XML and HTML character entity references
In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference.
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Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
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The Lontara script is a Brahmic script traditionally used for the Bugis, Makassarese and Mandar languages of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
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Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set
The Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set (LMBCS) is a proprietary multi-byte character encoding originally conceived in 1988 at Lotus Development Corporation with input from Bob Balaban and others.
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The Lycian alphabet was used to write the Lycian language.
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Lydian script was used to write the Lydian language.
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macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
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A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
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Mahajani is a Laṇḍā mercantile script that was historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records in Hindi, Punjabi, and Marwari.
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Mahjong (Mandarin) is a tile-based game which was developed in China in the Qing dynasty and has spread throughout the world since the early 20th century.
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Makassarese (sometimes spelled Makasar, Makassar, or Macassar) is a language of the Makassarese people, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia.
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Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
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The Mandaic alphabet is thought to have evolved between the 2nd and 7th century CE from either a cursive form of Aramaic (as did Syriac) or from the Parthian chancery script.
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Manichaean script is an abjad-based writing system rooted in the Semitic family of alphabets and associated with the spread of Manichaean religion from southwest to central Asia and beyond, beginning in the 3rd century CE.
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A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
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A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
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Mark Davis (Unicode)
Mark E. Davis (born September 13, 1952) is a specialist in software text processing and internationalization and the co-founder and president of the Unicode Consortium.
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Markus Kuhn (computer scientist)
Markus Guenther Kuhn (born 1971) is a German computer scientist, currently working at the Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Cambridge.
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Mathematical Operators is a Unicode block containing characters for mathematical, logical, and set notation.
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The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization.
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Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
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Medefaidrin (Medefidrin), or Obɛri Ɔkaimɛ, is an artificial language and script created as a Christian sacred language by an Ibibio congregation in 1930s Nigeria.
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Medieval Unicode Font Initiative
In digital typography, the Medieval Unicode Font Initiative (MUFI) is a project which aims to coordinate the encoding and display of special characters in medieval texts written in the Latin alphabet, which are not encoded as part of Unicode.
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The Meitei script, Meetei Mayek, is an abugida that was used for the Meitei language, one of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur, until the eighteenth century, when it was replaced by the Bengali script.
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Mende Kikakui script
The Mende Kikakui script is a syllabary used for writing the Mende language of Sierra Leone.
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The Meroitic script refers to two alphasyllabaric scripts developed to write the Kushite language at the beginning of the Meroitic Period (3rd century BC) of the Kingdom of Kush.
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Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is an American and Irish linguist, script encoder, typesetter, font designer, and publisher.
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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
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Microsoft Layer for Unicode
Microsoft Layer for Unicode (or MSLU) is a software library for Windows software developers to simplify creating Unicode-aware applications for Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows Me.
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Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
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Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support.
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Miscellaneous Symbols is a Unicode block (U+2600–U+26FF) containing glyphs representing concepts from a variety of categories: astrological, astronomical, chess, dice, musical notation, political symbols, recycling, religious symbols, trigrams, warning signs, and weather, among others.
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Miscellaneous Technical is the name of a Unicode block ranging from U+2300 to U+23FF, which contains various common symbols which are related to and used in the various technical, programming language, and academic professions.
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Modi (मोडी,,; also Mudiya) is a script used to write the Marathi language, which is the primary language spoken in the state of Maharashtra, India.
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Mojibake (文字化け) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.
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The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
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Mru is a Sino-Tibetan language and one of the recognized languages of Bangladesh.
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Multani is a Brahmic script originating in the Multan region of Punjab and in northern Sindh, Pakistan.
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Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
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Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
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N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.
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The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.
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Nüshu, is a syllabic script derived from Chinese characters that was used exclusively among women in Jiangyong County in Hunan province of southern China.
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New Tai Lue alphabet
New Tai Lue script, also known as Xishuangbanna Dai and Simplified Tai Lue, is an alphabet used to write the Tai Lü language.
