1194 relations: A. A. Milne, A. J. Ayer, A8 countries, Aberdeen, Absolute monarchy, Abstract art, Academic degree, Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, Acquittal, Act of Parliament, Act of the National Assembly for Wales, Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Adam Smith, Adele, Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom, Agatha Christie, Age of Discovery, Airbus A350 XWB, Airbus A380, Airbus A400M Atlas, Airbus UK, Airliner, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Alan Ayckbourn, Alan Moore, Alan Turing, Alexander Fleming, Alexander Graham Bell, Alfred Hitchcock, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, Alternative medicine, Alternative R&B, American Revolutionary War, Amy Winehouse, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Andrew Vivian, Angevin Empire, Anglesey, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Scottish Wars, Anguilla, Anish Kapoor, Anno Domini, Anthony Hopkins, Anti-Slavery International, ..., Antony Gormley, Archipelago, Arctic Monkeys, Art of Europe, Arthur Conan Doyle, Arthur Sullivan, Arts and Crafts movement, ASAP Rocky, Ascot Racecourse, Atlantic slave trade, Attlee ministry, Auld Alliance, Auto racing, Automotive industry in the United Kingdom, BAE Systems, BAE Systems Hawk, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bangladesh, Bank of England, Basques, Battle of Britain, Battle of Culloden, Battle of the Atlantic, BBC, BBC News, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Bedford College, London, Bee Gees, Belfast, Belize Defence Force, Ben Jonson, Ben Kingsley, Ben Nevis, Bengali language, Benjamin Britten, Benjamin Disraeli, Bermuda, Bermudian independence referendum, 1995, Bertrand Russell, Beyoncé, BFI Top 100 British films, Big Bang (financial markets), Big Four (Western Europe), Big Oil, Bill of Rights 1689, Black British, Black hole, Blockade of Africa, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Books published per country per year, Bosnian War, Boxing, BP, Bram Stoker, Bretons, Brexit negotiations, Brit Awards, Britain (place name), Britannia, British Academy Film Awards, British Academy of Film and Television Arts, British Airways, British Antarctic Territory, British Armed Forces, British Army, British Army Training Unit Kenya, British Army Training Unit Suffield, British Asian, British Cartographic Society, British Chinese, British Empire, British Film Institute, British Forces Cyprus, British Forces Germany, British Forces Gibraltar, British Grand Prix, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Isles, British literature, British military intervention in the Sierra Leone Civil War, British nationality law, British Overseas Territories, British Phonographic Industry, British Rail, British Raj, British Social Attitudes Survey, British Summer Time, British Touring Car Championship, British Virgin Islands, British–Irish Council, British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference, Broadsheet, Brontë family, Buddhism, Bulldog, Burma Campaign, C. S. Lewis, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills, Cameron–Clegg coalition, Canadian Gaelic, Canary Wharf, Cape Breton Island, Cardiff, Caribbean, Carol Reed, Case law, Catholic Church, Cayman Islands, Celtic Britons, Celtic languages, Celtic Sea, Celts, Census in the United Kingdom, Central bank, Central Europe, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Lowlands, Central Saint Martins, Chairman, Chance the Rapper, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Channel Islands, Channel Tunnel, Charles Darwin, Charles Dickens, Charles II of England, Charlie Chaplin, Chelsea College of Arts, Cheltenham Festival, Cheltenham Gold Cup, Chris Ofili, Christopher Marlowe, Christopher Nolan, Church in Wales, Church of England, Church of Ireland, Church of Scotland, City of Literature, City of London, Civil law (legal system), Claim of Right Act 1689, Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom, Clint Mansell, Co-production (media), Coal Authority, Cold War, Coldplay, Colin Firth, Commander-in-chief, Commission on the consequences of devolution for the House of Commons, Common Agricultural Policy, Common law, Common Travel Area, Commonwealth Games, Commonwealth of England, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth realm, Commonwealth Secretariat, Company rule in India, Confidence and supply, Congress of Vienna, Conquest of Wales by Edward I of England, Conservatism in the United Kingdom, Conservative Party (UK), Constitution, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitutional monarchy, Continental Europe, Conurbation, Corinthian helmet, Cornish language, Cornwall, Cosmology, Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment, Council of Europe, Countries of the United Kingdom, County Championship, Court of Appeal (England and Wales), Court of Session, Courtauld Institute of Art, Courts of England and Wales, Courts of Northern Ireland, Craig Armstrong (composer), Creative industries, Credit rating agency, Cricket, Cricket in Scotland, Cricket Ireland, Cricket World Cup, Crime statistics in the United Kingdom, Cross-community vote, Crossrail, Crown Court, Crown dependencies, Culture of the United Kingdom, Cumbric, Cyprus, D. H. Lawrence, Dafydd ap Gwilym, Damien Hirst, Daniel Day-Lewis, Daniel Defoe, Daniel Owen, Dartmoor, David Arnold, David Bowie, David Edgar (playwright), David Hockney, David Hume, David Lean, David Niven, Davidian Revolution, Dál Riata, Declaration by United Nations, Declaration of Arbroath, Decolonization, Defence Council of the United Kingdom, Democratic Unionist Party, Department of Education (Northern Ireland), Derwentwater, Developed country, Devolution, Devolution in the United Kingdom, Diarchy, Diego Garcia, Directgov, DNA, Do not go gentle into that good night, Dominion, Dugald Stewart, Dundee, Duns Scotus, Dylan Thomas, Ealing Studios, Early modern Britain, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ebenezer Cobb Morley, Economic inequality, Economic policy, Edgar Wright, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Agreement (2012), Education Authority, Education in England, Education in Northern Ireland, Education in Scotland, Education in Wales, Edward Elgar, Elections in the United Kingdom, Electric motor, Electromagnetism, Elizabeth II, Elton John, EMI, Enclosure, Encyclopaedia of Wales, England, England and Wales, England and Wales Cricket Board, England cricket team, England national football team, England national rugby league team, England national rugby union team, English Channel, English Civil War, English language, English law, English people, Enid Blyton, Entente Cordiale, Epsom Derby, Equality and Human Rights Commission, Eric Clapton, Ethnic group, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, European Communities, European Convention on Human Rights, European early modern humans, European Economic Area, European Economic Community, European Free Trade Association, European integration, European Union, Evelyn Waugh, Evolution, Exchange rate, Executive (government), Exercise RIMPAC, Exmoor, Ezra Pound, Falkland Islands, Falkland Islands sovereignty referendum, 2013, Falklands War, Fantasy literature, Fault (geology), Feudalism, FIA World Endurance Championship, FIFA, Fifty pence (British coin), Film score, Financial centre, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, First Lord of the Treasury, First Minister and deputy First Minister, Firth of Clyde, Firth of Forth, Fitch Ratings, Five Power Defence Arrangements, Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, Flag of England, Flag of Scotland, Flag of the United Kingdom, Folk music, Folk music of England, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Formula One, Four Policemen, Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Francis Bacon, Francis Crick, Frank Whittle, Free trade, French Revolutionary Wars, Fresh Talent Initiative, Further education, G20, Gaelic football, Gaelic Ireland, Gary Oldman, Gatwick Airport, General Certificate of Secondary Education, General Medical Council, Generation Z, Genetic history of the British Isles, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Geography of England, Geography of Ireland, Geography of Scotland, Geography of Wales, George Berkeley, George Bernard Shaw, George Eliot, George Frideric Handel, George Orwell, George Stephenson, Germanic peoples, Gibraltar, Gibraltar sovereignty referendum, 2002, Gilbert & George, Girton College, Cambridge, Glasgow, Glasgow School of Art, Global city, Glorious Revolution, God Save the Queen, Goldsmiths, University of London, Golf, Good Friday Agreement, Government of Ireland, Government of the United Kingdom, Governor of the Bank of England, Graham Greene, Grammar school, Grand National, Grand Prix motorcycle racing, Gravity, Great Britain, Great Britain at the Olympics, Great Depression in the United Kingdom, Great Famine (Ireland), Great power, Great Recession, Greater Glasgow, Greater London Authority, Greater London Authority referendum, 1998, Greater Manchester Built-up Area, Greenwich Mean Time, Group of Seven, Guernsey, Guilt (law), Gujarati language, Gulf Stream, Gustav Holst, H. G. Wells, Harold Pinter, Harrison Birtwistle, Harry Gregson-Williams, Harry Potter (film series), Head of government, Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland, Healthcare in England, Healthcare in Scotland, Healthcare in Wales, Heathrow Airport, Heavy metal music, Hebrides, Hegemony, Hen Ogledd, Henry Cavendish, Henry Moore, Henry Purcell, Her Majesty's Naval Service, Her Majesty's Prison Service, High Court of Justice, High Court of Justiciary, High Speed 2, Highland Boundary Fault, Highland games, Hindi, Hinduism, Hinduism in the United Kingdom, Hip hop music, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of art, History of the formation of the United Kingdom, History of the Jews in the United Kingdom, History of the socialist movement in the United Kingdom, History of the United Kingdom, HM Treasury, Home Nations, Honors music, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Hanover, House of Lords, House of Plantagenet, House of Stuart, Howard Hodgkin, Hugh MacDiarmid, Human Development Index, Human Rights Act 1998, Humber, Hundred Years' War, Hurling, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrogen, Iain Banks, Ian Fleming, Ian McKellen, Ian Rankin, Impact of the privatisation of British Rail, Incandescent light bulb, Index of United Kingdom-related articles, India, Indian subcontinent, Industrial Revolution, Informal empire, Inner Hebrides, Insular Celts, International Futures, International Institute for Strategic Studies, International Monetary Fund, International Organization for Standardization, International rankings of the United Kingdom, International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919), International Tennis Federation, International trade, Interpol, Interregnum (1649–1660), Ireland, Ireland cricket team, Ireland men's national rugby league team, Irish Free State, Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, Irish Home Rule movement, Irish language, Irish language in Northern Ireland, Irish nationalism, Irish people, Irish republicanism, Irish Sea, Irish traditional music, Irish War of Independence, Irreligion, Irreligion in the United Kingdom, Isaac Newton, Isaiah Berlin, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Islam, Islam in the United Kingdom, Isle of Arran, Isle of Man, Isle of Man TT, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3, ISO 3166-2:GB, ITV (TV network), ITV plc, J. K. Rowling, J. M. Barrie, J. M. W. Turner, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jacobite risings, Jacques Rogge, Jake and Dinos Chapman, James Bond, James Bond in film, James Clerk Maxwell, James