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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe. [1]

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Expand index (1120 more) »

Alan Alexander Milne (18 January 1882 – 31 January 1956) was an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various children's poems.

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Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989) was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).

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The A8 countries are a group of eight of the 10 countries that joined the European Union during its 2004 enlargement.

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Aberdeen (Aiberdeen; Obar Dheathain) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 228,990.

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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.

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Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.

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In the common law tradition, an acquittal formally certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offence, as far as the criminal law is concerned.

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An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament.

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In Wales, an Act of the National Assembly for Wales (Deddf Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) (informally, an Act of the Assembly) is primary legislation that can be made by the National Assembly for Wales under part 4 of the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

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The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes falsely referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801.

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Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.

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Adele Laurie Blue Adkins,Frehsée, Nicole (22 January 2009), "Meet Adele, the U.K.'s Newest Soul Star," Rolling Stone. (1070):26 MBE (born 5 May 1988) known mononymously as Adele, is a British singer and songwriter.

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The aerospace industry of the United Kingdom is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry in the world, depending upon the method of measurement.

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Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, DBE (née Miller; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976) was an English crime novelist, short story writer and playwright.

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The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.

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AgustaWestland S.p.A. is an Anglo-Italian multinational helicopter design and manufacturing company, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Finmeccanica.

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The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.

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The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European aircraft company Airbus.

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The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.

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Airbus UK is a wholly owned subsidiary of Airbus SAS which produces wings for the Airbus aircraft family.

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Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Ακρωτήρι και Δεκέλεια,; Ağrotur ve Dikelya), officially the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.

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Sir Alan Ayckbourn, CBE (born 12 April 1939) is a prolific English playwright.

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Alan Moore (born 18 November 1953) is an English writer primarily known for his work in comic books including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, and From Hell.

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Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, theoretical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner.

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Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician who served as the fourth First Minister of Scotland from 2007 to 2014.

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Sir Alexander Fleming, FRSE, FRS, FRCS(Eng) (6 August 188111 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist.

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Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

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Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English film director and producer.

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An all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2014, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.

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The Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, (ARRC) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation High Readiness Force (Land) Headquarters ready for deployment worldwide within five to thirty days.

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Alternative medicine is any practice that is put forward as having the healing effects of medicine, but does not originate from evidence gathered using the scientific method, is not part of biomedicine, or is contradicted by scientific evidence or established science.

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The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.

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Amy Jade Winehouse (14 September 1983 – 23 July 2011) was an English singer and songwriter known for her deep vocals and her eclectic mix of musical genres, including soul (sometimes labelled as blue-eyed soul and neo soul), rhythm and blues, and jazz.

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Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre.

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Andrew Vivian (1759–1842) was a British mechanical engineer, inventor, and mine captain of the Dolcoath mine in Cornwall, England.

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The term Angevin Empire (French: L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a modern term describing the collection of states once ruled by the Angevins of the House of Plantagenet.

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Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island off the north-west coast of Wales.

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The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Irish representatives that concluded the Irish War of Independence.

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The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the Norman conquest by William the Conqueror in 1066.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of wars fought between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland following the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century, and ended by the Union of the Crowns in 1603, wherein England and Scotland entered a personal union.

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Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.

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Sir Anish Kapoor, CBE RA (born 12 March 1954) is a British-Indian sculptor.

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The terms anno Domini (AD or A.D.) and before Christ (BC or B.C.) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins, CBE (born 31 December 1937) is a Welsh actor of film, stage, and television, and a composer and painter.

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Anti-Slavery International is an international non-governmental organisation, registered charity and a lobby group, based in the United Kingdom.

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Sir Antony Mark David Gormley, (born 30 August 1950) is a British sculptor.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.

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The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations.

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The art of Europe encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.

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Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle KStJ, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician, most noted for his fictional stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction.

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Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer.

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The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that flourished in Europe and North America between 1880 and 1910, emerging in Japan in the 1920s.

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Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, around from the coast of Africa and from the coast of Brazil, which is roughly midway between the horn of South America and Africa.

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Ascot Racecourse ("ascot" pronounced) is a British racecourse, located in Ascot, England, which is a borough of Windsor & Maidenhead and is used for thoroughbred horse racing.

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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries.

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Clement Attlee formed the Attlee Ministry in the United Kingdom in 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance"; Vieille Alliance in French) was the alliance between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.

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The automotive industry in the United Kingdom is now best known for premium and sports car marques including Aston Martin, Bentley, Daimler, Jaguar, Lagonda, Land Rover, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini, Morgan and Rolls-Royce.

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BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London in the United Kingdom and with operations worldwide.

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The BAE Systems Hawk is a British single-engine, jet-powered advanced trainer aircraft.

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The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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The Basques (euskaldunak; vascos; basques) are an indigenous ethnic group who primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.

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The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England, literally "Air battle for England") is the name given to the Second World War air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940.

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The Battle of Culloden (Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745 and part of a religious civil war in Britain.

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The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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The BBC Symphony Orchestra (BBC SO) is a British orchestra based in London.

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The Bee Gees were a pop music group formed in 1958.

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Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland (United Kingdom).

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The Belize Defence Force (BDF) is the military of Belize, and is responsible for protecting the sovereignty of the country.

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Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic of the seventeenth century, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Ben Nevis (Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in the United Kingdom and the entire British Isles.

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Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.

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Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.

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Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British Conservative politician and writer, who twice served as Prime Minister.

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Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as, fully, "the Bermudas or Somers Isles", is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the east coast of North America.

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The Bermudan independence referendum of 1995 was a referendum held in Bermuda on 16 August 1995 over whether Bermuda should become an independent sovereign state or remain a British Dependent Territory.

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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.

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In 1999 the British Film Institute surveyed 1,000 people from the world of British film and television to produce the BFI 100 list of the greatest British films of the 20th century.

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BG Group plc is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Reading, United Kingdom.

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The phrase Big Bang, used in reference to the sudden deregulation of financial markets, was coined to describe measures, including abolition of fixed commission charges and of the distinction between stockjobbers and stockbrokers on the London Stock Exchange and change from open-outcry to electronic, screen-based trading, effected by Margaret Thatcher in 1986.

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Big oil is a name used to describe the world's five or six largest publicly owned oil and gas companies, also known as supermajors.

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The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and lays out certain basic civil rights.

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Black British are British people of Black and African origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.

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A black hole is a geometrically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—including particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a long-range, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) monitors both the number and type of books published per country per year as an important index of standard of living and education, and of a country's self-awareness.

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The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

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Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.

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BP plc, also referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is one of the world's six "supermajor" oil and gas companies.

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Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel, Dracula.

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The Brit Awards (sometimes stylised as the BRIT Awards; often simply called the Brits) are the British Phonographic Industry's annual pop music awards, and the British equivalent of the American Grammy Awards.

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Britannia was the Roman and Greek term for the geographical region of Great Britain which was inhabited by the Britons and is the name given to the female personification of the island.

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The British Academy Film Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA).

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The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) is an independent charity that supports, develops and promotes the art forms of the moving image – film, television and games.

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British Airways, often shortened to BA, is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size.

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The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories and is the largest.

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The British Armed Forces form the military of the United Kingdom, tasked with defence of the country, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies; as well as promoting the UK's wider interests, supporting international peacekeeping efforts, and providing humanitarian aid.

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The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.