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Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.
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NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
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A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
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Number Forms is a Unicode block containing characters that have specific meaning as numbers, but are constructed from other characters.
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The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as the Odia script, is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.
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Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
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The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.
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Ol Chiki script
The Ol Chiki (ᱚᱞ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ) script, also known as Ol Cemetʼ (Santali: ol 'writing', cemet 'learning'), Ol Ciki, Ol, and sometimes as the Santali alphabet, is the official writing system for Santali, an Austroasiatic-Munda language recognized as an official regional language in India.
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Old Aramaic language
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).
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Old Hungarian alphabet
The Old Hungarian script (rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.
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Old Italic script
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
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Old Permic alphabet
The Old Permic script (Важ Перым гижӧм), sometimes called Abur or Anbur, is a "highly idiosyncratic adaptation" of the Cyrillic script once used to write medieval Komi (Permic).
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Old Persian cuneiform
Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic cuneiform script that was the primary script for Old Persian.
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Old Turkic alphabet
The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.
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Open-source Unicode typefaces
A few projects exist to provide free and open-source Unicode typefaces, i.e. Unicode typefaces which are open-source and designed to contain glyphs of all Unicode characters.
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OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
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An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
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Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
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The Osage alphabet is a new script promulgated in 2006 for the Osage language.
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The Osmanya alphabet (Farta Cismaanya; Osmanya), also known as Far Soomaali ("Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah al-ʿuthmānīyah, is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language.
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Outlook.com is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts, tasks, and calendaring services from Microsoft.
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Pahawh Hmong (RPA: Phajhauj Hmoob, known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).
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Palmyrene was a historical Semitic alphabet used to write the local Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic.
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Pango (stylized as Παν語) is a text layout engine library which works with the HarfBuzz shaping engine for displaying multi-language text.
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PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
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A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.
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Pau Cin Hau
Pau Cin Hau is the founder and the name of a religion followed by some Tedim, Hakha in Chin state and Kale in Sagaing division in the north-western part of Burma.
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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
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Percent-encoding, also known as URL encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances.
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The Phaistos Disc (also spelled Phaistos Disk, Phaestos Disc) is a disk of fired clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the island of Crete, possibly dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (second millennium B.C.). The disk is about 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter and covered on both sides with a spiral of stamped symbols.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
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The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
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Plan 9 from Bell Labs
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
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In the Unicode standard, a plane is a continuous group of 65,536 (216) code points.
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A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games.
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The Pollard script, also known as Pollard Miao (Chinese: 柏格理苗文 Bó Gélǐ Miao-wen) or Miao, is an abugida loosely based on the Latin alphabet and invented by Methodist missionary Sam Pollard.
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Prachalit Nepal alphabet
Prachalit Nepal script is a type of Abugida script developed from the Mol script derivatives of Brahmi script.
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A precomposed character (alternatively composite character or decomposable character) is a Unicode entity that can also be defined as a sequence of one or more other characters.
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Private Use Areas
In Unicode, a Private Use Area (PUA) is a range of code points that, by definition, will not be assigned characters by the Unicode Consortium.
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Proof of concept
Proof of concept (PoC) is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to demonstrate its feasibility, or a demonstration in principle with the aim of verifying that some concept or theory has practical potential.
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Psalter Pahlavi is a cursive abjad which was used for writing Middle Persian on paper, it is thus described as one of the Pahlavi scripts.
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Punycode is a representation of Unicode with the limited ASCII character subset used for Internet host names.
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Python (programming language)
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
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Quoted-Printable, or QP encoding, is an encoding using printable ASCII characters (alphanumeric and the equals sign.
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Radical (Chinese characters)
A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.
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The Rejang script, sometimes spelt Redjang and locally known as Surat Ulu ('upstream script'), is an abugida of the Brahmic family, and is related to other scripts of the region, like Batak, Buginese, and others.
