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is a Japanese business executive and the current president of Toyota Motor Corporation.
Alan Arthur Johnson (born 17 May 1950) is a British Labour Party politician who served as Home Secretary from June 2009 to May 2010.
Alan Michael Sugar, Baron Sugar (born 24 March 1947) is a British business magnate, media personality, politician and political adviser.
Alastair James Stewart OBE (born 22 June 1952) is an English journalist and newscaster, employed by ITN where he is a main newscaster for ITV News.
Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician who served as the First Minister of Scotland from 2007 to 2014.
Allegra Stratton (born 25 November 1980) is a British journalist and writer.
The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI) is a liberal and centrist political party in Northern Ireland.
Alun Hugh Cairns (born 30 July 1970) is a Welsh Conservative politician, who became Secretary of State for Wales on 19 March 2016.
Amber Augusta Rudd (born 1 August 1963) is a British Conservative politician.
Andrea Jacqueline Leadsom (born 13 May 1963) is a British Conservative Party politician and Cabinet Minister who became Leader of the House of Commons on 11 June 2017, and a Cabinet Minister in July 2016.
Andrew Ferguson Neil (born 21 May 1949) is a British journalist and broadcaster.
Andrzej Sebastian Duda (born 16 May 1972) is a Polish politician as well as the sixth and current President of Poland, holding the office since 6 August 2015.
Andrew G. "Andy" Haldane, FAcSS (born on 18 August 1967) is the chief economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England.
Angela Eagle (born 17 February 1961) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Wallasey since the 1992 general election.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.
Arron Fraser Andrew Banks (born 22 March 1966) is a British businessman and political donor.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
éirígí (or, is a socialist republican political party in Ireland, registered since 2010 to contest local elections only. The party name, "Éirígí", means "Arise" or "Rise Up" in the Irish language, a reference to a famous speech by trade union leader James Larkin. It gained its first local councillors in 2009, when two former Sinn Féin councillors, Dungannon councillor Barry Monteith and Dublin City Councillor Louise Minihan, joined the organisation. Former Wexford county councillor for Sinn Féin and New Ross town councillor John Dwyer also joined Éirígí. It failed to win any seats in the 2014 local elections, leaving it without elected representation.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Batley and Spen is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2016 by Tracy Brabin, a member of the Labour and Co-operative Party (which denotes she is a member of the Labour Party and of the Co-operative Party, one of 27 current Labour MPs, and requires members to contribute practically to a cooperative business).
The Batley and Spen by-election was a UK parliamentary by-election held on 20 October 2016 in the constituency of Batley and Spen.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC News (also known as the BBC News Channel) is the BBC's 24-hour rolling news television network in the United Kingdom.
The BBC News at One is the afternoon/lunchtime news bulletin from the BBC.
BBC One is the flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel.
The Belfast Telegraph is a daily newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland, by Independent News & Media.
Benjamin Peter James Bradshaw (born 30 August 1960) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Exeter since 1997 and was the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport from 2009 to 2010.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Sir Bernard Christison Jenkin (born 9 April 1959) is a British Conservative politician.
Birstall is a village and part of the town of Batley in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
Robert James MacGillivray Neill (born 24 June 1952) is a British barrister and Conservative Party politician.
Bohuslav Sobotka (born 23 October 1971) is a Czech politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from January 2014 to December 2017 and Leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) from 2010 until his resignation in June 2017.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
The Brexit negotiations are the negotiations currently taking place between the United Kingdom and the European Union for the prospective withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, following the UK's referendum on EU membership in June 2016.
Britain First is a British fascist political organisation formed in 2011 by former members of the British National Party (BNP).
Britain Stronger in Europe (formally The in Campaign Ltd.) was an advocacy group which unsuccessfully campaigned in favour of the United Kingdom continuing membership of the European Union in the 2016 British referendum.
The British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII, pronounced "Bailey") provides legal information, and especially reports of cases decided by courts, in the United Kingdom generally.
The British Bankers' Association (BBA) was a trade association for the UK banking and financial services sector.
The Government of the United Kingdom exercises its executive authority through a number of government departments or departments of state.
The British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four polities.
The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
The British Nationality Act 1948 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that created the status of "Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies" (CUKC) as the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and its colonies.