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The British Army Training Unit Suffield (BATUS) is a British Army unit located at the vast training area of Canadian Forces Base Suffield near Suffield, Alberta, Canada.

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British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons), are persons of Asian descent who resides in the United Kingdom.

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The British Cartographic Society (BCS) is an association of individuals and organisations dedicated to exploring and developing the world of maps. It is a registered charity. Membership includes mapping companies, publishers, designers, academics, researchers, map curators, individual cartographers, GIS specialists and ordinary members of the public with an interest in maps. The BCS is regarded as one of the world's leading cartographic societies and its main publication, The Cartographic Journal, is recognised internationally. Membership of the group can be useful for making contacts and keeping up with developments. The BCS promotes all aspects of cartography to a wide range of potential users.

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British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) (Chinese: 華僑, 华侨, Yīngguó Huáqiáo) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.

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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to.

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British Forces Germany (BFG), is the name for British Armed Forces service personnel and civilians based in Germany.

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British Forces Gibraltar is the name given to the British Armed Forces stationed in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

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The British Grand Prix is a race in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship.

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The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia.

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The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles.

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British literature refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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British Midland Airways Limited (trading at various times throughout its history as British Midland, BMI British Midland, BMI or British Midland International) was an airline with its head office in Donington Hall in Castle Donington, close to East Midlands Airport, in the United Kingdom.

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The United Kingdom began a military intervention in Sierra Leone on 7 May 2000 under the codename Operation Palliser.

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British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.

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The fourteen British Overseas Territories (BOT) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it.

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In the United Kingdom, British passports (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) are issued by HM Passport Office.

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British people, or Britons, are the indigenous people or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies; and their descendants.

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The BPI (British Recorded Music Industry) Limited, commonly known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association.

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British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the operator of most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.

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The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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The British Social Attitudes Survey (BSA) is an annual statistical survey conducted in Great Britain by since 1983.

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During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.

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The British Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing series held each year in the United Kingdom, currently organized and administered by ToCA.

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The Virgin Islands, commonly referred to as the British Virgin Islands (or BVI), is a British overseas territory located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico.

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The British–Irish Council (BIC) is an intergovernmental organisation which aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy.

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The British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference (BIIGC) was established under an Agreement between the Governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom made on 8 March 1998.

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The broadsheet is the largest of newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically). The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a single sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material, from ballads to political satire.

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The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.

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The Bulldog is a medium-sized breed of dog commonly referred to as the English Bulldog or British Bulldog.

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The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II was fought primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.

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Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and some 21 Cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

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The Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, commonly referred to as the Education Secretary, is a position in the Scottish Government Cabinet responsible for all levels of education in Scotland.

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The Cabinet Secretary for Justice, commonly referred to as the Justice Secretary, is a position in the Scottish Government Cabinet.

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Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic (Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanèideanach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in English as often simply Gaelic, refers to the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken by Gaels in Atlantic Canada who have their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.

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Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Bhreatainn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America.

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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.

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Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital and largest city in Wales and the tenth largest city in the United Kingdom.

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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.

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Sir Carol Reed (30 December 1906 – 25 April 1976) was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out (1947), The Fallen Idol (1948) and The Third Man (1949).

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Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician and the First Minister of Wales.

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Case law is the set of existing rulings which made new interpretations of law and, therefore, can be cited as precedents.

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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The Cayman Islands are a British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.

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The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.

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The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.

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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Coincident full censuses have taken place in the different jurisdictions of the United Kingdom every ten years since 1801, with the exceptions of 1941 (during the Second World War) and both Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State in 1921.

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A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.

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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern Scotland.

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Central Saint Martins, often abbreviated to CSM, is a public tertiary art school in London, England.

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The chairman or chairwoman, or simply the chair, sometimes known as chairperson, is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.

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The Chancellor of the Exchequer is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche, French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.

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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also referred to as the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.

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Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

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Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the silent era.

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Chelsea College of Arts is a constituent college of the University of the Arts London based in London, UK, and is a leading British art and design institution with an international reputation.

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The Cheltenham Festival is a meeting in the National Hunt racing calendar in the United Kingdom, with race prize money second only to the Grand National.

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| The Cheltenham Gold Cup is a Grade 1 National Hunt horse race run on the New Course at Cheltenham Racecourse in England, over a distance of 3 miles 2½ furlongs (5,331 m), and during its running there are 22 fences to be jumped.

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A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national (e.g. constituent federal) entity, notably a state (and sometimes a union territory) in India, a territory of Australia, provinces of Sri Lanka or Pakistan, Philippine Autonomous Regions or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government.

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Christopher "Chris" Ofili (born 10 October 1968) is an English Turner Prize-winning painter who is best known for his paintings incorporating elephant dung.

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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593) was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.

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The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.

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The Church of England is the officially-established Christian church in England, and the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the established church of Scotland.

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UNESCO's City of Literature program is part of its Creative Cities Network which was launched in 2004.

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The City of London is a city and county within London.

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Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689.

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A number of different systems of classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom exist.

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Clinton Darryl "Clint" Mansell (born 7 January 1963) is an English musician, composer, and former lead singer of the band Pop Will Eat Itself.

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The Coal Authority is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government.

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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Coldplay are a British rock band formed in 1996 by lead vocalist Chris Martin and lead guitarist Jonny Buckland at University College London (UCL).

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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.

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Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or cargo.

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The Commission on the consequences of devolution for the House of Commons, also known as the McKay Commission, was an independent commission established in the United Kingdom to consider issues arising from devolution in the United Kingdom and their effect on the workings of the House of Commons.

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The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.

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Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.

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The Common Travel Area (CTA) is a travel zone that comprises Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey.

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The Commonwealth Games (known as the British Empire Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974) is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.

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The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when England, along later with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was initially declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.

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A Commonwealth realm is one of 16 sovereign states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, have Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning constitutional monarch, and have in common the same royal line of succession.

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The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a government to hold power.

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The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.

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The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of WalesExamples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.

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Conservatism in the United Kingdom is related to its counterparts in other Western nations, but has a distinct tradition.

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The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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The constitution of the United Kingdom is the sum of laws and principles that make up the body politic of the United Kingdom.

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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.

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Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent (particularly by Britons, Azores and Madeira Portuguese, Balearic and Canary Spaniards, Icelanders and other European island nations, and peninsular Scandinavians), is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding the islands of Europe.

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The Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA) is the national association of Scottish councils and acts as an employers' association for its 28 member authorities.

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The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.

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Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of"), is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA) is an examination board in Northern Ireland.

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The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.

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A Councillor is a member of a local government council.

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The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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The County Championship (currently known as the LV.

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Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England, commonly known as the Court of Appeal of England and Wales or, simply, the Court of Appeal, is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom above it.

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The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice.

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The Courtauld Institute of Art, commonly referred to as The Courtauld, is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art and conservation.

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Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they apply English law, the law of England and Wales, and are established under Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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The courts of Northern Ireland are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in Northern Ireland: they are constituted and governed by Northern Ireland law.

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Craig Armstrong, OBE (born 29 April 1959) is a British composer of modern orchestral music, electronica and film scores.

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Not to be confused with.

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The creative industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information.

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A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.

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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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Cricket has a considerably lower profile in Scotland than it has in neighbouring England.

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The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.

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Crime statistics in the United Kingdom refers to the data collected in the United Kingdom, and that collected by the individual areas, England & Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, which operate separate judicial systems.