VI and I, James Watt, Jane Austen, Janelle Monáe, Jeremy Bentham, Jersey, Jet engine, John Barbirolli, John Barry (composer), John Bull, John Bunyan, John Constable, John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, John Lilburne, John Locke, John Logie Baird, John Milton, John Murphy (composer), John Powell (film composer), John Stuart Mill, Jonathan Swift, Joseph Conrad, Joseph Swan, Joshua Reynolds, Judaism, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Judicial functions of the House of Lords, Julie Andrews, Kano (rapper), Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Kate Roberts (author), Kate Winslet, Kazuo Ishiguro, Keswick, Cumbria, King Arthur, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Scotland, Kosovo War, L. S. Lowry, Labour Party (UK), Laissez-faire, Lake District, Languages of the United Kingdom, Laurence Olivier, Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, Laws of Cricket, Laws of the Game (association football), League of Nations, League system, Learning and Teaching Scotland, Led Zeppelin, Leicester, Lewis Carroll, Liam Neeson, Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Party (UK), Liberalism in the United Kingdom, Lil Skies, Lil Uzi Vert, List of best-selling fiction authors, List of best-selling music artists, List of British currencies, List of cities by GDP, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by external debt, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by Human Development Index, List of countries by length of coastline, List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom, List of current state leaders by date of assumption of office, List of films considered the best, List of Formula One World Constructors' Champions, List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, List of highest-grossing films, List of islands of Scotland, List of national legal systems, List of Scottish monarchs, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, Literature Wales, Litre, Liverpool, Liverpool Urban Area, Local education authority, Local government in England, Local government in Northern Ireland, Local government in Scotland, Local government in Wales, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, London, London and Paris Conferences, London boroughs, London Stansted Airport, London Symphony Chorus, Lords Spiritual, Lough Neagh, Lucian Freud, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Luftwaffe, M25 motorway, Malcolm Sargent, Margaret Thatcher, Mark Wallinger, Market economy, Marquess of Queensberry Rules, Marshall Plan, Mary Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft, Marylebone Cricket Club, Member state of the European Union, Merriam-Webster, Messiah (Handel), Methodism, Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, Michael Caine, Michael Faraday, Michael Frayn, Michael Powell, Mid Wales, Middle English, Migration Policy Institute, Mike Oldfield, Military deployment, Military forces based in Brunei, Military of the Falkland Islands, Millennials, Minister for the Civil Service, Minister of the Crown, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom), Minority group, Minority language, Mixed (United Kingdom ethnicity category), Modernism, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Monetarism, Monetary Policy Committee, Money laundering, Monolingualism, Montserrat, Monty Norman, Moody's Investors Service, Motorsport, Mourne Mountains, Napoleonic Wars, National anthem, National Assembly for Wales, National church, National Gallery, National Geographic, National Health Service, National personification, National Portrait Gallery, London, Nationalization, NATO, Natural selection, Naturalism (literature), Naturalization, Nature (journal), Nazi Germany, Neil Gaiman, Neil M. Gunn, Nepal, Net migration rate, Netball, Network Rail, New Oxford American Dictionary, New York City, Newport, Wales, News Corporation, News UK, Newton's laws of motion, NHS Scotland, NI Railways, Nigeria, Nobel Prize in Literature, Norman conquest of England, Norman invasion of Ireland, Norman invasion of Wales, Norman language, Normandy landings, Normans, North African Campaign, North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North East England, North East England devolution referendum, 2004, North Sea, North Sea oil, North Wales, North West 200, North/South Ministerial Council, Northern England, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972, Northern Ireland Assembly, Northern Ireland Executive, Northern Ireland law, Northern Ireland national football team, Northern Ireland Water, Not proven, Nova Scotia, Novel, Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom, Nursing and Midwifery Council, NUTS statistical regions of the United Kingdom, Oasis (band), OECD, Ofcom, Office for National Statistics, Official bank rate, Official development assistance, Old Welsh, One Day International, Operation Herrick, Operation Hurricane, Operation Telic, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Orkney, Oscar Wilde, Other White, Ottoman Empire, Outer Hebrides, Outline of England, Outline of Northern Ireland, Outline of Scotland, Outline of the United Kingdom, Outline of Wales, Oxbridge, Pakistan, Palace of Westminster, Panama Papers, Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, Parliament of Northern Ireland, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, Parliamentary system, Partition of Ireland, Patagonia, Paul Mitchell (broadcaster), Pax Britannica, Penicillin, Pennines, People of Northern Ireland, Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Permanent residency, Personal union, Peter Blake (artist), Peter Sellers, Pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom, Philip Larkin, Philippines, Picts, Pink Floyd, Piracy, Pirates of the Caribbean (film series), Pitcairn Islands, Plaid Cymru, Plantation of Ulster, Plurality voting, Plurality-at-large voting, Plymouth Brethren, Points-based immigration system (United Kingdom), Poland, Polish Armed Forces in the West, Polish language, Political union, Politics of the Highland council area, Pop art, Pop music, Portrait, Poseidon, Postchristianity, Pound sterling, Poverty in the United Kingdom, Power (international relations), Precedent, Prehistoric Britain, Premier League, Premiership of Margaret Thatcher, Presbyterian polity, Presbyterianism, Prime meridian, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Privateer, Privatisation of British Rail, Privatization, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Prospect (magazine), Protestantism, Protestantism in the United Kingdom, Provost (civil), Public bodies of the Scottish Government, Public finance, Public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom, Publicly funded health care, Punjabi language, Purchasing power parity, Qatar, Quantum gravity, Queen (band), R. S. Thomas, Race (human categorization), Rachel Whiteread, Radiohead, RAF Ascension Island, Rail transport in Great Britain, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ramz (rapper), Realism (arts), Reform Act 1832, Reformation, Regional assembly (England), Regional language, Regions of England, Religion in Scotland, Religion in the United Kingdom, Representative democracy, Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, Reserve currency, Reserved and excepted matters, Responsible government, Restoration (1660), Rhys Lewis (novel), Rhythm and blues, Richard Arkwright, Richard Burton, Richard Hamilton (artist), Richard Llewellyn, Richard Trevithick, Ridley Scott, River Severn, River Thames, Roald Dahl, Robbie Williams, Robert Burns, Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert Stephenson, Robert Walpole, Robinson Crusoe, Rock music, Rod Stewart, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Roman Britain, Roman conquest of Britain, Romanticism, Rowing (sport), Royal Academy of Arts, Royal Air Force, Royal assent, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal College, Royal College of Art, Royal Dutch Shell, Royal Marines, Royal Navy, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Royal Society, Rudyard Kipling, Rugby league, Rugby League World Cup, Rugby School, Rugby union, Rugby union in England, Rugby union in Ireland, Rugby union in Scotland, Rugby union in Wales, Rule, Britannia!, Ruling class, Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art, Saatchi Gallery, SABRE (rocket engine), Safran Landing Systems, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Patrick's Saltire, Salman Rushdie, Sam Taylor-Johnson, Samuel Palmer, Samuel Richardson, Scafell Pike, Science park, Scientific Revolution, Scotland, Scotland national cricket team, Scotland national football team, Scotland national rugby league team, Scotland national rugby union team, Scots language, Scots law, Scottish common sense realism, Scottish folk music, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Government, Scottish Highlands, Scottish independence referendum, 2014, Scottish literature, Scottish Lowlands, Scottish National Party, Scottish Parliament, Scottish people, Scottish Qualifications Authority, Scottish Renaissance, Scottish Water, Sean Connery, Secretary of State for Defence, Secretary of State for Education, Secularism, Sheffield, Sheriff court, Sherlock Holmes, Shetland, Shinty, Shipbuilding, Sikhism, Silverstone Circuit, Simon Rattle, Single transferable vote, Sinn Féin, Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, Six Nations Championship, Skepta, Skiddaw, Sky UK, Skye, Skylon (spacecraft), Slade School of Fine Art, Slave ship, Slieve Donard, Snooker, Snowdon, Snowdonia, Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, Somalia, Somerville College, Oxford, SoundCloud, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Wales, South Wales Valleys, South West England, Southern Uplands, Special Relationship, Sphere of influence, Spice Girls, Sport in Ireland, Sport in the United Kingdom, Sports governing body, Spotify, Standard & Poor's, State religion, State school, States of Jersey, Statute, Steam locomotive, Steelmaking, Stephen Hawking, Steve McQueen (director), Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Stonehaven, Stormzy, Subdivisions of England, Subdivisions of Scotland, Suez Crisis, Suffragette, Super League, Superpower, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Swansea, SZA (singer), T, T. S. Eliot, Tabloid (newspaper format), Tate Britain, Tate Modern, Tax avoidance, Tearfund, Ted Hughes, Tees-Exe line, Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom, Television licensing in the United Kingdom, Ten pence (British coin), Tennis, Tertiary education, Tertiary sector of the economy, Test cricket, The Beatles, The Blitz, The BMJ, The Championships, Wimbledon, The Crown, The Football Association, The Great Exhibition, The Guardian, The Independent, The Lancet, The Lord of the Rings (film series), The Open Championship, The Police, The Rolling Stones, The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, The Sun (United Kingdom), The Times, The Troubles, The Washington Post, The Weeknd, The Who, The World Factbook, Theresa May, Thomas Gainsborough, Thomas Hardy, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Malory, Thomas More, Thomas Reid, Thoroughbred horse racing, Tim Berners-Lee, Titanic (1997 film), Tokyo, Tom Stoppard, Tory, Total fertility rate, Tourism in the United Kingdom, Tracey Emin, Train operating company, Translink (Northern Ireland), Treaty of Lisbon, Treaty of Union, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, Tuition payments, Turks and Caicos Islands, UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum, UK Space Agency, Ulster Scots dialects, Uncodified constitution, Under Milk Wood, Underground coal gasification, UNESCO, Unicameralism, Union Jack, Union of the Crowns, Unitary