The British Nationality Act 1981 (c.61) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British nationality since 1 January 1983.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Cabinet collective responsibility, also known as collective ministerial responsibility, is a constitutional convention in Parliamentary systems that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Cambridge Analytica Ltd (CA) was a British political consulting firm which combined data mining, data brokerage, and data analysis with strategic communication during the electoral processes.
Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.), is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west.
David Cameron and Nick Clegg formed the Cameron–Clegg coalition after the former was invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government, following the resignation of Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010.
Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician, currently First Minister of Wales.
The result of the United Kingdom European Union Referendum of 2016 was a victory for the 'Leave' campaign, amassing a total of 51.9% of the vote.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Charlotte Mary Hawkins (born 16 May 1975) is an English television and radio presenter, newsreader and journalist currently employed by ITV and Classic FM.
Child benefit (children's allowance) is a social security payment which is distributed to the parents or guardians of children, teenagers and in some cases, young adults.
Christine Madeleine Odette Lagarde (née Lallouette,; born 1 January 1956) is a French lawyer and politician who has been the Managing Director (MD) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since 5 July 2011.
Chuka Harrison Umunna (born 17 October 1978) is a British Labour politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Streatham since 2010 and was Shadow Business Secretary from 2011 to 2015.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
City, University of London is a public research university in London, United Kingdom.
Clemens Fuest (born 23 August 1968) is a German economist.
CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Communist Party of Britain is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party organised in Great Britain and since 2012 has been the sole British representative at the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties.
A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are allowed to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Daily Express is a daily national middle market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom.
Damian Noel Thomas Collins (born 4 February 1974, Northampton) is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Daniel John Hannan (born 1 September 1971) is a British writer, journalist and politician.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Dimbleby (born 28 October 1938) is a British journalist and a presenter of current affairs and political programmes, now best known for the BBC's long running Question Time television series.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
The concept of a democratic deficit within the European Union (EU) is the notion that the governance of the EU lacks democratic legitimacy.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
Diane Martine James (born 20 November 1959) is a British politician and an independent Member of the European Parliament.
The Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee, formerly the Culture, Media and Sport Committee, is one of the Select Committees of the British House of Commons, established in 1997.
Dirigisme or dirigism is an economic system where the state exerts a strong directive influence over investment.
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.
The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
Dyson Ltd is a British technology company established by James Dyson in 1991.
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages.
The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) is one of the seven Research Councils in the United Kingdom.
Edward Samuel Miliband (born 24 December 1969) is a British politician who was Leader of the Labour Party as well as Leader of the Opposition between 2010 and 2015.
Edward David Gerard Llewellyn, Baron Llewellyn of Steep, (born 23 September 1965) is Her Majesty's Ambassador to France.
EEF, formerly the Engineering Employers' Federation, works with manufacturing, engineering and technology-based businesses in the UK.
The effect of Brexit on Gibraltar concerns the status of Gibraltar after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union.
The Electoral Commission is an independent body set up by the UK Parliament.
The Electoral Reform Society (ERS) is a political pressure group based in the United Kingdom which promotes electoral reform.
The Embassy of Ireland in London is the diplomatic mission of the Republic of Ireland in the United Kingdom.
Emily Maitlis (born 6 September 1970) is a British journalist, documentary-maker and newsreader for the BBC.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Democrats is an English nationalist political party in England. In its 2016 manifesto, the party proposed a devolved English Parliament, instead of its 2014 suggestion that England should become an independent country. It presents itself as an English equivalent to the Scottish National Party, though the Scottish National Party is generally considered to be a centre-left party, whereas the English Democrats are on the right of the political spectrum. The English Democrats have welcomed defectors from the far-right British National Party into leadership roles and former members of the party have criticised informal links with other far-right organisations, though party leader Robin Tilbrook has stated that party members are expected to pledge their opposition to racism. The party has had limited electoral success and has been regarded by some as a fringe party. At the English local elections in June 2009, the party's candidate Peter Davies won the mayoral election for the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. However, he announced his resignation from the party on 5 February 2013.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Essex TV is a British IPTV channel in Essex, England, which launched at 9:30am on 28 April 2016.
The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.