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The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856), also known in Russian historiography as the Eastern War of 1853–1856 (Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.

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Cro-Magnon is a common name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) that lived in the European Upper Paleolithic.

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Crossrail is a railway line under construction in London and its environs.

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The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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The Crown dependencies are the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel.

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The culture of the United Kingdom is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people.

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Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko, in both of those languages) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter who published as D. H. Lawrence.

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Dafydd ap Gwilym (c. 1315/1320 – c. 1350/1370), is regarded as one of the leading Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages.

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Damien Steven Hirst (born 7 June 1965) is an English artist, entrepreneur, and art collector.

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Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is an English actor.

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Daniel Defoe (c. 166024 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer, and spy, most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe.

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Daniel Owen (20 October 1836 – 22 October 1895) was a Welsh novelist, generally regarded as the foremost Welsh-language novelist of the 19th century, and as the first significant novelist to write in Welsh.

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Dartmoor is an area of moorland in south Devon, England.

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David G. Arnold (born 23 January 1962) is an English film composer best known for scoring five James Bond films, Stargate (1994), Independence Day (1996), Godzilla (1998) and the television series Little Britain and Sherlock.

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David Bowie (born David Robert Jones, 8 January 1947) is an English singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, arranger, painter, and actor.

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David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who has served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 2010, as Leader of the Conservative Party since 2005 and as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney since 2001.

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David Edgar (born 26 February 1948) is a British playwright and writer who has had more than sixty of his plays published and performed on stage, radio and television around the world, making him one of the most prolific dramatists of the post-1960s generation in Great Britain.

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David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.

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David Hume (7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Sir David Lean, CBE (25 March 190816 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor, best remembered for big-screen epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and Doctor Zhivago (1965).

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James David Graham Niven (1 March 1910 – 29 July 1983) was an English actor and novelist who was popular in Europe and in the United States.

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The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153).

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Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ulster in Ireland, across the North Channel.

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De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").

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The Declaration by the United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.

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The Declaration of Arbroath is a declaration of Scottish independence, made in 1320.

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Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.

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The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence.

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The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is the largest unionist political party in Northern Ireland.

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The Department for Employment and Learning (DEL), (An Roinn Fostaíochta agus Foghlama; Ulster Scots: Depairtment for Employ an Learnin), is a devolved Northern Ireland government department in the Northern Ireland Executive.

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The Department of Education (DENI) (An Roinn Oideachais; Ulster-Scots: Männystrie o Lear) is a devolved Northern Irish government department in the Northern Ireland Executive.

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Designated Nationalist means a MLA designated as a Nationalist in accordance with standing orders of the Northern Ireland Assembly as set out in the Northern Ireland Act 1998.

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Designated Unionist means a MLA designated as a Unionist in accordance with standing orders of the Northern Ireland Assembly as set out in the Northern Ireland Act 1998.

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Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.

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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level.

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In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and the Greater London Authority.

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Diarchy (or dyarchy; from the Greek δι- / δύο meaning "two" and ἄρχω meaning "to rule") is a form of government in which two individuals ("diarchs") are joint heads of state.

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Diego Garcia is an atoll located south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean.

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Directgov was the British government's digital service for people in the United Kingdom, which provided a single point of access to public sector information and services.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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"Do not go gentle into that good night" is a poem in the form of a villanelle, and the most famous work of Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914–1953).

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Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.

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The Drinking Water Inspectorate is a section of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) set up to regulate the public water supply companies in England and Wales.

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Dugald Stewart (22 November 1753 – 11 June 1828) was a Scottish philosopher and mathematician.

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Dundee (Dùn Dé), officially the City of Dundee, is Scotland's fourth largest city and the 51st most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.

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John Duns or Scotus de Duno, O.F.M., commonly called Scotus or Duns Scotus (c. 1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages.

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Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion", the "Play for Voices", Under Milk Wood, and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.

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Ealing Studios is a television and film production company and facilities provider at Ealing Green in West London.

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Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

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The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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Ebenezer Cobb Morley (16 August 1831 – 20 November 1924) was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of the Football Association and modern football.

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Economic inequality, also known as income inequality, wealth inequality, gap between rich and poor, gulf between rich and poor and contrast between rich and poor, refers to how economic metrics are distributed among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.

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Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field.

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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.

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The Edinburgh Agreement (full title: Agreement between the United Kingdom Government and the Scottish Government on a referendum on independence for Scotland) is the agreement between the Scottish Government and the United Kingdom Government, signed on 15 October 2012 at St Andrew's House, Edinburgh, on the terms for the Scottish independence referendum, 2014.

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Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

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Education in Northern Ireland differs from systems used elsewhere in the:United Kingdom, although it is more similar to that used in Wales than it is to:Scotland.

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Scotland has a long history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom.

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Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom.

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Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.

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An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Sir Elton Hercules John CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight, 25 March 1947) is an English composer and singer, who accompanies himself on the piano.

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EMI Group Limited, also known as EMI Music or simply EMI, was a British multinational music recording and publishing company, and electronics device and systems manufacturing company, headquartered in London, England.

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Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England during the eighteenth century of enclosing a number of small landholdings to create one larger farm.

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The Encyclopaedia of Wales is a single-volume-publication encyclopaedia on Wales.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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England and Wales, is a jurisdiction covering two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, which form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follow a single legal system, known as English law.

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The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales.

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The England cricket team is the team that represents England and Wales (and until 1992 also Scotland) in international cricket.

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The England national football team represents England and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man for football matches as part of FIFA-authorised events, and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.

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The England national rugby league team represent England in international rugby league football tournaments.

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The England national rugby union team represents England in rugby union.

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The English Channel (Manche, "Sleeve"; Mor Breizh, "Bretons Sea"; Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government.

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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English law means the legal system of England and Wales.

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The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language.

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Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children's writer whose books have been among the world's best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies.

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The process of expanding the European Union (EU) through the accession of new member states began with the Inner Six, who founded the European Economic Community (the EU's predecessor) in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force.

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The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France, marking the start of the alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

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The Environment Agency (EA) is a non-departmental public body, established in 1996 and sponsored by the United Kingdom government's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England (and until 2013 also Wales).

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The Derby Stakes, popularly known as The Derby, in the United States as the Epsom Derby, and under its present sponsor as the Investec Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies.

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The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) is a non-departmental public body in Great Britain that was established by the Equality Act 2006 and came into being on 1 October 2007.

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Eric Patrick Clapton, (born 1945), is an English rock and blues guitarist, singer and songwriter.

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Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and in applying that understanding to their decisions.

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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.

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The European Economic Area (EEA) provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the internal market of the European Union (EU) between its 28 member states, as well as three of the four member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA): Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.

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The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.

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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Arthur Evelyn St.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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In finance, an exchange rate (also known as a foreign-exchange rate, forex rate, FX rate or Agio) between two currencies is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.

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RIMPAC, the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, is the world's largest international maritime warfare exercise.

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Exmoor is loosely defined as an area of hilly open moorland in west Somerset and north Devon in South West England, named after the River Exe, the source of which is situated in the centre of the area, two miles north-west of Simonsbath.

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Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate US poet and critic who was a major figure in the early modernist movement.

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The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

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A referendum on political status was held in the Falkland Islands on 10–11 March 2013.