authority, Unitary state, United Kingdom census, 1991, United Kingdom census, 2011, United Kingdom constituencies, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Kingdom general election, 2017, United Kingdom invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom prison population, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Census Bureau, Universities in Scotland, University College London, University of Cambridge, University of Kent, University of London, University of Oxford, University of the Arts London, Utilitarianism, Utilitarianism (book), Verdict, Vertigo (film), Victorian era, Virgin Atlantic, Virginia Woolf, Vivien Leigh, W. S. Gilbert, W. Somerset Maugham, Wales, Wales national football team, Walter Bagehot, Walter Scott, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Wars of Scottish Independence, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Water supply and sanitation in the European Union, Welfare state, Welsh Government, Welsh language, Welsh literature, Welsh literature in English, Welsh medium education, Welsh nationalism, Welsh people, West End theatre, West Germany, West Lothian question, West Midlands conurbation, West Yorkshire Urban Area, Western European Union, Western Front (World War I), Westminster system, Whiggism, Whigs (British political party), White British, White paper, William Blake, William Byrd, William Morris, William of Ockham, William Shakespeare, William Wordsworth, Wind power in the United Kingdom, Winnie-the-Pooh, Winston Churchill, World Bank, World Bank high-income economy, World Health Organization, World Prison Brief, World Rally Championship, World Trade Organization, World War I, World War II, World Wide Web, Y Gododdin, Young British Artists, Yxng Bane, Z/Yen, .eu, .uk, 1871 Scotland versus England rugby union match, 1908 Summer Olympics, 1926 United Kingdom general strike, 1948 Summer Olympics, 19th century, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2011 military intervention in Libya, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2nd meridian east, 49th parallel north, 61st parallel north, 9th meridian west. Expand index (1144 more) » « Shrink index
Alan Alexander Milne (18 January 1882 – 31 January 1956) was an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various poems.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
The A8 countries, also referred to as the EU8, are a group of eight of the 10 countries that joined the European Union during its 2004 enlargement.
Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
The Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities (EC) – the collective term for the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) – took effect on 1 January 1973.
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
In Wales, an Act of the National Assembly for Wales (Deddf Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) (informally, an Act of the Assembly) is primary legislation that can be made by the National Assembly for Wales under part 4 of the Government of Wales Act 2006.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Adele Laurie Blue Adkins (born 5 May 1988) is an English singer and songwriter.
The aerospace industry of the United Kingdom is the fourth-largest national aerospace industry in the world and the third largest in Europe, with a global market share of 6.4% in 2016.
Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, (born Miller; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976) was an English writer.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.
Airbus UK is a wholly owned subsidiary of Airbus which produces wings for the Airbus aircraft family.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.
Sir Alan Ayckbourn, (born 12 April 1939) is a prolific English playwright and director.
Alan Moore (born 18 November 1953) is an English writer known primarily for his work in comic books including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, The Ballad of Halo Jones and From Hell.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English film director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation High Readiness Force (Land) Headquarters ready for deployment worldwide.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Alternative R&B (also referred to as PBR&B, indie R&B, experimental R&B, and hipster R&B) is a term used by music journalists to describe a stylistic alternative to contemporary R&B.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Amy Jade Winehouse (14 September 1983 – 23 July 2011) was an English singer and songwriter.
Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber Kt (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre.
Andrew Vivian (1759–1842) was a British mechanical engineer, inventor, and mine captain of the Dolcoath mine in Cornwall, England.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (or Aliança Luso-Britânica, "Luso-British Alliance", also known in Portugal as Aliança Inglesa, "English Alliance"), ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, is the oldest alliance in the world that is still in force – with the earliest treaty dating back to the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Anglo-Scottish Wars comprise the various battles which continued to be fought between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland from the time of the Wars of Independence in the early 14th century through to the latter years of the 16th century.
Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.
Sir Anish Mikhail Kapoor, (born 12 March 1954) is a British sculptor.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins (born 31 December 1937), better known as Anthony Hopkins, is a Welsh actor, widely considered to be one of the world's greatest living actors.
Anti-Slavery International is an international non-governmental organization, registered charity and a lobby group, based in the United Kingdom.
Sir Antony Mark David Gormley, (born 30 August 1950) is a British sculptor.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Arctic Monkeys are an English rock band formed in 2002 in High Green, a suburb of Sheffield.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer.
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan (the Mingei movement) in the 1920s.
Rakim Mayers (born October 3, 1988), better known by his stage name ASAP Rocky (stylized as A$AP Rocky), is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, and actor.
Ascot Racecourse ("ascot" pronounced, often incorrectly pronounced) is a British racecourse, located in Ascot, Berkshire, England, which is used for thoroughbred horse racing.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Clement Attlee was invited by King George VI to form the Attlee ministry in the United Kingdom in July 1945, succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance") was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.
Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.
The automotive industry in the United Kingdom is now best known for premium and sports car marques including Aston Martin, Bentley, Caterham Cars, Daimler, Jaguar, Lagonda, Land Rover, Lister Cars, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini, Morgan and Rolls-Royce.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.
The BAE Systems Hawk is a British single-engine, jet-powered advanced trainer aircraft.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of Culloden (Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The BBC Symphony Orchestra (BBC SO) is a British orchestra based in London.
Bedford College was founded in London in 1849 as the first higher education college for women in the United Kingdom.
The Bee Gees --> were a pop music group formed in 1958.
Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
The Belize Defence Force (BDF) is the military of Belize, and is responsible for protecting the sovereignty of the country.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Sir Ben Kingsley (born Krishna Pandit Bhanji; 31 December 1943) is an English actor with a career spanning over 50 years.
Ben Nevis (Beinn Nibheis), in Scotland, is the highest mountain in the British Isles.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten of Aldeburgh (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Bermudan independence referendum of 1995 was a referendum held in Bermuda on 16 August 1995 over whether Bermuda should become an independent sovereign state or remain a British Dependent Territory.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter (born September 4, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter, dancer, actress, and businesswoman.
In 1999 the British Film Institute surveyed 1,000 people from the world of British film and television to produce the BFI 100 list of the greatest British films of the 20th century.
The phrase Big Bang, used in reference to the sudden deregulation of financial markets, was coined to describe measures, including abolition of fixed commission charges and of the distinction between stockjobbers and stockbrokers on the London Stock Exchange and change from open-outcry to electronic, screen-based trading, effected by Margaret Thatcher in 1986.
The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
Big Oil is a name used to describe the world's six or seven largest publicly traded oil and gas companies, also known as supermajors.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
Black British are British citizens of Black origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
The Blockade of Africa began in 1808 after the United Kingdom outlawed the Atlantic slave trade, making it illegal for British ships to transport slaves.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
This page lists the number of book titles published per country per year from various sources.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
The Brexit negotiations are the negotiations currently taking place between the United Kingdom and the European Union for the prospective withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, following the UK's referendum on EU membership in June 2016.
The BRIT Awards (often simply called The BRITs) are the British Phonographic Industry's annual pop music awards.
The term Britain is a linguistic descendant (reflex) of one of the oldest known names for Great Britain, an island off the north-western coast of continental Europe.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts or BAFTA Film Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) to honour the best British and international contributions to film.
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) is an independent charity that supports, develops and promotes the art forms of the moving image – film, television and game in the United Kingdom.
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.
The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Army Training Unit Kenya (BATUK) is a training support unit of the British Army located in Kenya under long-standing cooperative agreements with that country.
The British Army Training Unit Suffield (BATUS) is a British Army unit located at the vast training area of Canadian Forces Base Suffield near Suffield, Alberta, Canada.
British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
The British Cartographic Society (BCS) is an association of individuals and organisations dedicated to exploring and developing the world of maps.
British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
British Forces Cyprus (BFC) is the name given to the British Armed Forces stationed in the UK Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia on the island of Cyprus and at a number of related 'retained sites' in the Republic of Cyprus.