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Religious and political symbols in Unicode
Unicode contains a number characters that represent various cultural, political, and religious symbols.
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Request for Comments
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
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Research Libraries Group
The Research Libraries Group (RLG) was a U.S.-based library consortium that existed from 1974 until its merger with the OCLC library consortium in 2006.
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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
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Rongorongo (Rapa Nui) is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appear to contain writing or proto-writing.
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Round-trip format conversion
The term round-trip is commonly used in document conversion particularly involving markup languages such as XML and SGML.
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The ruble sign (₽) is the currency sign used for the Russian ruble, the official currency of Russia.
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Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
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The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic.
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The Saurashtra alphabet is an abugida script that is used by Saurashtrians of Tamil Nadu to write the Saurashtra language.
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Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
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In Unicode, a script is a collection of letters and other written signs used to represent textual information in one or more writing systems.
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Seed7 is an extensible general-purpose programming language designed by Thomas Mertes.
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Shape context is a feature descriptor used in object recognition.
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The Shavian alphabet (also known as the Shaw alphabet) is an alphabet conceived as a way to provide simple, phonetic orthography for the English language to replace the difficulties of conventional spelling.
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--> Shift JIS (Shift Japanese Industrial Standards, also SJIS, MIME name Shift_JIS) is a character encoding for the Japanese language, originally developed by a Japanese company called ASCII Corporation in conjunction with Microsoft and standardized as JIS X 0208 Appendix 1.
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, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a script used for writing Sanskrit from c. 550 – c. 1200.
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Sutton SignWriting, or simply, SignWriting, is a system of writing sign languages.
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SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
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The Sinhalese alphabet (Sinhalese: සිංහල අක්ෂර මාලාව) (Siṁhala Akṣara Mālāva) is an alphabet used by the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka and elsewhere to write the Sinhalese language and also the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit.
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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
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The Sogdian alphabet was originally used for the Sogdian language, a language in the Iranian family used by the people of Sogdia.
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Sorang Sompeng alphabet
Sorang Sompeng script is used to write in Sora, a Munda language with 300,000 speakers in India.
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In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
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The Soyombo alphabet (Соёмбо бичиг, Soyombo biçig) is an abugida developed by the monk and scholar Zanabazar in 1686 to write Mongolian.
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Spacing Modifier Letters
Spacing Modifier Letters is a Unicode block containing characters for the IPA, UPA, and other phonetic transcriptions.
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Specials (Unicode block)
Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF.
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Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode
The Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode (SCSU) is a Unicode Technical Standard for reducing the number of bytes needed to represent Unicode text, especially if that text uses mostly characters from one or a small number of per-language character blocks.
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Standardization Administration of China
The Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC) is the standards organization authorized by the State Council of China to exercise administrative responsibilities by undertaking unified management, supervision and overall coordination of standardization work in China.
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Standards related to Unicode
There are several standards related to Unicode.
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Stars are often used as symbols for ratings.
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Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
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Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda) is a writing system which is used by the Sundanese people.
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Superscripts and Subscripts
Superscripts and Subscripts is a Unicode block containing superscript and subscript numerals, mathematical operators, and letters used in mathematics and phonetics.
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Sylheti Nagari (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ Silôṭi Nagri) is an endangered script used for writing Sylheti.
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A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
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The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
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Tagbanwa, also known as Apurahuano, is one of the suyathttp://newsinfo.inquirer.net/985669/protect-all-ph-writing-systems-heritage-advocates-urge-congress writing systems of the Philippines used by the Tagbanwa people as their ethnic writing system and script.
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Tai Tham script
The Tai Tham script, Lanna script (อักษรธรรมล้านนา) or Tua Mueang (ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩥᩬᨦ,, ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼, Tham, "scripture"), is used for three living languages: Northern Thai (that is, Kham Mueang), Tai Lü and Khün.