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The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands (and, the following day, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands) in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities. The conflict was a major episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentinian territory, and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and favour British sovereignty. Neither state, however, officially declared war (both sides did declare the Islands areas a war zone and officially recognised that a state of war existed between them) and hostilities were almost exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the area of the South Atlantic where they lie. The conflict has had a strong impact in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected the following year. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect in Britain than in Argentina, where it remains a continued topic for discussion. Relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, Spain, at which the two countries' governments issued a joint statement. No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution.

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Fantasy literature is the body of written works that employ the motifs, themes, and stylistic approaches expected in the fantasy genre.

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In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock mass movement.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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The FIA World Endurance Championship is an auto racing world championship organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; English: International Federation of Association Football) is the governing body of association football, futsal and beach football.

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The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – is a unit of currency equaling one half of a pound sterling.

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A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.

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A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers or stock exchanges.

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The financial crisis of 2007–08, also known as the Global Financial Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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David Cameron formed the First Cameron ministry after being invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government following the resignation of the previous Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Gordon Brown, on 11 May 2010.

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The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister.

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A First Minister is the leader of a government cabinet, usually now used to refer to the political leader of a subnational entity, such as the devolved administrations of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, or of a dependent territory.

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The First Minister and deputy First Minister are the joint heads of the Northern Ireland Executive and have overall responsibility for the running of the Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister (OFMDFM).

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The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister o Scotland) is the political leader of Scotland and head of the Scottish Government.

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The Firth of Clyde encloses the largest and deepest coastal waters in the British Isles, sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland.

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The Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotland's River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea, between Fife to the north and Lothian to the south.

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Fitch Ratings Inc.

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The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of bilateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five countries will consult each other in the event of external aggression or threat of attack against Peninsular Malaysia or Singapore.

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The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament.

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The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).

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The Flag of Scotland, (Bratach na h-Alba, Banner o Scotland), also known as St Andrew's Cross or the Saltire, is the national flag of Scotland.

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The flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the Union Jack or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.

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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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The folk music of England is traditionally based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.

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The folk music of Ireland (also known as Irish traditional music, Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres in Ireland.

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The Football Association of Wales (Cymdeithas Bêl-droed Cymru) (FAW) is the governing body of association football in Wales.

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The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the British Government.

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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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The members of the Big Four and Four Policemen were the four major Allies of World War II: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the Republic of China.

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The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.

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Francis Bacon, Viscount St.

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Francis Harry Compton Crick, OM, FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson.

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Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force (RAF) engineer air officer.

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Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution.

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The Fresh Talent Initiative is a Scottish Government policy framework to encourage people to settle in Scotland.

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Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland, similar to continuing education in the United States, is a term used to refer to education (in addition to that received at secondary school), that is distinct from the higher education offered in universities.

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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.

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Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.

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Gaelic Ireland was the Gaelic political and social order that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.

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Gatwick Airport is north of the centre of Crawley, West Sussex, and south of Central London.

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GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, Ohio, outside Cincinnati.

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The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academically rigorous, internationally recognised qualification awarded in a specified subject, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over two years (three years in certain schools).

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The General Medical Council (GMC) is a fee-based registered charity with statutory obligation to maintain a register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom.

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The General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) (Oifis Choitcheann a' Chlàraidh na h-Alba) was a non-ministerial directorate of the Scottish Government that administered the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces and adoptions in Scotland.

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The genetic history of the British Isles is the subject of research within the larger field of human population genetics.

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Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey.

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Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a Welsh cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.

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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers or letters.

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England comprises most of the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight.

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:Ireland is an island in northwest Europe in the north Atlantic Ocean.

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The geography of Scotland is varied, from rural lowlands to barren uplands, and from large cities to uninhabited islands.

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Wales (Cymru) is a generally mountainous country which is part of the United Kingdom.

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George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne), was an Anglo-Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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George Bernard Shaw (26 July 18562 November 1950) was a Nobel-Prize-winning Irish playwright, critic and passionate socialist whose influence on Western theater, culture and politics stretched from the 1880s to his death in 1950, at 94 one of the world's most famous men.

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Mary Ann Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Anne" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel,; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

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Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), who used the pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic.

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George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.

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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.

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The Government of Gibraltar called a referendum on 7 November 2002 to establish the popular support for a proposal to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom.

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The Gibraltar–Spain border is the international boundary between the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and Spain.

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Gilbert Prousch, sometimes referred to as Gilbert Proesch (born 17 September 1943 in San Martin de Tor, Italy) and George Passmore (born 8 January 1942 in Plymouth, United Kingdom) are two artists who work together as a collaborative duo called Gilbert & George.

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GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire.

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Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and the third largest in the United Kingdom (after London and Birmingham).

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The Glasgow School of Art (GSA) is Scotland's only public self-governing art school offering university-level programmes and research in architecture, fine art and design.

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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.

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The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England, VII of Scotland and II of Ireland by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).

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"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King") is the national and/or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies.

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Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university specializing in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences.

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Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste or Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta; Ulster-Scots: Bilfawst Greeance or Guid Friday Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Government debt (also known as public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a central government.

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The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland.

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Her Majesty's Government (HMG), commonly referred to as the British government, Welsh: Llywodraeth Ei Mawrhydi, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England.

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Henry Graham Greene, OM, CH (2 Oct 1904 – 3 April 1991) was an English novelist and author regarded as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.

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A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching classical languages but more recently an academically oriented secondary school.

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The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse in Liverpool, England.

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The MotoGP World Championship is the premier class of motorcycle road racing.

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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.

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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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Great Britain is the team that sends athletes from the United Kingdom (UK), all but three of its overseas territories and the three Crown dependencies, to the Olympic Games.

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The Great Britain Olympic football team is the men's football team that represents the United Kingdom at the Summer Olympic Games (where it competes as Great Britain, currently branded Team GB).

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The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression.

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The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.

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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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The Greater London Authority (GLA) is a top-tier administrative body for Greater London, England.

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The Greater London Authority referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in Greater London on 7 May 1998 asking whether there was support for the creation of a Greater London Authority, composed of a directly elected Mayor of London, and a London Assembly to scrutinise the Mayor's actions.

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Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Guernsey (/ˈgɜ:nzi/), officially the Bailiwick of Guernsey (Bailliage de Guernesey), is a possession of the British Crown in right of Guernsey in the English Channel, off the coast of Normandy.

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In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.

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Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.

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The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.

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Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946), known primarily as H. G. Wells,.

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Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning English playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.

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Harry Gregson-Williams (born 13 December 1961) is a British composer, orchestrator, conductor, and music producer.

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Harry Potter is a film series based on the Harry Potter novels by author J. K. Rowling.

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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland (HSC) is the designation of the publicly funded service responsible for the administration of the public health and other social care services in Northern Ireland.

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Healthcare in England is mainly provided by England's public health service, the National Health Service, that provides healthcare to all permanent residents of the United Kingdom that is free at the point of use and paid for from general taxation.

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Healthcare in Scotland is mainly provided by Scotland's public health service, NHS Scotland, that provides healthcare to all permanent residents that is free at the point of need and paid for from general taxation.

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Healthcare in Wales is mainly provided by the Welsh public health service, NHS Wales.

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Heathrow Airport is a major international airport in west London, England.

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Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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The Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Innse Gall; Old Norse: Suðreyjar) comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.

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Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North) is a Welsh term used by scholars to refer to those parts of what is now northern England and southern Scotland in the years between 500 and the Viking invasions of c. 800, with particular interest in the Brittonic-speaking peoples who lived there.