British Forces Germany (BFG) is the generic name for the three services of the British military, made up of service personnel, UK Civil Servants and dependents (family members), based in Germany.
British Forces Gibraltar is the British Armed Forces stationed in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The British Grand Prix is a race in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship.
The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is a British overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
British literature is literature in the English language from the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands.
The United Kingdom began a military intervention in Sierra Leone on 7 May 2000 under the codename Operation Palliser.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
The BPI (British Recorded Music Industry) Limited, commonly known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association.
British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The British Social Attitudes Survey (BSA) is an annual statistical survey conducted in Great Britain by National Centre for Social Research since 1983.
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
The British Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing series held each year in the United Kingdom, currently organised and administered by TOCA.
The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially simply "Virgin Islands", are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico.
The British–Irish Council (BIC) is an intergovernmental organisation that aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy.
The British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference (BIIGC) was established under an Agreement between the Governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom made on 8 March 1998.
A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically). Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and tabloid/compact formats.
The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family, born in the village of Thornton and later associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A Bulldog is a medium-sized breed of dog commonly referred to as the English Bulldog or British Bulldog.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills, commonly referred to as the Education Secretary, is a position in the Scottish Government Cabinet responsible for all levels of education in Scotland.
David Cameron and Nick Clegg formed the Cameron–Clegg coalition after the former was invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government, following the resignation of Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010.
Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic (Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in English as often simply Gaelic, refers to the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken by people in Atlantic Canada who have their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.
Canary Wharf is a commercial estate and locality in between Poplar, Millwall and Limehouse on the Isle of Dogs in Greater London, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Sir Carol Reed (30 December 1906 – 25 April 1976) was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out (1947), The Fallen Idol (1948) and The Third Man (1949).
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Coincident full censuses have taken place in the different jurisdictions of the United Kingdom every ten years since 1801, with the exceptions of 1941 (during the Second World War) and Ireland in 1921.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern Scotland.
Central Saint Martins, often abbreviated to CSM, is a public tertiary art school in London, England.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
Chancelor Jonathan Bennett (born April 16, 1993), known professionally as Chance the Rapper, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actor, record producer, and philanthropist from the West Chatham neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.
Chelsea College of Arts is a constituent college of the University of the Arts London based in London, UK, and is a leading British art and design institution with an international reputation.
The Cheltenham Festival is a meeting in the National Hunt racing calendar in the United Kingdom, with race prize money second only to the Grand National.
| The Cheltenham Gold Cup is a Grade 1 National Hunt horse race run on the New Course at Cheltenham Racecourse in England, over a distance of 3 miles 2½ furlongs (5,331 m), and during its running there are 22 fences to be jumped.
Christopher Ofili, CBE (born 10 October 1968) is a British Turner Prize-winning painter who is best known for his paintings incorporating elephant dung.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
Christopher Edward Nolan (born 30 July 1970) is an English film director, screenwriter, and producer who holds both British and American citizenship.
The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of a wider Creative Cities Network which was launched in 2004 and is currently made up of 180 UNESCO Creative Cities globally.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
The Claim of Right is an Act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in April 1689.
A number of different systems of classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom exist.
Clinton Darryl "Clint" Mansell (born 7 January 1963) is an English musician, composer, and former lead singer of the band Pop Will Eat Itself.
A co-production is a joint venture between two or more different production companies for the purpose of film production, television production, video game development, and so on.
The Coal Authority is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Coldplay are a British rock band formed in 1996 by lead singer and pianist Chris Martin and lead guitarist Jonny Buckland at University College London (UCL).
Colin Andrew Firth, (born 10 September 1960), is an English actor who has received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, two BAFTA Awards, and three Screen Actors Guild Awards, as well as the Volpi Cup for Best Actor at the Venice Film Festival.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commission on the consequences of devolution for the House of Commons, also known as the McKay Commission, was an independent commission established in the United Kingdom to consider issues arising from devolution in the United Kingdom and their effect on the workings of the House of Commons.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.
Conservatism in the United Kingdom is related to its counterparts in other Western nations, but has a distinct tradition and has encompassed a wide range of theories over the decades.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA) is a Non-departmental public body (NDPB) of the Department of Education (Northern Ireland).
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The County Championship, currently known as the Specsavers County Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales and is organised by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB).
The Court of Appeal (COA, formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England") is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales, and second only to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.
The Courtauld Institute of Art, commonly referred to as The Courtauld, is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art and conservation.
The Courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales.
The courts of Northern Ireland are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in Northern Ireland: they are constituted and governed by Northern Ireland law.
Craig Armstrong, OBE (born 29 April 1959) is a Scottish composer of modern orchestral music, electronica and film scores.
The creative industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information.
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cricket has a considerably lower profile in Scotland than it has in neighbouring England.
Cricket Ireland, officially the Irish Cricket Union, is the governing body for cricket in Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland), and oversees the Ireland cricket team and Ireland women's cricket team.
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
Crime statistics in the United Kingdom refers to the data collected in the United Kingdom, and that collected by the individual areas, England & Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, which operate separate judicial systems.
A cross-community vote or cross-community support is a form of voting used in the Northern Ireland Assembly according to the provisions of the 1998 Belfast Agreement.
Crossrail is a railway line under development in London and the home counties of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Essex, England.
The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK's history as a developed state, a liberal democracy and a great power; its predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism.
Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.
Dafydd ap Gwilym (c. 1315/1320 – c. 1350/1370) is regarded as one of the leading Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages.
Damien Steven Hirst (born 7 June 1965) is an English artist, entrepreneur, and art collector.
Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship.
Daniel Defoe (13 September 1660 - 24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy.
Daniel Owen (20 October 1836 – 22 October 1895) was a Welsh novelist, generally regarded as the foremost Welsh-language novelist of the 19th century, and as the first significant novelist to write in Welsh.
Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England.
David G. Arnold (born 23 January 1962) is a British film composer best known for scoring five James Bond films, Stargate (1994), Independence Day (1996), Godzilla (1998) and the television series Little Britain and Sherlock.
David Robert Jones (8 January 1947 – 10 January 2016), known professionally as David Bowie, was an English singer-songwriter and actor.
David Edgar (born 26 February 1948) is a British playwright and writer who has had more than sixty of his plays published and performed on stage, radio and television around the world, making him one of the most prolific dramatists of the post-1960s generation in Great Britain.
David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Sir David Lean, CBE (25 March 190816 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor, responsible for large-scale epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Doctor Zhivago (1965) and A Passage to India (1984).
James David Graham Niven (1 March 1910 – 29 July 1983) was an English actor, memoirist and novelist.
The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153).
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.
The Declaration of Arbroath is a declaration of Scottish independence, made in 1320.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence.
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Department of Education (DENI) (An Roinn Oideachais; Ulster-Scots: Männystrie o Lear) is a devolved Northern Irish government department in the Northern Ireland Executive.
Derwentwater (or Derwent Water) is one of the principal bodies of water in the Lake District National Park in north west England.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli; Irish: Dílárú) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Diego Garcia is an atoll just south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean, and the largest of 60 small islands comprising the Chagos Archipelago.
Directgov was the British government's digital service for people in the United Kingdom, which provided a single point of access to public sector information and services.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
"Do not go gentle into that good night" is a poem in the form of a villanelle, and the most famous work of Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914–1953).
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Dugald Stewart (22 November 175311 June 1828) was a Scottish philosopher and mathematician.
Dundee (Dùn Dè) is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.
John Duns, commonly called Duns Scotus (1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages (together with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham).
Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the 'play for voices' Under Milk Wood; and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.
Ealing Studios is a television and film production company and facilities provider at Ealing Green in west London.
Early modern Britain is the history of the island of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ebenezer Cobb Morley (16 August 1831 – 20 November 1924) was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of the Football Association and modern football.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Edgar Howard Wright (born 18 April 1974) is an English director, screenwriter and producer.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
The Edinburgh Agreement (full title: Agreement between the United Kingdom Government and the Scottish Government on a referendum on independence for Scotland) is the agreement between the Scottish Government and the United Kingdom Government, signed on 15 October 2012 at St Andrew's House, Edinburgh, on the terms for the Scottish independence referendum, 2014.
The Education Authority is a non-departmental body sponsored by the Department of Education in Northern Ireland.
Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education.
Education in Northern Ireland differs from systems used elsewhere in the:United Kingdom, although it is relatively similar to Wales.
Education in Scotland is overseen by the Scottish Government and has a history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom.
Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
There are six types of elections in the United Kingdom: elections to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies, elections to the European Parliament, local elections, mayoral elections and Police and Crime Commissioner elections.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Sir Elton Hercules John (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight; 25 March 1947) is an English singer, pianist, and composer.
EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries and also referred to as EMI Records Ltd.) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London.
Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.
The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, published in January 2008, is a single-volume-publication encyclopaedia about Wales.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales.
The England cricket team represents England and Wales (and, until 1992, also Scotland) in international cricket.
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
The England national rugby league team represents England in international rugby league.
The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Ireland, Scotland, Italy, and Wales.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children's writer whose books have been among the world's best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies.
The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Republic which saw a significant improvement in Anglo-French relations.
The Derby Stakes, officially the Investec Derby, popularly known as the Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies.
The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales, established by the Equality Act 2006 with effect from 1 October 2007.