A European Commissioner is a member of the 28-member European Commission.
The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,;; were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The United Kingdom's component of the 2014 European Parliament election was held on Thursday 22 May 2014, coinciding with the 2014 local elections in England and Northern Ireland.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017 (c. 9) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to empower the Prime Minister to give to the Council of the European Union the formal notice – required by Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union – for starting negotiations for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union.
The European Union (Referendum) Act 2016 is an Act of the Gibraltar Parliament, which implements the United Kingdom’s European Union Referendum Act 2015 in Gibraltar.
The European Union (Referendum) Bill 2013–14 was a private member's bill of the Parliament of the United Kingdom designed to make provision for a referendum on membership of the European Union to be held in 2017 following renegotiation of terms between the European Union and the United Kingdom government.
The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (c. 16) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that provides for repealing the European Communities Act 1972, and for Parliamentary approval of the withdrawal agreement being negotiated between the government and the European Community.
The European Union Bill 2005 (Bill 45) was a bill of the 2004-05 and 2005-06 sessions of the United Kingdom Parliament to ratify the proposed European Constitution and to incorporate it into the domestic law of the United Kingdom and to amend the European Communities Act 1972 to include it in the list of Treaties and hold a referendum throughout the United Kingdom and Gibraltar on whether to approve the proposed Constitution which would be overseen by the Electoral Commission.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
The European Union Referendum Act 2015 (c. 36) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made legal provision for a non-binding referendum to be held in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Gibraltar, on whether it should remain a member state of the European Union or leave it.
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism) means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The First Minister of Wales (Prif Weinidog Cymru) is the leader of the Welsh Government, Wales' devolved administration, which was established in 1999.
The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (c. 14) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that received Royal Assent on 15 September 2011, introducing fixed-term elections to the Westminster parliament for the first time.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
Frances Lorraine O'Grady (born 9 November 1959) is the General Secretary of the British Trades Union Congress (TUC), the first woman to hold the position.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union.
The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Geert Wilders (born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch politician who is the founder and the current leader of the Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid – PVV).
George Gideon Oliver Osborne (born 23 May 1971) is a British Conservative Party politician, who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Tatton from June 2001 until he stood down on 3 May 2017.
Sir James Gerald Douglas Howarth (born 12 September 1947), known as Gerald Howarth, is a British Conservative Party politician.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gibraltar Chronicle is a national newspaper published in Gibraltar since 1801.
The Gibraltar Parliament is the legislature of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD) is a centre-right political party in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (GSLP) is a social-democratic political party in Gibraltar.
Gisela Stuart (née Gschaider; born 26 November 1955) is a British Labour Party politician, who served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Birmingham Edgbaston from 1997 until stepping down at the snap 2017 general election.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Grassroots Out (GO) was an organisation that campaigned in favour of EU withdrawal in the 2016 referendum on EU membership in the United Kingdom.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
The Green Party in Northern Ireland is a green party in Northern Ireland which works in co-operation with green parties across Britain and Ireland, Europe and globally.
The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr) is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales.
The Greenlandic European Communities membership referendum, 1982 was a referendum over whether Greenland should continue to be a member of the European Economic Community which took place on 23 February 1982.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Harriet Ruth Harman (born 30 July 1950) is a British solicitor and Labour Party politician who has served as the Member of Parliament since 1982, first for Peckham, and then for its successor constituency of Camberwell and Peckham since 1997.
Hilary James Wedgwood Benn (born 26 November 1953) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Leeds Central since the by-election in 1999.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Huntingdon is a market town in Cambridgeshire, England.
George Iain Duncan Smith (born 9 April 1954), often referred to by his initials IDS, is a British Conservative Party politician.
Independence from Europe was a minor, Eurosceptic political party in the United Kingdom.
The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO; stylised as ico.) in the United Kingdom, is a non-departmental public body which reports directly to Parliament and is sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).
Innocent Drinks is a company that makes smoothies and juice sold in supermarkets, coffee shops and various other outlets.
The Institute for Fiscal Studies is an economic research institute based in London, United Kingdom, which specialises in UK taxation and public policy.
The Institute of Directors (IoD) is a business organisation for company directors, senior business leaders and entrepreneurs.