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Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.

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Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English sculptor and artist.

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Henry Purcell (c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.

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Her Majesty's Naval Service, also known as the Senior Service, is the United Kingdom's naval warfare and maritime service.

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Her Majesty's Prison Service is a part of the National Offender Management Service of Her Majesty's Government tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales.

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Her Majesty's High Court of Justice in England (usually known as the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, the High Court of Justice or, simply, the High Court) is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court of Scotland.

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High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway to link the cities of London and Birmingham, and then to extend to North West England and Yorkshire.The first phase of HS2 is set to begin in 2017 with an indicated opening date in 2026, while completion of the entire network is expected in 2033.

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The Highland Boundary Fault is a major fault zone that traverses Scotland from Arran and Helensburgh on the west coast to Stonehaven in the east.

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Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture and, especially that of the Scottish Highlands.

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Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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In the history of Great Britain, Anglo-Saxon England refers to the historical land roughly corresponding to present-day England, as it existed from the 5th to the 11th century, but not including Devon and Cornwall until the 9th century.

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The history of art is the history of any activity or product made by humans in a visual form for aesthetical or communicative purposes, expressing ideas, emotions or, in general, a worldview.

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The history of the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has involved personal and political union across Great Britain and the wider British Isles.

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Socialism in the United Kingdom is generally thought to stretch back to the 19th century from roots arising in the aftermath of the English Civil War.

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The history of the United Kingdom as a unified sovereign state began in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain.

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Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the British government's public finance policy and economic policy.

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The Home Nations refers collectively to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (countries of the United Kingdom), and in certain sports contexts, to England, Scotland, Wales and the whole island of Ireland.

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The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.

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The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster.

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The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Braunschweig-Lüneburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.

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The House of Stuart is a European royal house.

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Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin CH, CBE (born 6 August 1932) is a British painter and printmaker.

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Christopher Murray Grieve (11 August 1892 – 9 September 1978), known by his pen name Hugh MacDiarmid, was a Scottish poet, journalist, essayist and political figure.

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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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The Human Rights Act 1998 (c42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.

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The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.

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The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom.

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Hurling (Iománaíocht/Iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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Hydraulic fracturing (also hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking or fraccing) is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Iain Banks (16 February 1954 – 9 June 2013) was a Scottish author.

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Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer, best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.

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Ian James Rankin, OBE, DL, FRSE (born 28 April 1960) is a Scottish crime writer, best known for his Inspector Rebus novels.

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Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light which produces light with a wire filament heated to a high temperature by an electric current passing through it, until it glows (see Incandescence).

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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The Insular Celts are the speakers of Insular Celtic languages; they comprise all living Celtic languages, and all of the modern Celtic nations, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest.

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An international co-production is a production where two or more different production companies are working together, for example in a film production.

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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.

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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.

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The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, made up of 210 national tennis associations or corresponding organizations of independent countries or territories.

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International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories, which could involve the activities of the government and individual.

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The interregnum of England, Scotland, and Ireland started with the execution of Charles I in January 1649 (September 1651 in Scotland) and was decisively ended in July 1660 when his son Charles II was restored to the thrones of the three realms, although he had been already acclaimed king in Scotland since 1650.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.

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The Ireland cricket team is the cricket team representing all of Ireland.

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The Ireland national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, represents the entire island of Ireland in rugby league football.

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The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the organising body for association football in Northern Ireland.

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The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was the state established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty signed by British and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand.

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The Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 (Session 2) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1922 to enact in UK law the Constitution of the Irish Free State, and to formally ratify the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921.

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The Irish Home Rule movement was a political movement which sought to achieve home rule for Ireland and reduce the political control of the British state over the island.

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Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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The Irish language (also known as Irish Gaelic) (Gaeilge) is a recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.

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Irish nationalism asserts that the Irish people are a nation.

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The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group who originate from the island of Ireland and its associated islands.

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Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.

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The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Sir Isaiah Berlin OM, CBE, FBA (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russo-British Jewish social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas, "thought by many to be the dominant scholar of his generation".

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Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th century engineering giants", and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam is the second largest religion with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as ~2,706,066, ~4.5% of the total population.

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Arran or the Isle of Arran (Eilean Arainn) is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland.

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The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), otherwise known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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The International Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) races are an annual motorcycle road racing event traditionally held on the Isle of Man in the last week of May for practice and the first week of June as race week with many supporting attractions, gatherings and other events taking place.

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ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

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ISO 3166-2:GB is the entry for the United Kingdom in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.

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ITV is a commercial TV network in the United Kingdom.

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ITV plc is a British media company that holds 12 of the 15 regional television licences that make up the ITV network, the oldest and largest commercial terrestrial television network in the United Kingdom.

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Joanne "Jo" Rowling, (born 31 July 1965), pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist best known as the author of the Harry Potter fantasy series.

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Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, OM (9 May 1860 19 June 1937) was a Scottish author and dramatist, the child of a family of small-town weavers, and best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan.

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Joseph Mallord William Turner, RA (baptised 14 May 177519 December 1851) was an English Romanticist landscape painter.

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John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6) ISBN 0-04-440162-0. In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because General American speakers realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, ISBN 0-582-05383-8 3 January 18922 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high-fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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The Jacobite risings (or Jacobite rebellions) were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746.

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Jacques Rogge, Count Rogge, KCMG (born 2 May 1942) is a Belgian sports administrator and physician who served as the eighth president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 2001 to 2013.

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Iakovos "Jake" (born 1966) and Konstantinos "Dinos" (born 1962) are English visual artists, often known as the Chapman Brothers.

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The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.

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The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.

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James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.

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James Watt, FRS, FRSE (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose Watt steam engine, an improvement of the Newcomen steam engine, was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature.

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Jeremy Bentham (– 6 June 1832) was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer.

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Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a possession of the Crown in right of Jersey, off the coast of Normandy, France.

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A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion in accordance with Newton's laws of motion.

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Sir John Barbirolli, CH (2 December 189929 July 1970), né Giovanni Battista Barbirolli, was a British conductor and cellist.

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John Barry Prendergast, (3 November 1933 – 30 January 2011) was an English composer and conductor of film music.

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John Bunyan (baptised 30 November 162831 August 1688) was an English writer and baptist preacher best remembered as the author of the religious allegory The Pilgrim's Progress.

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John Constable, RA (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter.

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John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (20 July 184431 January 1900) was a Scottish nobleman, remembered for lending his name and patronage to the "Marquess of Queensberry Rules" that formed the basis of modern boxing and for his role in the downfall of author and playwright Oscar Wilde.

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John Lilburne (1614 – 29 August 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650.

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John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".

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John Logie Baird FRSE (14 August 188814 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television and the inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.

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John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.

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John Murphy (born 4 March 1965) is an English film composer.

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John Powell (born 18 September 1963) is an English composer, best known for his scores to motion pictures.

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John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant.

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Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish.

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Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.

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Sir Joseph Wilson Swan, D.Sc.h.c., FRS (31 October 1828 – 27 May 1914) was a British physicist and chemist.

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Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits.

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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom.

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The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.

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Dame Julia "Julie" Elizabeth Andrews, DBE, (née Wells; born 1 October 1935) is an English film and stage actress, singer, author, theatre director and dancer.

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Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Kate Roberts (13 February 1891 – 4 April 1985) was one of the foremost Welsh-language authors of the twentieth century.