Eric Patrick Clapton, (born 1945), is an English rock and blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Arthur Evelyn St.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
RIMPAC, the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, is the world's largest international maritime warfare exercise.
Exmoor is loosely defined as an area of hilly open moorland in west Somerset and north Devon in South West England.
Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, as well as a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
A referendum on political status was held in the Falkland Islands on 10–11 March 2013.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The FIA World Endurance Championship is an auto racing world championship organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – is a unit of currency equaling one half of a pound sterling.
A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister.
The First Minister and deputy First Minister (Chéad-Aire agus an LeasChéad-Aire Thuaisceart Éireann) are the joint heads of the Northern Ireland Executive and have overall responsibility for the running of the Executive Office.
The Firth of Clyde is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Scotland, named for the River Clyde which empties into it.
The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.
Fitch Ratings Inc.
The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of multi-lateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five powers are to consult each other "immediately" in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of these five countries for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in response.
The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, introducing fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament for the first time.
The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).
The Flag of Scotland (bratach na h-Alba; Banner o Scotland) is also known as St Andrew's Cross or the Saltire.
The national flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Jack, also known as the Union Flag.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The folk music of England is tradition-based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.
The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was a British Royal Air Force air officer.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The Fresh Talent Initiative is a Scottish Government policy framework to encourage people to settle in Scotland.
Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.
Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
Gary Leonard OldmanBirths, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales, 1916–2005. (born 21 March 1958) is an English actor and filmmaker who has performed in theatre, film and television.
Gatwick Airport (also known as London Gatwick) is a major international airport near Crawley in southeast England, south of Central London.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The General Medical Council (GMC) is a public body that maintains the official register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom.
Generation Z or Gen Z (also known as iGeneration or iGen and Post-Millennials) is the demographic cohort after the Millennials (Generation Y).
The genetic history of the British Isles is the subject of research within the larger field of human population genetics.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
England comprises most of the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight.
:Ireland is an island in Northwestern Europe in the north Atlantic Ocean.
The geography of Scotland is varied, from rural lowlands to unspoilt uplands, and from large cities to sparsely inhabited islands.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and is part of the island of Great Britain and offshore islands.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum which was called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom.
Gilbert Prousch, sometimes referred to as Gilbert Proesch (born 17 September 1943 in San Martin de Tor, Italy) and George Passmore (born 8 January 1942 in Plymouth, United Kingdom) are two artists who work together as the collaborative art duo Gilbert & George.
Girton College is one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Glasgow School of Art (GSA) is Scotland's only public self-governing art school offering university-level programmes and research in architecture, fine art and design.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
Goldsmiths, University of London, is a public research university in London, England, specialising in the arts, design, humanities, and social sciences.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Governor of the Bank of England is the most senior position in the Bank of England.
Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse in Liverpool, England.
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Great Britain or Team GB is the team that sends athletes from the United Kingdom (UK), all but three of its overseas territories, and the three Crown dependencies, to the Olympic Games.
The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation).
The Greater London Authority (GLA) is a top-tier administrative body for Greater London, England.
The Greater London Authority referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in Greater London on 7 May 1998, asking whether there was support for the creation of a Greater London Authority, composed of a directly elected Mayor of London and a London Assembly to scrutinise the Mayor's actions.
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), consisting of the large conurbation that encompasses the urban element of the city of Manchester and the continuous metropolitan area that spreads outwards from it, forming much of Greater Manchester in North West England.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.
Herbert George Wells.
Harold Pinter (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.
Sir Harrison Paul Birtwistle, (born 15 July 1934) is a British composer.
Harry Gregson-Williams (born 13 December 1961) is an English composer, orchestrator, conductor, and music producer.
Harry Potter is a British-American film series based on the Harry Potter novels by author J. K. Rowling.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland (HSC) is the designation of the publicly funded service which provides public health and other social care services in Northern Ireland.
Healthcare in England is mainly provided by England's public health service, the National Health Service, that provides healthcare to all permanent residents of the United Kingdom that is free at the point of use and paid for from general taxation.
Healthcare in Scotland is mainly provided by Scotland's public health service, NHS Scotland.
Healthcare in Wales is mainly provided by the Welsh public health service, NHS Wales.
Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English artist.
Henry Purcell (or; c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.
Her/His Majesty's Naval Service, also known as the Senior Service, is the United Kingdom's naval warfare and maritime service.
Her Majesty's Prison Service is a part of Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (formerly the National Offender Management Service), which is the part of Her Majesty's Government tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales.
The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland.
High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway in the United Kingdom, directly linking London, Birmingham, the East Midlands, Leeds and Manchester.
The Highland Boundary Fault is a major fault zone that traverses Scotland from Arran and Helensburgh on the west coast to Stonehaven in the east.
Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture, especially that of the Scottish Highlands.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
For a specific subregion breakdowns of Hinduism in the United Kingdom, see: Hinduism in England, Hinduism in Scotland, Hinduism in Wales and Hinduism in Northern Ireland Hinduism has had a presence in the United Kingdom since the early 19th century, as at the time India was part of the British Empire.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.
The formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has involved personal and political union across Great Britain and the wider British Isles.
For the history of the Jews in the United Kingdom, including the time before the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, see.
Socialism in the United Kingdom is thought to stretch back to the 19th century from roots arising in the aftermath of the English Civil War.
The history of the United Kingdom as a unified state can be treated as beginning in 1707 with the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The home nations, refers collectively to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (countries of the United Kingdom), and in certain sports (e.g. rugby football) contexts, to England, Scotland, Wales and the whole island of Ireland.
The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Sir Gordon Howard Eliot Hodgkin (6 August 1932 – 9 March 2017) was a British painter and printmaker.
Christopher Murray Grieve (11 August 1892 – 9 September 1978), known by his pen name Hugh MacDiarmid, was a Scottish poet, journalist, essayist and political figure.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Rights Act 1998 (c42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Hurling (iománaíocht, iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Iain Banks (16 February 1954 – 9 June 2013) was a Scottish author.
Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.
Sir Ian Murray McKellen (born 25 May 1939) is an English actor.
Ian James Rankin, (born 28 April 1960) is a Scottish crime writer, best known for his Inspector Rebus novels.
The impact of the privatisation of British Rail in the 1990s has been the subject of much debate, which has continued to the present day.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Informal empire describes the spheres of influence which an empire may develop that translate into a degree of influence over a region or country, which is not a formal colony in the empire, as a result of the extension of commercial, strategic or military interests of the empire.
The Inner Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan a-staigh, "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides.
The Insular Celts are the speakers of the Insular Celtic languages, which comprise all the living Celtic languages as well as their precursors, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest, and their contemporaries in Ireland.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
These are the international rankings of the United Kingdom.
This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".
The International Tennis Federation (ITF) is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
The "interregnum" in England, Scotland, and Ireland started with the execution of Charles I in January 1649 (September 1651 in Scotland) and ended in May 1660 when his son Charles II was restored to the thrones of the three realms, although he had been already acclaimed king in Scotland since 1650.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Ireland cricket team represents all of Ireland.
The Ireland men's national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, represents Ireland in international rugby league competitions.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
The Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 (Session 2) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1922 to enact in UK law the Constitution of the Irish Free State, and to formally ratify the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty of 6 December 1921.
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Irish language (also known as Irish Gaelic) (Gaeilge) is a recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.
Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Irreligion in the United Kingdom refers to the secularity or atheism, or, more generally, the lack of a religion in the country.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th-century engineering giants", and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population.
Arran (Eilean Arainn) or the Isle of Arran is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh largest Scottish island, at.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The International Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) races are an annual motorcycle sport event run on the Isle of Man in May/June of most years since its inaugural race in 1907, and is often called one of the most dangerous racing events in the world.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 3166-2:GB is the entry for the United Kingdom in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ITV is a British commercial TV network.
ITV plc is a British media company based in London, England.
Joanne Rowling, ("rolling";Rowling, J.K. (16 February 2007).. Accio Quote (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 28 April 2008. born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film and television producer and screenwriter best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series.
Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, (9 May 1860 19 June 1937) was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746.
Jacques Jean Marie Rogge, Count Rogge (born 2 May 1942) is a Belgian sports administrator and physician who served as the eighth President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 2001 to 2013.
Iakovos "Jake" (born 1966) and Konstantinos "Dinos" (born 1962) are British visual artists, often known as the Chapman Brothers.
The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.
The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Janelle Monáe Robinson (born December 1, 1985) is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, record producer, actress, and model.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Sir John Barbirolli, CH (2 December 189929 July 1970), né Giovanni Battista Barbirolli, was a British conductor and cellist.
John Barry Prendergast, (3 November 1933 – 30 January 2011) was an English composer and conductor of film music.
John Bull is a national personification of the United Kingdom in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works.
John Bunyan (baptised November 30, 1628August 31, 1688) was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress.
John Constable, (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English landscape painter in the naturalistic tradition.
John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry (20 July 184431 January 1900) was a Scottish nobleman, remembered for his atheism, his outspoken views, his brutish manner, for lending his name to the "Queensberry Rules" that form the basis of modern boxing, and for his role in the downfall of author and playwright Oscar Wilde.
John Lilburne (161429 August 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Logie Baird FRSE (13 August 188814 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television, demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Murphy (born 4 March 1965) is a British film composer.
John Powell (born 18 September 1963) is an English composer, best known for his scores to motion pictures.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan FRS (31 October 1828 – 27 May 1914) was an English physicist, chemist, and inventor.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
Dame Julia Elizabeth Andrews, (born 1 October 1935) is an English actress, singer, and author.