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Tai Viet is a Unicode block containing characters for writing the Tai languages Tai Dam, Tai Dón, and Thai Song.
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The Takri script (Devanagari: ताकरी; sometimes called Tankri) is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
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The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
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The Tangut script (Chinese: 西夏文 xī xià wén) was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia Dynasty.
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Telugu script (Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states.
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The tengwar are an artificial script created by J. R. R. Tolkien.
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Thaana, Taana or Tāna (  in Tāna script) is the present writing system of the Maldivian language spoken in the Maldives.
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Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
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Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533
Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533, commonly referred to as TIS-620, is the most common character set and character encoding for the Thai language.
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The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
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Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
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Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script used for the Maithili language originating in the Mithila region of Bihar, India and the eastern Terai region of Nepal.
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Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users.
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TRON Code is a multi-byte character encoding used in the TRON project.
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TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript.
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Turkish lira sign
The Turkish lira sign (symbol: ₺; image) is the currency symbol used for the Turkish lira, the official currency of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.
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In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
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In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
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The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
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In Unicode, a block is defined as one contiguous range of code points.
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Unicode collation algorithm
The Unicode collation algorithm (UCA) is an algorithm defined in Unicode Technical Report #10, which defines a customizable method to compare two strings.
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The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
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Unicode equivalence is the specification by the Unicode character encoding standard that some sequences of code points represent essentially the same character.
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In computing, a Unicode symbol is a Unicode character which is not part of a script used to write a natural language, but is nonetheless available for use as part of a text.
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Uniform Resource Identifier
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme.
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Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text, especially complex text layout.
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Universal Coded Character Set
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
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University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
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A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
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A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
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UTF-1 is one way of transforming ISO 10646/Unicode into a stream of bytes.
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UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode.
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UTF-32 stands for Unicode Transformation Format in 32 bits.
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UTF-7 (7-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding that was proposed for representing Unicode text using a stream of ASCII characters.
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UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
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UTF-EBCDIC is a character encoding used to represent Unicode characters.
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The Vai syllabary is a syllabic writing system devised for the Vai language by Momolu Duwalu Bukele of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia.
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Variant form (Unicode)
A variant form is a different glyph for a character, encoded in Unicode through the mechanism of variation sequences: sequences in Unicode which consist of a base character followed by a variation selector character.
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Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
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Warang Citi (also written Varang Kshiti;, IPA: /wɐrɐŋ ʧɪt̪ɪ/) is an abugida invented by Lako Bodra, used in primary and adult education and in various publications.
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A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
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A wide character is a computer character datatype that generally has a size greater than the traditional 8-bit character.
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Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows 2000 (codenamed NT 5.0) is an operating system for use on both client and server computers.
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Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.
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Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.
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Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis while in development) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft.
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Windows Glyph List 4
Windows Glyph List 4, or more commonly WGL4 for short, also known as the Pan-European character set, is a character repertoire on recent Microsoft operating systems comprising 656 Unicode characters.
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Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows ME (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me", commonly pronounced as an initialism, "M-E (Codenamed Millennium)", is a graphical operating system from Microsoft released to manufacturing in June 2000, and launched in September 2000.
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Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.
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Windows NT 4.0
Windows NT 4.0 is an operating system that is part of Microsoft's Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.
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Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
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Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
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A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.
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World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
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World Wide Web Consortium
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
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A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
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The Wubizixing input method, often abbreviated to simply Wubi or Wubi Xing, is a Chinese character input method primarily for inputting simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese text on a computer.
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Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.
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Xerox Character Code Standard
The Xerox Character Code Standard (XCCS) is a historical 16-bit character encoding that was created by Xerox in 1980 for the exchange of information between elements of the Xerox Network Systems Architecture.
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Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.
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Xiangqi, also called Chinese chess, is a strategy board game for two players.
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In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
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Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..
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The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary.
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.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
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16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
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32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
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8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
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