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Kate Elizabeth Winslet, CBE (born 5 October 1975), is an English actress and singer.

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Kazuo Ishiguro OBE, FRSA, FRSL (カズオ・イシグロ or 石黒一雄; born 8 November 1954) is a British novelist, screenwriter and short story writer.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community (EAC).

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King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th to early 6th century A.D. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians.

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The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1, Cengage Learning (2012)"From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland".

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The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a state in Ireland from the proclamation of King Henry VIII of England as King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 until the Acts of Union 1800.

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The Kingdom of Scotland (Kinrick o Scotland; Rìoghachd na h-Alba) was a state in north-west Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

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Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.

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No description.

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Laurence Stephen "L.

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The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Laissez-faire is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies.

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The Lake District, also known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.

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The de facto official language of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by 98% of the county's population.According to the 2011 census, 53,098,301 people in England and Wales, 5,044,683 people in Scotland, and 1,681,210 people in Northern Ireland can speak English "well" or "very well"; totalling 59,824,194. Therefore, out of the 60,815,385 residents of the UK over the age of three, 98% can speak English "well" or "very well". In 2011, the second-most spoken language in the United Kingdom was Scots, followed by Polish, an immigrant language. The fourth most-spoken language—Welsh—is an official language in Wales, the only de jure official language in any part of the UK. There are three other living languages indigenous to the country, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, and Cornish, various regional dialects, and numerous languages spoken by recent immigrant populations and those who have learnt them as second languages.

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Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (/ˈlɒɹəns kɜːɹ ɒˈlɪvi.eɪ/; 22 May 190711 July 1989) was an English actor who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century.

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The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nhgymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.

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The laws of cricket are a set of rules established by the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) which describe the laws of cricket worldwide, to ensure uniformity and fairness.

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The Laws of the Game, updated 2012 are the codified rules that help define association football.

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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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A league system is a hierarchy of leagues in a sport, usually with a system of promotion and relegation between consecutive levels of the hierarchy.

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Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS or LT Scotland) was a non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government, formed by the merger of the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum (SCCC) and the Scottish Council for Educational Technology (SCET).

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Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968.

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Leicester (but often locally) is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.

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Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name, Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.

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The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as the Lib Dems) are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom, with policies ranging from the centre-left to the centre-right.

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The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century.

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This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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This page provides a list of best-selling fiction authors to date and in any language.

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The best-selling music artists include artists with claims of 75 million or more record sales.

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This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.

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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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This is a list of countries by external debt, the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

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Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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This is a list of countries and territories formerly ruled or administered by the United Kingdom or part of the British Empire, with their independence days.

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Below is a list of all countries in Europe, in order of geographical area.

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While there is no general agreement upon the greatest film, many publications and organizations have tried to determine the films considered the best.

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The Formula One World Constructors' Championship (WCC) is awarded by the FIA to the most successful Formula One constructor over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.

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The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.

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Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.

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This is a list of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain.

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The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of three basic systems: common law, civil law and religious law, or combinations of these.

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This is a list of rivers of England, organised geographically and taken anti-clockwise around the English coast where the various rivers discharge into the surrounding seas, from the Solway Firth on the Scottish border to the Welsh Dee on the Welsh border, and again from the Wye on the Welsh border anti-clockwise to the Tweed on the Scottish border.

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The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between 4 May 1979 and 28 November 1990, during which time she led a Conservative government.

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This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 500,000 inhabitants each, in 2014.

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Literature Wales (formerly the Academi (Yr Academi Gymreig) is the Welsh national literature promotion agency and society of writers, existing to promote Welsh-language and English-language literature in Wales. Literature Wales publishes a literary magazine called Taliesin and a bilingual listings magazine called A470. It offers bursaries for writing projects, runs literary events and lectures, and provides financial assistance for creative mentoring and other literary-based ventures. The organisation also selects the National Poet for Wales, and manages competitions including Wales Book of the Year, the Cardiff International Poetry Competition, and the Rhys Davies Short Story Competition.

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The litre (International spelling) or liter (American spelling) (SI symbols L or l, commonly abbreviated as ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre.

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Liverpool is a city in Merseyside, England, on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.

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Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.

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The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.

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Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes.

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Local government in Scotland is organised through 32 unitary authorities designated as Councils which consist of councillors elected every four years by registered voters in each of the council areas.

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For local government purposes, Wales has since 1 April 1996 been divided into 22 single-tier principal areas.

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The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters undergoing final development and testing by the United States.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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London boroughs are 32 of the 33 principal subdivisions of the administrative area of Greater London (the 33rd is the City of London) and are each governed by a London borough council.

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London Stansted Airport is an international airport located at Stansted Mountfitchet in the local government district of Uttlesford in Essex, northeast of Central London and from the Hertfordshire border.

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The London Symphony Chorus (abbreviated to LSC) is a large symphonic concert choir based in London, UK, consisting of over 150 amateur singers, and is one of the major symphony choruses of the United Kingdom.

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The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.

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Lough Neagh, sometimes Loch Neagh, (pronounced) is a freshwater lake in Northern Ireland.

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Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a German-born British painter.

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Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II.

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The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a motorway which almost encircles Greater London, England (with the exception of North Ockendon), in the United Kingdom.

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Sir Harold Malcolm Watts Sargent (29 April 1895 – 3 October 1967) was an English conductor, organist and composer widely regarded as Britain's leading conductor of choral works.

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Mark Wallinger (born 1959) is a British artist, best known for his sculpture for the empty fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square, Ecce Homo (1999), and State Britain (2007), a recreation at Tate Britain of Brian Haw's protest display outside parliament.

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A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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The Marquess of Queensberry rules is a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.

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The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa; born 23 May 1950) is an Irish republican Sinn Féin politician who has been the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland since 2007.

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Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).

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Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.

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Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London, England founded in 1787.

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Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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The European Union (EU) comprises 28 member states, which are party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby subject to the privileges and obligations of membership.

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Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries.

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Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.

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Messier-Bugatti-Dowty is a company involved in the design, development, manufacture and customer support of all types of aircraft landing gear, wheels and brakes and a wholly owned subsidiary of Safran SA.

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Methodism, or the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley.

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Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly.

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Sir Michael Caine, (born Maurice Joseph Micklewhite; 14 March 1933), is an English actor and author.

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Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Michael Frayn, FRSL (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist.

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Michael Latham Powell (30 September 1905 – 19 February 1990) was an English film director, celebrated for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger.

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Mid Wales (Canolbarth Cymru or simply Y Canolbarth "The Midlands") is the name given to the central region of Wales.

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Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.

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The Migration Policy Institute (MPI) is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2001 by Kathleen Newland and Demetrios G. Papademetriou.

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Michael Gordon "Mike" Oldfield (born 15 May 1953) is an English musician and composer.

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Military deployment is the movement of armed forces and their logistical support infrastructure around the world.

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The Royal Brunei Armed Forces is the military of the nation of Brunei.

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The Falkland Islands are a British overseas territory and, as such, rely on the UK for the guarantee of their security.

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In British government, the Minister for the Civil Service is responsible for making regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies.

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Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in the Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign.

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The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government, and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.

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The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is a ministerial department of the UK Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor (a combined position).

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Minority group is a term referring to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, i.e. those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and may be defined by law.

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A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.

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Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.

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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.

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In monetary economics, monetarism is a school of thought that emphasises the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.