Kane Robinson (born 21 May 1985), better known as Kano, is an English rapper and actor from East Ham, London.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Kate Roberts (13 February 1891 – 4 April 1985) was one of the foremost Welsh-language authors of the 20th century.
Kate Elizabeth Winslet, (born 5 October 1975) is an English actress.
Sir Kazuo Ishiguro (born 8 November 1954) is a Nobel Prize-winning British novelist, screenwriter, and short-story writer.
Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, and since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Laurence Stephen Lowry (1 November 1887 – 23 February 1976) was an English artist.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.
English, in various dialects, is the most widely spoken language of the United Kingdom, however there are a number of regional languages also spoken. There are 11 indigenous languages spoken across the British Isles: 5 Celtic, 3 Germanic, and 3 Romance. There are also many immigrant languages spoken in the British Isles, mainly within inner city areas; these languages are mainly from South Asia and Eastern Europe. The de facto official language of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by approximately 59.8 million residents, or 98% of the population, over the age of three.According to the 2011 census, 53,098,301 people in England and Wales, 5,044,683 people in Scotland, and 1,681,210 people in Northern Ireland can speak English "well" or "very well"; totalling 59,824,194. Therefore, out of the 60,815,385 residents of the UK over the age of three, 98% can speak English "well" or "very well". An estimated 700,000 people speak Welsh in the UK,, by Hywel M Jones, page 115, 220.127.116.11, England. Published February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2016. an official language in Wales and the only de jure official language in any part of the UK. Approximately 1.5 million people in the UK speak Scots—although there is debate as to whether this is a distinct language, or a variety of English.A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894 There is some discussion of the languages of the United Kingdom's three Crown dependencies (Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man), though they are not part of the United Kingdom.
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, (22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
The Laws of Cricket is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket worldwide.
The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A league system is a hierarchy of leagues in a sport between consecutive levels of the hierarchy.
Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS or LT Scotland) was a non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government, formed by the merger of the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum (SCCC) and the Scottish Council for Educational Technology (SCET).
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
Liam John Neeson, OBE (born 7 June 1952) is an actor from Northern Ireland.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom.
Kimetrius Foose (born August 4, 1998), known professionally as Lil Skies, is an American rapper from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania currently signed to All We Got Entertainment through Atlantic Records.
Symere Woods (born July 31, 1994), known professionally as Lil Uzi Vert, is an American hip hop recording artist, singer, songwriter and musician.
This is a list of best-selling fiction authors to date, in any language.
This list includes music artists with claims of 75 million or more record sales.
A variety of currencies are tender in the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and crown dependencies.
This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
The coastline paradox states that a coastline does not have a well-defined length.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This is a list of countries and territories formerly ruled or administered by the United Kingdom or part of the British Empire, with their independence days.
This is a list of current state leaders ordered by their continuous tenure in a position of national leadership.
This is a list of films considered "the best ever", so voted in a notable national or international survey of either critics or the public.
The Formula One World Constructors' Championship (WCC) is awarded by the FIA to the most successful Formula One constructor over a season, as determined by a points system based on Grand Prix results.
The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on individual Grand Prix results.
Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.
This is a list of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
This is a list of the most populous urban areas as at the 2011 census, as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), although the basis for the sourced list (used for its ready availability of the data) is Citypopulation.de.
Literature Wales is the Welsh national literature promotion agency and society of writers, existing to promote Welsh-language and English-language literature in Wales.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool Built-up Area (previously Liverpool Urban Area in 2001 and prior) is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to denote the urban area around Liverpool in England, to the east of the River Mersey.
Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.
The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.
Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes.
Local government in Scotland is organised through 32 unitary authorities designated as Councils which consist of councillors elected every five years by registered voters in each of the council areas.
Since 1 April 1996, Wales has been divided into 22 single-tier principal areas for local government purposes.
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany.
The London boroughs are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London administrative area (the 33rd is the City of London).
London Stansted Airport is an international airport located at Stansted Mountfitchet in the district of Uttlesford in Essex, northeast of Central London and from the Hertfordshire border.
The London Symphony Chorus (abbreviated to LSC) is a large symphonic concert choir based in London, UK, consisting of over 150 amateur singers, and is one of the major symphony choruses of the United Kingdom.
The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.
Lough Neagh is a large freshwater lake in Northern Ireland.
Lucian Michael Freud (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a motorway that encircles almost all of Greater London, England (with the exception of North Ockendon), in the United Kingdom.
Sir Harold Malcolm Watts Sargent (29 April 1895 – 3 October 1967) was an English conductor, organist and composer widely regarded as Britain's leading conductor of choral works.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Mark Wallinger (born 1959) is a British artist, best known for his sculpture for the empty fourth plinth in Trafalgar Square, Ecce Homo (1999), and State Britain (2007), a recreation at Tate Britain of Brian Haw's protest display outside parliament.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The Marquess of Queensberry Rules are a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
Marylebone Cricket Club, generally known as the MCC, is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's cricket ground, which it owns, in St John's Wood, London, England.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly.
Sir Michael Caine (born Maurice Joseph Micklewhite Jr., 14 March 1933) is an English actor, producer, and author.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Michael Frayn, FRSL (born 8 September 1933) is an English playwright and novelist.
Michael Latham Powell (30 September 1905 – 19 February 1990) was an English film director, celebrated for his partnership with Emeric Pressburger.
Mid Wales (Canolbarth Cymru or simply Y Canolbarth "The Midlands") is the name given to the central region of Wales.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Migration Policy Institute (MPI) is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2001 by Kathleen Newland and Demetrios G. Papademetriou.
Michael Gordon Oldfield (born 15 May 1953) is an English musician and composer.
Military deployment is the movement of armed forces and their logistical support infrastructure around the world.
The Royal Brunei Armed Forces is the military of the nation of Brunei.
The Falkland Islands are a British overseas territory and, as such, rely on the UK for the guarantee of their security.
Millennials (also known as Generation Y) are the generational demographic cohort following Generation X. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years.
In the Government of the United Kingdom, the Minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies.
Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realms to describe a minister to the reigning sovereign or their viceroy.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is a ministerial department of the British Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor (a combined position).
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Bank of England, which meets for three and a half days, eight times a year, to decide the official interest rate in the United Kingdom (the Bank of England Base Rate).
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as opposed to multilingualism.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies.
Monty Norman (born 4 April 1928) is a singer and film composer best known for composing the "James Bond Theme".
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
The Mourne Mountains (na Beanna Boirche), also called the Mournes or Mountains of Mourne, are a granite mountain range in County Down in the south-east of Northern Ireland.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The term naturalism was coined by Émile Zola, who defines it as a literary movement which emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neil Richard MacKinnon GaimanBorn as Neil Richard Gaiman, with "MacKinnon" added on the occasion of his marriage to Amanda Palmer.
Neil Miller Gunn (8 November 1891 – 15 January 1973) was a prolific novelist, critic, and dramatist who emerged as one of the leading lights of the Scottish Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s. With over twenty novels to his credit, Gunn was arguably the most influential Scottish fiction writer of the first half of the 20th century (with the possible exception of Lewis Grassic Gibbon, the pen name of James Leslie Mitchell). Like his contemporary, Hugh MacDiarmid, Gunn was politically committed to the ideals of both Scottish nationalism and socialism (a difficult balance to maintain for a writer of his time). His fiction deals primarily with the Highland communities and landscapes of his youth, though the author chose (contra MacDiarmid and his followers) to write almost exclusively in English rather than Scots or Gaelic but was heavily influenced in his writing style by the language.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The net migration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.
Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.
Network Rail is the owner (via its subsidiary Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd, which was known as Railtrack plc before 2002) and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland and Wales.
The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.
The original News Corporation or News Corp. was an American multinational mass media corporation headquartered in New York City.
News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
NHS Scotland, sometimes styled NHSScotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland.
NI Railways, also known as Northern Ireland Railways (NIR) and for a brief period Ulster Transport Railways (UTR), is the railway operator in Northern Ireland.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
The Norman invasion of Wales began shortly after the Norman conquest of England under William the Conqueror, who believed England to be his birthright.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, in Scots as the Sheuch and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Northern Ireland and south-western Scotland.
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The North East England devolution referendum was an all postal ballot referendum that took place on 4 November 2004 throughout North East England on whether or not to establish an elected assembly for the region.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
The North West 200 is a motorcycling race meeting held each May in Northern Ireland.
The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland (Temporary Provisions) Act 1972 (c. 22) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced direct rule in Northern Ireland with effect from 30 March 1972.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
Northern Ireland law refers to the legal system of statute and common law operating in Northern Ireland since the partition of Ireland established Northern Ireland as a separate jurisdiction within the United Kingdom in 1921.
The Northern Ireland national football team represents Northern Ireland in international association football.
Northern Ireland Water Limited (Uisce Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Wattèr) is a water company in Northern Ireland.
Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
In October 1952, the United Kingdom (UK) became the third country to independently develop and test nuclear weapons.
The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) is the regulator for nursing and midwifery professions in the UK.
In the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) codes of the United Kingdom (UK), the three levels are.
Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Office of Communications (Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The official bank rate (also called the Bank of England base rate or BOEBR) is the interest rate that the Bank of England charges Banks for secured overnight lending.
Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid.
Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.
A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, usually 50.
Operation Herrick is the codename under which all British operations in the War in Afghanistan were conducted from 2002 to the end of combat operations in 2014.