The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a privately funded non-profit conservative think tank based in Westminster, London, United Kingdom.
Intereconomics – Review of European Economic Policy is a bimonthly journal covering economic and social policy issues in Europe or affecting Europe.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in late February 2014.
The Internet Research Agency (IRA) (Агентство интернет-исследований., also known as Glavset and known in Russian Internet slang as the Trolls from Olgino) is a Russian company, based in Saint Petersburg, engaged in online influence operations on behalf of Russian business and political interests.
Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) or investment court system (ICS) is a system through which investors can sue countries for alleged discriminatory practices.
Irish nationality law is contained in the provisions of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956 to 2004 and in the relevant provisions of the Irish Constitution.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
ITV is a British commercial TV network.
ITV News is the branding of news programmes on the British television network ITV.
Jacob William Rees-Mogg (born 24 May 1969) is a British politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for North East Somerset since 2010.
Sir James Dyson (born 2 May 1947) is a British inventor, industrial design engineer and founder of the Dyson company.
James Stephen Wharton (born 16 February 1984) is a British Conservative Party politician.
The Jean Monnet Programme, also known as the Jean Monnet Project, is a European Union initiative to encourage teaching, research and reflection in the field of European integration studies in higher education institutions.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jennifer Watson CBE (born 25 January 1964), better known as Jenny Watson, is the former chairperson of the United Kingdom Electoral Commission.
Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (born 26 May 1949).
Jeremy Dickson Paxman (born 11 May 1950) is a British broadcaster, journalist, and author.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Helen Joanne Cox (22 June 1974 – 16 June 2016) was a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for the Batley and Spen constituency from her election in May 2015 until her murder in June 2016.
Sir John Kevin Curtice, (born 10 December 1953) is a political scientist who is currently Professor of Politics at the University of Strathclyde and Senior Research Fellow at NatCen Social Research.
John Angus Donald Mills (born 8 May 1938) is a British entrepreneur, economist and businessman, best known for founding UK-based consumer products company JML, where he is currently Chairman and majority shareholder.
John Paul Sweeney (born 1958) is a British investigative journalist and author.
Joko Widodo (born Mulyono; 21 June 1961), also known as Jokowi, is an Indonesian politician who is the seventh and current President of Indonesia.
José Manuel García-Margallo y Marfil (born 13 August 1944) is a Spanish politician.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
The Journal of European Integration (Revue d'Intégration Européenne) is a peer-reviewed academic journal published seven times a year with a focus on European integration via an inter-disciplinary perspective particularly in regards to European political economy, law, history, and sociology.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Catharine Letitia Hoey (born 21 June 1946) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Vauxhall since a 1989 by-election.
Katie Sushila Ratna Ghose (born 1970) is a British campaigner and lawyer.
Kingston upon Thames, also known as Kingston, is an area in the southwest of Greater London, England, southwest of Charing Cross.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The 2016 Labour Party leadership election was called when a challenge to Jeremy Corbyn as Leader of the Labour Party arose following criticism of his approach to the Remain campaign in the referendum on membership of the European Union and questions about his leadership of the party.
Ladbrokes Coral Group plc is a British-based betting and gambling company.
Laura Juliet Kuenssberg (born 1976) is a Scottish journalist.
Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.
The Law Society of England and Wales (officially The Law Society) is the professional association that represents and governs solicitors for the jurisdiction of England and Wales.
The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party.
Leave.EU is an organization that campaigned for Brexit in the June 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
The Liberal Party is a British political party that was founded in 1989 by members of the original Liberal Party opposed to its merger with the Social Democratic Party (SDP) to form the Liberal Democrats.
The Liberal Party of Gibraltar (Libs) is a liberal political party in Gibraltar.
List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom relating to the European Communities (1957–1993) & European Union (1993–present)
This is a list of current, amended, spent and repealed Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom relating to its membership of the European Communities & the European Union from 1972 to the present.
The United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (known formally in the United Kingdom as Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St James's) is the official representative of the President and the Government of the United States of America to the Queen and Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
This is a list of Conservative Party MPs.
This is a list of United Kingdom Labour Party MPs.
The fifty-sixth Parliament of the United Kingdom was the legislature of the United Kingdom following the 2015 general election of Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons.