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The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Bank of England, which meets for three and a half days twelve times a year to decide the official interest rate in the United Kingdom (the Bank of England Base Rate).

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Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as compared to multilingualism.

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Montserrat is a Caribbean island—specifically in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the British West Indies.

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Monty Norman (born 4 April 1928) is a singer and film composer best known for composing "The James Bond Theme".

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Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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Motorsport or motorsports is the group of competitive events which primarily involve the use of motorized vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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The Mourne Mountains (Irish: na Beanna Boirche), also called the Mournes or Mountains of Mourne, are a granite mountain range in County Down in the south-east of Northern Ireland.

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Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting, and dance.

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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song etc.) is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales.

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The National Assembly for Wales election 2011 was the most recent election for the National Assembly.

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A National church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.

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The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.

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National Geographic, formerly The National Geographic Magazine, is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.

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The four publicly funded health care systems in the countries of the United Kingdom are referred to as the National Health Service (NHS).

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A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda.

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The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.

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Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype; it is a key mechanism of evolution.

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Naturalism was a literary movement or tendency from the 1880s to 1930s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character.

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Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.

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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways) or NS is the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands.

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Neil Richard MacKinnon GaimanBorn as Neil Richard Gaiman, with "MacKinnon" added on the occasion of his marriage to Amanda Palmer.

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Neil Miller Gunn (8 November 1891 – 15 January 1973) was a prolific novelist, critic, and dramatist who emerged as one of the leading lights of the Scottish Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s. With over twenty novels to his credit, Gunn was arguably the most influential Scottish fiction writer of the first half of the 20th century (with the possible exception of Lewis Grassic Gibbon, the pen name of James Leslie Mitchell). Like his contemporary, Hugh MacDiarmid, Gunn was politically committed to the ideals of both Scottish nationalism and socialism (a difficult balance to maintain for a writer of his time). His fiction deals primarily with the Highland communities and landscapes of his youth, though the author chose (contra MacDiarmid and his followers) to write almost exclusively in English rather than Scots or Gaelic but was heavily influenced in his writing style by the language.

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Net migration rate is the difference of immigrants and emigrants of an area in a period of time, divided (usually) per 1,000 inhabitants (considered on midterm population).

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Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland and Wales, having taken over from previous owner Railtrack in 2002.

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The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.

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New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

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Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.

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The original News Corporation or News Corp. was an American multinational mass media corporation headquartered in New York City.

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News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British-based American-owned newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp.

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Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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NHS Scotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland.

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NI Railways, also known as Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) and for a brief period Ulster Transport Railways (UTR), is the railway operator in Northern Ireland.

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Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).

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The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.

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The Norman (or Anglo-Norman) invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century.

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The Norman invasion of Wales began shortly after the Norman conquest of England under William the Conqueror, who believed England to be his birthright.

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No description.

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The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Ireland and south-western Scotland.

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The North East is one of the nine regions of England that are classified at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.

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North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales.

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The North West 200 is a motorcycle race meeting held each May in Northern Ireland.

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The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.

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Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a self-declared state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

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Northern England, also known as the North of England, the North or the North Country, is a cultural region of England.

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Devolution referendums in Northern England were proposed under provisions of the Regional Assemblies (Preparations) Act 2003.

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Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann.; or Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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The Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972 (c. 22) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced direct rule in Northern Ireland with effect from 30 March 1972.

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The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.

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The Northern Ireland Executive is the administrative branch of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved legislature for Northern Ireland.

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Northern Irish law or Northern Ireland law refers to the legal system of statute and common law operating in Northern Ireland since the partition of Ireland established Northern Ireland as a separate jurisdiction within the United Kingdom in 1921.

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The Northern Ireland national football team represents Northern Ireland in international association football.

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The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) is an executive agency within the Department of Finance and Personnel in Northern Ireland.

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Northern Ireland Water Limited (Uisce Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Wattèr) is a water company in Northern Ireland.

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Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland.

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Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland", pronounced in English as) (French: Nouvelle-Écosse) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and constitutes one of the four Atlantic Canada provinces.

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A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story.

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The United Kingdom was the third country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon, in October 1952.

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Established in 2002, the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) is a statutory body set up by the Parliament of the United Kingdom through the.

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In the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) codes of the United Kingdom (UK), the three levels are.

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Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991.

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The Office of Communications (Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.

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The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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The official bank rate (also called the Bank of England base rate or BOEBR) is the interest rate that the Bank of England charges Banks for secured overnight lending.

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Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid.

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The Water Services Regulation Authority, or Ofwat, is the body responsible for economic regulation of the privatised water and sewerage industry in England and Wales.

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Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.

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A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, usually fifty.

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The Open Brethren, sometimes called Christian Brethren, are a group of Protestant Evangelical Christian churches that arose in the late 1820s as part of the Assembly Movement.

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Operation Herrick is the codename under which all British operations in the War in Afghanistan have been conducted since 2002. It consists of the British contribution to the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and support to the American-led Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Since 2003, Operation Herrick has increased in size and breadth to match ISAF's growing geographical intervention in Afghanistan. Operation Herrick superseded two previous efforts in Afghanistan. The first of these was Operation Veritas, which consisted of support to the War in Afghanistan in October 2001. The last major action of this was a sweep in east Afghanistan by 1,700 Royal Marines during Operation Jacana, which ended in mid-2002. The second was Operation Fingal, which involved leadership and a 2,000 strong contribution for a newly formed ISAF in Kabul after December 2001. Command was subsequently transferred to Turkey several months later and the British contingent was scaled back to 300. Since then, all operations in Afghanistan have been conducted under Operation Herrick. In December 2012 Prime Minister David Cameron announced that 3,800 troops - almost half of the force serving in Helmand Province - would be withdrawn during 2013 with numbers to fall to approximately 5,200. Combat operations were projected to end sometime during 2014. Between 2001 and 24 July 2015 a total of 454 British military personnel have died on operations in Afghanistan. The UK ceased all combat operations in Afghanistan and withdrew the last of its combat troops on the 27 October 2014. All training from 2015 is carried out under the operation name of Toral.

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Operation Hurricane was the test of the first UK atomic device on 3 October 1952.

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Operation Telic (Op TELIC) was the codename under which all of the United Kingdom's military operations in Iraq were conducted between the start of the Invasion of Iraq on 19 March 2003 and the withdrawal of the last remaining British forces on 22 May 2011.

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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Orkney (Arcaibh), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, United Kingdom.

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Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish author, playwright and poet.

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The term Other White is a classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom and has been used in documents such as the 2001 UK Census to describe people who self-identify as white persons who are neither British nor Irish.

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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; a sovereign island state in the British Isles of north-west Europe, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK), or Britain.

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Oxbridge is a portmanteau (blend word) of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.

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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 are two Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which form part of the constitution of the United Kingdom.

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The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.

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The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.

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Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom is a concept that has long been debated.

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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct territories, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Paul Mitchell (born 18 December 1968 in Edinburghhttp://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/football/spl/celtic/2009/03/14/bbc-commentator-doesn-t-want-repeat-of-previous-league-cup-match-86908-21197146/) is a Scottish football commentator for BBC Scotland and was their main commentator for a 6-year period from 2004 - 2010.

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Pax Britannica (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace in Europe and the world (1815–1914) during which the British Empire became the global hegemon (dominant power) and adopted the role of global policeman.