Operation Hurricane was the test of the first UK atomic device, on 3 October 1952.
Operation Telic (Op TELIC) was the codename under which all of the United Kingdom's military operations in Iraq were conducted between the start of the Invasion of Iraq on 19 March 2003 and the withdrawal of the last remaining British forces on 22 May 2011.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
The term Other White is a classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom and has been used in documents such as the 2011 UK Census to describe people who self-identify as white persons who are not of the English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish ethnic groupings.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to England: England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Northern Ireland.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Scotland: Scotland – country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; a sovereign state in Europe, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK), or Britain.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wales: Wales – country that is part of the United Kingdom, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west.
Oxbridge is a portmanteau of "Oxford" and "Cambridge"; the two oldest, most prestigious, and consistently most highly-ranked universities in the United Kingdom.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities.
The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 are two Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which form part of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the Home Rule legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which sat from 7 June 1921 to 30 March 1972, when it was suspended with the introduction of Direct Rule.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom is a concept that has long been debated.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
Paul Mitchell (born 18 December 1968 in Edinburghhttp://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/football/spl/celtic/2009/03/14/bbc-commentator-doesn-t-want-repeat-of-previous-league-cup-match-86908-21197146/) is a Scottish football commentator for BBC Scotland and was their main commentator for a six-year period from 2004–2010.
Pax Britannica (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace between the Great Powers during which the British Empire became the global hegemonic power and adopted the role of a global police force.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
The people of Northern Ireland, or Northern Irish people, are all people born in Northern Ireland and having, at the time of their birth, at least one parent who is a British citizen, an Irish citizen or is otherwise entitled to reside in Northern Ireland without any restriction on their period of residence,The Good Friday Agreement guarantees the "recognition of the birthright of all the people of Northern Ireland to identify themselves and be accepted as Irish or British, or both, as they may so choose." under the Belfast Agreement.
The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) is an independent inter-departmental body in the United Kingdom established in 1919.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
Permanent residency refers to a person's resident status in a country of which they are not a citizen.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Sir Peter Thomas Blake, CBE, RDI, RA (born 25 June 1932) is an English pop artist, best known for co-creating the sleeve design for the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
Peter Sellers, CBE (born Richard Henry Sellers; 8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English film actor, comedian and singer.
The pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom directly employs around 73,000 people and in 2007 contributed £8.4 billion to the UK's GDP and invested a total of £3.9 billion in research and development.
Philip Arthur Larkin (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and librarian.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pirates of the Caribbean is a series of fantasy swashbuckler films produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and based on Walt Disney's theme park ride of the same name.
The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the South Pacific.
Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.
The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.
Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
Plurality-at-large voting, also known as block vote or multiple non-transferable vote (MNTV), is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election.
The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, nonconformist, evangelical Christian movement whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism.
The points-based immigration system is the means of regulating immigration to the United Kingdom from outside the European Economic Area (EEA).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany and its allies during World War II.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.
The politics of the Highland council area in Scotland are evident in the deliberations and decisions of the Highland Council, in elections to the council, and in elections to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster) and the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood).
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Postchristianity is the loss of the primacy of the Christian worldview in political affairs, especially in the Global North where Christianity had previously flourished, in favor of alternative worldviews such as secularism or nationalism.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Despite being a developed country, those who are living at the lower end of the income distribution in the United Kingdom have a relatively low standard of living.
Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
Margaret Thatcher served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1979 to November 1990.
Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
The Privatisation of British Rail was the process by which ownership and operation of the railways of Great Britain passed from government control into private hands.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Prospect is a monthly British general interest magazine, specialising in politics, economics and current affairs.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protestantism is the most popular religion practiced in the United Kingdom with Anglicanism, the Reformed tradition (including Presbyterians), Methodism and Baptists being the most prominent branches.
A provost (introduced into Scots from French) is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Régime France.
Public bodies of the Scottish Government are organisations that are funded by the Scottish Government.
Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.
In the United Kingdom, the term "public service broadcasting" refers to broadcasting intended for public benefit rather than to serve purely commercial interests.
Publicly funded healthcare is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Queen are a British rock band that formed in London in 1970.
Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000), published as R. S. Thomas, was a Welsh poet and Anglican priest who was noted for his nationalism, spirituality and deep dislike of the anglicisation of Wales.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Rachel Whiteread, CBE (born 20 April 1963) is an English artist who primarily produces sculptures, which typically take the form of casts.
Radiohead are an English rock band from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, formed in 1985.
RAF Ascension, also known as Wideawake Airfield or Ascension Island Auxiliary Field, is a military airfield and facility located on Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean, near the Equator.
The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world.
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
Ramone Rochester (born 18 February 1997), known professionally as Ramz, is an English rapper and songwriter from London.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The regional chambers of England were a group of indirectly elected regional bodies that were created by the provisions of the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.
Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice.
Religion in the United Kingdom, and in the countries that preceded it, has been dominated for over 1,400 years by various forms of Christianity.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, also known as the Irish border, runs for Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, 1999MFPP Working Paper No.
A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.
In the United Kingdom reserved matters and excepted matters are the areas of government policy where the UK Parliament had kept the power (jurisdiction) to make laws (legislate) in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
The Restoration was both a series of events in April–May 1660 and the period that followed it in British history.
Rhys Lewis is a novel by Daniel Owen, written in the Welsh language and published in 1885.
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.
Richard Burton, CBE (born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh actor.
Richard William Hamilton CH (24 February 1922 – 13 September 2011) was an English painter and collage artist.
Richard Dafydd Vivian Llewellyn Lloyd (8 December 1906 – 30 November 1983), known by his pen name Richard Llewellyn, was a British novelist.
Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833) was a British inventor and mining engineer from Cornwall, England.
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter, and fighter pilot.
Robert Peter Williams (born 13 February 1974) is an English singer, songwriter and actor.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.
Robert Stephenson FRS (16 October 1803 – 12 October 1859) was an early railway and civil engineer.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
Sir Roderick David Stewart, (born 10 January 1945) is a British rock singer and songwriter.
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.
The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
A Royal College in some Commonwealth countries is technically a college which has received royal patronage and permission to use the prefix Royal.
The Royal College of Art (RCA) is a public research university in London, in the United Kingdom.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.
Rugby School is a day and boarding co-educational independent school in Rugby, Warwickshire, England.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rugby union in England is one of the leading professional and recreational team sports.
Rugby union in Ireland is a popular team sport.
Rugby union in Scotland is a team sport.
Rugby union in Wales is the national sport and is considered a large part of national culture.
"Rule, Britannia!" is a British patriotic song, originating from the poem "Rule, Britannia" by James Thomson and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740.
The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.
The Ruskin School of Art, known as the Ruskin, is an art school at the University of Oxford in Oxford, England.
The Saatchi Gallery is a London gallery for contemporary art, opened by Charles Saatchi in 1985 in order to exhibit his collection to the public.
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.
Safran Landing Systems (formerly Messier-Bugatti-Dowty) is a French company involved in the design, development, manufacture and customer support of all types of aircraft landing gear, wheels and brakes and a wholly owned subsidiary of Safran SA.
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha.
Saint Patrick's Saltire or Saint Patrick's Cross is a red saltire (X-shaped cross) on a white field, used to represent the island of Ireland or Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Samantha Louise Taylor-Johnson (née Taylor-Wood, born 4 March 1967) is an English filmmaker and photographer.
Samuel Palmer (27 January 1805 – 24 May 1881) was a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker.
Samuel Richardson (19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761) was an 18th-century English writer and printer.
Scafell Pike or is the highest mountain in England, at an elevation of above sea level.
A science park (also called a "university research park", or a "science and technology park") is defined as being a property-based development that accommodates and fosters the growth of tenant firms and that are affiliated with a university (or a government and private research bodies) based on proximity, ownership, and/or governance.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scotland national cricket team play their home matches at The Grange, Edinburgh.
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association.
The Scotland national rugby league team represent Scotland in international rugby league football tournaments.
The Scotland national rugby union team is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
Scottish Common Sense Realism, also known as the Scottish School of Common Sense, is a school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart during the 18th century Scottish Enlightenment.
Scottish folk music (also Scottish traditional music) is music that uses forms that are identified as part of the Scottish musical tradition.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014.
Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers.
The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA; Gaelic: Ùghdarras Theisteanas na h-Alba) is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government responsible for accrediting educational awards.
The Scottish Renaissance was a mainly literary movement of the early to mid-20th century that can be seen as the Scottish version of modernism.
Scottish Water is a statutory corporation that provides water and sewerage services across Scotland.
Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards (one of them being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award) and three Golden Globes (including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Education (frequently shortened to the Education Secretary) is the chief minister of the Department for Education in the United Kingdom government.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
A sheriff court (cùirt an t-siorraim) is the principal local civil and criminal court in Scotland, with exclusive jurisdiction over all civil cases with a monetary up to, and with the jurisdiction to hear any criminal case except treason, murder, and rape which are in the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Justiciary.
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
Shinty (camanachd, iomain) is a team game played with sticks and a ball.
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury.
Sir Simon Denis Rattle (born 19 January 1955) is an English conductor.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS (8 March 1788 – 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician.
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
Joseph Junior Adenuga (born 19 September 1982), better known by his stage name Skepta, is an English grime artist, rapper, songwriter, record producer and music video director.
Skiddaw is a mountain in the Lake District National Park in England.