This is a list of stock market crashes and bear markets in Europe and United States.
Local government in Scotland is organised through 32 unitary authorities designated as Councils which consist of councillors elected every five years by registered voters in each of the council areas.
Since 1 April 1996, Wales has been divided into 22 single-tier principal areas for local government purposes.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician serving as the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2015.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manchester Town Hall is a Victorian, Neo-gothic municipal building in Manchester, England.
A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.
Margot Elisabeth Wallström (born 28 September 1954) is a Swedish Social Democratic politician and has served as Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Nordic Cooperation since October 2014.
Maria Vladimirovna Zakharova (Мария Владимировна Захарова; born 24 December 1975) is the Director of the Information and Press Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (the official representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation) from 10 August 2015.
Marion Anne Perrine "Marine" Le Pen (born 5 August 1968) is a French politician and lawyer serving as President of the National Rally political party (previously named National Front) since 2011, with a brief interruption in 2017.
Mark William Austin (born 1 November 1958) is an English journalist and television presenter, currently working as a U.S. correspondent for Sky News.
Mark Joseph Carney, (born March 16, 1965) is a Canadian economist and the Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the G20's Financial Stability Board.
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (born May 14, 1984) is an American technology entrepreneur and philanthropist best known for co-founding and leading Facebook as its chairman and chief executive officer.
Mary Nightingale (born 26 May 1963) is an English newsreader and television presenter, best known for her roles within ITV, as a newsreader for ITN on ITV News, and as a presenter of the daytime cookery series Britain's Best Dish in 2011.
Matthew Winthrop Barzun (born October 23, 1970) is a former United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
Mervyn Allister King, Baron King of Lothbury, (born 30 March 1948) is a British economist and public servant who served as the Governor of the Bank of England from 2003 to 2013.
Michael Dougan is Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law, at the University of Liverpool.
Michael B. Froman (born August 20, 1962) is an American lawyer who served as the U.S. Trade Representative from 2013 to 2017.
Michael Andrew Gove (born 26 August 1967) is a British Conservative politician, who was Secretary of State for Education from 2010 to 2014 and Secretary of State for Justice from 2015 to 2016.
Mike Henry Nattrass FRICS (born 14 December 1945) is a British politician who was a Member of the European Parliament, representing the West Midlands constituency, from 2004 to 2014.
Mishal Husain (مشعل حسین), (sometimes spelt Mishal Hussein) (born 11 February 1973) is a British news presenter for BBC Television and BBC Radio.
Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Hong Kong.
More United is a cross-party political movement in the United Kingdom.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
On 16 June 2016, Jo Cox, the British Labour Party Member of Parliament for Batley and Spen, died after being shot and stabbed multiple times in Birstall, West Yorkshire.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
The National Rally (Rassemblement national, RN), formerly known as the National Front (Front national,; FN) until 2018, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Newsnight is a weekday BBC Television current affairs programme which specialises in analysis and often robust cross-examination of senior politicians.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Sir Nicholas William Peter Clegg (born 7 January 1967) is a British politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2015 and as Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 2007 to 2015.
Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician who is the current First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP), in office since November 2014.
Nigel Paul Farage (While Farage himself pronounces it thus, he has stated that he does not mind if the alternative pronunciation of is used by others –, Newsnight (YouTube – UKIP webmaster's channel), 18 April 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2013. born 3 April 1964) is a British politician, broadcaster and political analyst who was the leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) from 2006 to 2009 and again from 2010 to 2016.
Norman Stuart Smith (born 30 April 1959 in Kensington, London) is a British journalist.
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
Nottingham City Council is the non-metropolitan district council for the unitary authority of Nottingham in Nottinghamshire.
The Office of Communications (Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.
The Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) is an advisory non-departmental public body that the UK government established to provide independent economic forecasts and independent analysis of the public finances as background to the preparation of the UK budget.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the President of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).
In general, the law of the European Union is valid in all of the twenty-eight European Union member states.
Owen Smith (born 2 May 1970) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Pontypridd since 2010.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid, PVV) is a Dutch nationalist and right-wing populist political party in the Netherlands.
Pavel Filip (born 10 April 1966 in Pănășești) is a Moldovan politician who currently serves as Prime Minister of Moldova (since 20 January 2016).