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The Peak District is an upland area in England, most of which lies in northern Derbyshire but also includes parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire and Yorkshire.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (oral use), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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The Pennines are a range of mountains and hills separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.

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The people of Northern Ireland are "all persons born in Northern Ireland and having, at the time of their birth, at least one parent who is a British citizen, an Irish citizen or is otherwise entitled to reside in Northern Ireland without any restriction on their period of residence,"The Good Friday Agreement guarantees the "recognition of the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose." under the Belfast Agreement.

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The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Permanent residency refers to a person's visa status: the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country of which he or she is not a citizen.

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A personal union is the combination of two or more states who have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Sir Peter Thomas Blake, CBE, RDI, RA (born 25 June 1932) is an English pop artist, best known for co-creating the sleeve design for the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

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Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CH, CBE (born 8 September 1934) is an English composer and conductor.

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Peter David Robinson (born 29 December 1948) is a Northern Irish politician who was First Minister of Northern Ireland from 2008 to September 2015 and is the current leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP).

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Peter Sellers, (born Richard Henry Sellers; 8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British film actor, comedian and singer.

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The pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom directly employs around 72,000 people and in 2007 contributed £8.4 billion to the UK's GDP and invested a total of £3.9 billion in research and development.

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Philip Arthur Larkin, CH, CBE, FRSL (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist, and librarian.

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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.

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Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London.

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Piracy is typically an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea.

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Pirates of the Caribbean is a series of fantasy swashbuckler films produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and based on Walt Disney's theme park ride of the same name.

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The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially named the Pitcairn Group of Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the Pacific.

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Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – the Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for an independent Wales from the United Kingdom within the European Union.

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The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of King James I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England.

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The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers, or members of a legislative assembly based on single-member constituencies.

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Plurality-at-large voting, also known as block vote or multiple non-transferable vote (MNTV), is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election.

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The points-based immigration system is the means of regulating immigration to the United Kingdom from outside the European Economic Area (EEA).

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies.

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Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.

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A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.

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Politics of the Highland council area in Scotland are evident in the deliberations and decisions of the Highland Council, in elections to the council, and in elections to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster) and the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood).

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Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States.

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A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.

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Poseidon (Greek: Ποσειδῶν) is one of the twelve Olympian deities of the pantheon in Greek mythology.

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Postchristianity is the loss of the primacy of the Christian worldview in political affairs, especially in the Global North where Christianity had previously flourished in favor of alternative worldviews such as secular nationalism.

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The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Poverty is general scarcity dearth, or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money.

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The United Kingdom is a developed country with comparatively large income differences.

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Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.

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In common law legal systems, a precedent or authority is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.

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For the purposes of this article, Prehistoric Britain is Britain during the period between the first arrival of humans on the land mass now known as Great Britain and the start of recorded British history.

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The British Isles have experienced a long history of migration from across Europe.

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The Premier League is an English professional league for men's association football clubs.

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Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles.

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A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographical coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.

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The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom.

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A privateer (sometimes called corsair or buccaneer) was a private person or ship authorized by a government by letters of marque to attack foreign vessels during wartime.

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Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings.

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Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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Prospect is a monthly British general interest magazine, specialising in politics, economics and current affairs.

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The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.

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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Protestantism is the most popular religion practiced in the United Kingdom.

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A provost (introduced into Scots from French) is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Régime France.

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Public bodies of the Scottish Government are organisations that are funded by the Scottish Government.

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Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.

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In the United Kingdom, the term "public service broadcasting" refers to broadcasting intended for public benefit rather than to serve purely commercial interests.

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Publicly funded health care is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most health care needs from a publicly managed fund.

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Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Southwest Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics.

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Queen are a British rock band formed in London in 1970.

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Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000), published as R. S. Thomas, was a Welsh poet and Anglican priest who was noted for his nationalism, spirituality and deep dislike of the anglicisation of Wales.

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Race, as a social construct, is a group of people who share similar and distinct physical characteristics.

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Rachel Whiteread, CBE (born 20 April 1963) is an English artist who primarily produces sculptures, which typically take the form of casts.

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Radiohead are an English rock band from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, formed in 1985.

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The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world: the world's first locomotive-hauled public railway opened in 1825.

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Ralph Vaughan Williams OM (Vaughan Williams, Ursula. (1964) R.V.W.: A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams, Oxford University Press. In the preface, Notes on Names (p. xv), says "Ralph's name was pronounced Rafe, any other pronunciation used to infuriate him." 12 October 1872 – 26 August 1958) was an English composer of symphonies, chamber music, opera, choral music, and film scores.

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Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

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Received Pronunciation (RP) is regarded as the standard accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms.

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The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) which introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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The regional chambers of England were a group of indirectly elected regional bodies that were created by the provisions of the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998.

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A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.

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In England, the region is the highest tier of sub-national division used by Her Majesty's Government.

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Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice.

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Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

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The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border is the boundary between the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.

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In the United Kingdom reserved matters and excepted matters are the areas of government policy where the UK Parliament had kept the power (jurisdiction) to make laws (legislate) in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.

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Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.

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The Restoration was both a series of events in April–May 1660 and the period that followed it in British history.

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Rhys Lewis is a novel by Daniel Owen, written in the Welsh language and published in 1885.

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Sir Richard Arkwright (born 23 December 1732 in Preston, died 3 August 1792 in Cromford) was an inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.

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Richard Burton, CBE (10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh stage and cinema actor noted for his mellifluous baritone voice and his great acting talent.

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Richard William Hamilton CH (24 February 1922 – 13 September 2011) was an English painter and collage artist.

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Richard Dafydd Vivian Llewellyn Lloyd (8 December 1906 – 30 November 1983), known by his pen name Richard Llewellyn, was a British novelist.

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Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833) was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England.

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Sir Ridley Scott, KBE (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.

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The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively.

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The River Severn (Welsh: Afon Hafren, Latin: Sabrina) is the longest river in the United Kingdom, at about.

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The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England.

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Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter, and fighter pilot.

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Robert Peter "Robbie" Williams (born 13 February 1974) is an English singer, songwriter, and actor.

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Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796) (also known as Robbie Burns, Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, Robden of Solway Firth, the Bard of Ayrshire and in Scotland as The Bard) was a Scottish poet and lyricist.

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Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer.

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Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an early railway engineer.

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Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

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Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.

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Roderick David "Rod" Stewart, (born 10 January 1945) is a British rock singer-songwriter.

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Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public holding company that, through its various subsidiaries, designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.

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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.

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The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).

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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport with origins back to Ancient Egyptian times.

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The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.

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The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 (17 & 18 Geo. 5 c. 4) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that authorised the alteration of the British monarch's royal style and titles, and altered the formal name of the British Parliament, in recognition of most of Ireland separating from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State.

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Royal assent is the method by which a country's constitutional monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament, thus making it a law or letting it be promulgated as law.

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The Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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A Royal College in some Commonwealth countries is technically a college which has received royal patronage and permission to use the prefix Royal.

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The Royal College of Art or RCA is a public research university in London, in the United Kingdom.

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Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

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The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the United Kingdom's amphibious light infantry force, forming part of the Naval Service, along with the Royal Navy.

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The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force.

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The Royal Observatory, Greenwich, (known as the Royal Greenwich Observatory or RGO when the working institution moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux after World War II) played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known as the location of the prime meridian.

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The President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science and is possibly the oldest such society still in existence.

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Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist.

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Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, or simply league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.

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