Sky UK (formerly British Sky Broadcasting Limited, BSkyB and Sky) is a telecommunications company which serves the United Kingdom.
Skye, or the Isle of Skye (An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a' Cheò), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.
The UCL Slade School of Fine Art (informally The Slade) is the art school of University College London (UCL) and is based in London, United Kingdom.
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves.
Slieve Donard is the highest mountain in Northern Ireland and the wider province of Ulster, with a height of.
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.
Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa) is the highest mountain in Wales, at an elevation of above sea level, and the highest point in the British Isles outside the Scottish Highlands.
Snowdonia (Eryri) is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of in area.
The Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission is an advisory Non-Departmental Public Body of the Department for Education.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somerville College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
SoundCloud is an online audio distribution platform based in Berlin, Germany that enables its users to upload, promote, and share their originally-created audio.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
The South Wales Valleys (Cymoedd De Cymru) are a group of industrialised valleys in South Wales.
South West England is one of nine official regions of England.
The Southern Uplands are the southernmost and least populous of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Lowlands and the Highlands).
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
The Spice Girls are an English pop girl group formed in 1994.
Sport in Ireland plays an important role in Irish society.
Sport in the United Kingdom plays an important role in British culture.
A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function.
Spotify Technology SA is a Swedish entertainment company founded by Daniel Ek and Martin Lorentzon.
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
The States of Jersey (États de Jersey) is the parliament and government of the British Crown dependency of Jersey.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Steven Rodney McQueen (born 9 October 1969) is a British film director, producer, screenwriter, and video artist.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
Stonehaven is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Michael Ebenazer Kwadjo Omari Owuo Jr. (born 26 July 1993), better known by his stage name Stormzy, is an English rapper.
The subdivisions of England constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas.
For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas", which are all governed by single-tier authorities designated as "councils".
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Suffragettes were members of women's organisations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for women's suffrage, the right to vote in public elections.
Super League (currently known as the Betfred Super League for sponsorship reasons) is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern hemisphere.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.
Solána Imani Rowe (born November 8, 1990), known professionally as SZA is an American R&B singer and songwriter.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet.
Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London.
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London.
Tax avoidance is the legal usage of the tax regime in a single territory to one's own advantage to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law.
Tearfund is a UK Christian relief and development agency based in Teddington.
Edward James Hughes (17 August 1930 – 28 October 1998) was an English poet and children's writer.
The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary northeast-southwest line that can be drawn on a map of Great Britain which roughly divides the country into lowland and upland regions.
Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom are administered by the UK government's Office of Communications (Ofcom).
In the United Kingdom and the Crown dependencies, any household watching or recording live television transmissions as they are being broadcast (terrestrial, satellite, cable, or Internet) is required to hold a television licence.
The British decimal ten pence (10p) coin – often pronounced ten pee – is a unit of currency equalling ten one-hundredths of a pound sterling.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely regarded as the most prestigious.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The Lord of the Rings is a film series consisting of three high fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson.
The Open Championship, often referred to as The Open or the British Open, is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf.
The Police were a British rock band formed in London in 1977.
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London, England, in 1962.
The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is the oldest and most prestigious golf club in the world.
The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Abel Makkonen Tesfaye (born 16 February 1990), known by his stage name The Weeknd (pronounced as the weekend), is a Canadian singer, songwriter, and record producer.
The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.
Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415 – 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round table).
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".
Thoroughbred horse racing is a worldwide sport and industry involving the racing of Thoroughbred horses.
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.
Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance-disaster film directed, written, co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Sir Tom Stoppard (born Tomáš Straussler; 3 July 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
The United Kingdom is the world's 8th biggest tourist destination, with 36.115 million visiting in 2015.
Tracey Emin, CBE, RA (born 3 July 1963) is an English contemporary artist known for her autobiographical and confessional artwork.
A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains on the railway system of Great Britain under the collective National Rail brand.
Translink is the brand name of the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company (NITHCo), a public corporation in Northern Ireland which provides the public transport in the region.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.
The IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world.
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.
The Turks and Caicos Islands (and), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean and northern West Indies.
The UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum (UKOTCF) is a UK-based non-governmental organisation which promotes coordinated conservation in the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies (UKOTs and CDs).
The United Kingdom Space Agency (commonly known as the UK Space Agency or UKSA) is an executive agency of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for the United Kingdom's civil space programme.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.
Under Milk Wood is a 1954 radio drama by Welsh poet Dylan Thomas, commissioned by the BBC and later adapted for the stage.
Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an industrial process which converts coal into product gas.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 1991, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 21 April 1991.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
In the United Kingdom (UK), each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elect one member to a parliament or assembly, with the exception of European Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly constituencies which are multi member constituencies.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The United Kingdom's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union happened on 29 March 2017, and it began the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union (EU), commonly referred to as Brexit.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom has three distinct legal systems with a separate prison system in each: one for both England and Wales, one for Scotland, and one for Northern Ireland.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
Universities in Scotland includes all universities and university colleges in Scotland, founded between the fifteenth century and the present day.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Kent (formerly the University of Kent at Canterbury), abbreviated as UKC, is a semi-collegiate public research university based in Kent, United Kingdom.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
University of the Arts London is a collegiate university in London, England, specialising in arts, design, fashion and the performing arts.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
John Stuart Mill's book Utilitarianism is a classic exposition and defence of utilitarianism in ethics.
In law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge.
Vertigo is a 1958 American film noir psychological thriller film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, United Kingdom.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Vivien Leigh (born Vivian Mary Hartley, and also known as Lady Olivier after 1947; 5 November 19138 July 1967) was an English stage and film actress.
Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (18 November 1836 – 29 May 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for his collaboration with composer Arthur Sullivan, which produced fourteen comic operas.
William Somerset Maugham, CH (25 January 1874 – 16 December 1965), better known as W. Somerset Maugham, was a British playwright, novelist and short story writer.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The Wales national football team (Tîm pêl-droed cenedlaethol Cymru) represents Wales in international football.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
Water supply and sanitation (WSS) in the European Union (EU) is the responsibility of each member state, but in the 21st century union-wide policies have come into effect.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the devolved government for Wales.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh literature is any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers.
Anglo-Welsh literature and Welsh writing in English are terms used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers.
Education delivered through the medium of the Welsh language is known as Welsh medium education.
Welsh nationalism (Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which might include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom.
The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.
West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The West Lothian question, also known as the English question, refers to whether MPs from Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, sitting in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, should be able to vote on matters that affect only England, while MPs from England are unable to vote on matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly.
The West Midlands conurbation is the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the large towns of Sutton Coldfield, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Solihull, Stourbridge and Halesowen in the English West Midlands.
The West Yorkshire Built-up Area, previously known as the West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based on the cities of Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and the large towns of Huddersfield and Halifax.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
Whiggism (in North America sometimes spelled Whigism) is a historical political philosophy that grew out of the Parliamentarian faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651).
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Byrd (birth date variously given as c.1539/40 or 1543 – 4 July 1623), was an English composer of the Renaissance.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
The United Kingdom is one of the best locations for wind power in the world and is considered to be the best in Europe.
Winnie-the-Pooh, also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Prison Brief at PrisonStudies.org is an online database providing free access to information on prison systems around the world.
The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Y Gododdin is a medieval Welsh poem consisting of a series of elegies to the men of the Brittonic kingdom of Gododdin and its allies who, according to the conventional interpretation, died fighting the Angles of Deira and Bernicia at a place named Catraeth circa AD 600.
The Young British Artists, or YBAs—also referred to as Brit artists and Britart—is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988.
Yxng Bane (pronounced "young bane", born 12 April 1996) is an English singer and rapper, from East London.
Z/Yen is a commercial think-tank, consultancy and venture firm headquartered in the City of London.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.uk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The 1871 rugby union match between Scotland and England played on 27 March 1871 was the world's very first international rugby union match.
The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, United Kingdom from 27 April to 31 October 1908.
The 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom was a general strike that lasted 9 days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926.
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
On 19 March 2011, a multi-state NATO-led coalition began a military intervention in Libya, ostensibly to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The meridian 2° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator.
The 61st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 61 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 9° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Britain (country), Britain (sovereign state), Britain (state), British State, British United Kingdom, British state, Etymology of the United Kingdom, Great Britain & Ulster, Great Britain (country), Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Great Britain and Ulster, Great britain and northern ireland, ISO 3166-1:GB, Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Regno Unito, Reino Unido, Royaume Uni, Royaume-Uni, TUKOGBANI, The U.K., The UK, The United Kingdom, The United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ulster, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The uk, The united kingdom, U K, U-K, U. K. G. B. N. I., U.K, U.K., U.K.G.B.N.I., U.k., UK, UK (country), UK (state), UK of GB & NI, UK of GB and NI, UK's, UKGB, UKGBNI, UKGBR, UKOGBANI, UKia, UKoGBaNI, UNITED KINGDOM, UNited Kingdom, Uk, Uk., United Kindgom, United Kindom, United Kingdom (U.K.), United Kingdom (UK), United Kingdom (country), United Kingdom (state), United Kingdom of Britain, United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ulster, United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Island, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ulster, United Kingdom's, United Kingdon, United Kingom, United Kingsom, United kingdom, United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland, United kingom, United-Kingdom, UnitedKingdom, Untied Kingdom, Vereinigtes Königreich, Verenigd Koninkrijk, Y Deyrnas Unedig.