People Before Profit (PBP) is a socialist, and Eurosceptic political party formed in October 2005.
Philip James Collins (born 16 May 1967) is a British journalist, academic, banker and speechwriter.
Piers Stefan Pughe-Morgan (né O'Meara; born 30 March 1965) is a British journalist and television personality currently working as a presenter on the ITV Breakfast programme Good Morning Britain.
Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.
The Polski Ośrodek Społeczno-Kulturalny (POSK) is the Polish Social and Cultural Association in London.
The Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (c. 41) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that sets out how political parties, elections and referendums are to be regulated in the United Kingdom.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Priti Sushilbhai Patel (born 29 March 1972) is a British politician.
A private member's bill in a parliamentary system of government is a bill (proposed law) introduced into a legislature by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the executive branch.
The Scottish Government has proposed holding a second referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom (UK).
The Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Select Committee is a select committee appointed by the British House of Commons to examine the reports of the Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, and to consider matters relating to the quality and standards of administration provided by civil service departments, and other matters relating to the civil service, mostly for England and Wales, and constitutional affairs.
In the British House of Commons, public bill committees (known as standing committees before 2006) consider Bills – proposed Acts of Parliament.
R (Miller) v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union is a legal case decided by the United Kingdom Supreme Court on 24 January 2017, which ruled that the UK Government (the executive) may not initiate withdrawal from the European Union by formal notification to the Council of the European Union as prescribed by Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union without an Act of the UK Parliament permitting the government to do so.
Ranil Wickremesinghe, MP (රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ, ரணில் விக்ரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka since 9 January 2015.As Leader of the United National Party since 1994 and the Member of Parliament for Colombo District since 1977.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are very occasionally held at a national, regional or local level.
This is a list of referendums related to the European Union, or referendums related to the European Communities, which were predecessors of the European Union.
The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.
The Representation of the People Act 1983 (c. 2) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Representation of the People Act 1985 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British electoral law.
The Representation of the People Act 2000 (c.2) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that changed the British electoral process in the following ways, entailing minor amendments to the Representation of the People Act 1983.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Respect Party was a left-wing to far-left political party active in the United Kingdom between 2004 and 2016.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English business magnate, investor and philanthropist.
Richard John Reed, (born 13 February 1973) is an English businessman, investor and entrepreneur.
Rio Tinto Group is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations.
Robert James Kenneth Peston (born 25 April 1960) is a British journalist, presenter, and founder of the education charity Speakers for Schools.
Robin Tilbrook (born 1958) is a solicitor and English politician, the chairman and a founder member of the English Democrats, a political party that advocates English independence.
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc (also known as RBS Group) is a British banking and insurance holding company, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) is a professional body that accredits professionals within the land, property, construction, and infrastructure sectors worldwide.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.
The Russian government interfered in the 2016 U.S. presidential election in order to increase political instability in the United States and to damage Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign by bolstering the candidacies of Donald Trump, Bernie Sanders and Jill Stein.
Ruth Elizabeth Davidson (born 10 November 1978) is a Scottish politician serving as Leader of the Scottish Conservative Party since 2011 and leader of the second largest party in the Scottish Parliament since 2016.
Sadiq Aman Khan (born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016.
Sainsbury's is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector in the United Kingdom.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba; Scots Green Pairty) is a green political party in Scotland.
Scottish independence (Scots unthirldom; Neo-eisimeileachd na h-Alba) is a political aim of various political parties, advocacy groups, and individuals in Scotland (which is a country of the United Kingdom) for the country to become an independent sovereign state.
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP; Pàrtaidh Sòisealach na h-Alba; Scots Socialist Pairtie) is a left-wing political party campaigning for the establishment of an independent, socialist Scotland.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Justice is a senior position in the cabinet of the United Kingdom, held in conjunction with the office of Lord Chancellor since it was created in 2007, replacing the former post of Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Wales (Ysgrifennydd Gwladol Cymru) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales.
Sir Simon Charles Wessely (born 23 December 1956) is a British psychiatrist.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Siobhain Ann McDonagh (born 20 February 1960) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Mitcham and Morden since the 1997 general election.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) is a social-democratic and Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Social Democratic Party is a minor political party in the United Kingdom, established in 1990.
Social Science Computer Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the use of computers in the field of social science, including artificial intelligence, computer simulation, and electronic modelling.
The Socialist Labour Party (SLP) is a socialist political party in the United Kingdom.
Sophie Jane Raworth (born 15 May 1968) is a British journalist and broadcaster.
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
South West England is one of nine official regions of England.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The 2017–present Special Counsel investigation is an ongoing United States law enforcement investigation of Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and any Russian (or other foreign) interference in the election, including exploring any possible links or coordination between Trump’s campaign and the Russian government, "and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation." The scope of the investigation reportedly also includes potential obstruction of justice by President Trump and others.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Stephen Crabb (born 20 January 1973) is a British politician of the Conservative Party serving as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Preseli Pembrokeshire since the 2005 general election.
Steve Rosenberg (born 1968 in Epping, Essex) is a British TV and radio journalist.
A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
Susanna Victoria Reid (born 10 December 1970) is an English journalist and presenter best known as a co-presenter of BBC Breakfast from 2003 until 2014, with Bill Turnbull, and being co-anchor of Good Morning Britain since 2014, alongside Piers Morgan and Ben Shephard.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (born December 22, 1970) is an American politician and attorney serving as the junior United States Senator from Texas since 2013.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
The News Letter is one of Northern Ireland's main daily newspapers, published Monday to Saturday.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Spectator is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
TickerTags is a social data intelligence company, located in the US.
This is a timeline of major events related to election interference that Russia conducted against the U.S. in 2016.
Thomas Matthew "Tom" Bradby (born 13 January 1967) is a British journalist and novelist.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition (TUSC) is a socialist electoral alliance launched in Britain for the 2010 General Election.
Traditional Unionist Voice (TUV) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United States, with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth.
In European Union law, transposition is a process by which the European Union's member states give force to a directive by passing appropriate implementation measures.
The Treaty of Accession 1972 was the international agreement which provided for the accession of Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom to the European Communities.
The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement that amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU).
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
The September 2016 UK Independence Party leadership election was triggered after Nigel Farage, the leader of the UK Independence Party, announced on 4 July 2016, following the Leave result in the UK referendum on EU membership, that he would step down when a new leader took office.
The UK rebate (or UK correction) is a financial mechanism that reduces the United Kingdom's contribution to the EU budget in effect since 1985.
UK Trade & Investment (UKTI) was a UK Government department working with businesses based in the United Kingdom to assist their success in international markets, and with overseas investors looking to the UK as an investment destination.
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, also known as the UK-wide referendum on the Parliamentary voting system was held on Thursday 5 May 2011 (the same date as local elections in many areas) in the United Kingdom (UK) to choose the method of electing MPs at subsequent general elections as part of the Conservative – Liberal Democrat Coalition Agreement drawn up after the 2010 general election which had resulted in the first hung parliament since February 1974 and also indirectly in the aftermath of the 2009 expenses scandal under the provisions of the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 and was the first national referendum to be held under provisions laid out in the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United Kingdom held elections to its devolved governments on 5 May, 2016.
The United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, also known as the Referendum on the European Community (Common Market), the Common Market referendum and EEC membership referendum took place on 5 June 1975 in the United Kingdom to gauge support for the country's continued membership of the European Communities (EC)—often known at the time as the "European Community” and the "Common Market" which it had entered on 1 January 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath under the provisions of the Referendum Act 1975.
The 1992 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 April 1992, to elect 651 members to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
The 2010 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The United Kingdom's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union happened on 29 March 2017, and it began the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union (EU), commonly referred to as Brexit.
The United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership was a package of changes to the United Kingdom's terms of membership to the European Union (EU) and changes to EU rules which was first proposed by the then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron in January 2013, with negotiations only beginning following the outcome of the UK General Election in the summer of 2015.
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England.
Vauxhall Motors LimitedCompany No.
Victoria Antoinette Derbyshire (born 2 October 1968) is a BAFTA, RTS and Sony award-winning English journalist and broadcaster.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London.
Vote Leave is an organisation that successfully campaigned for a "Leave" vote in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016.
The procedures for voting in the Council of the European Union are described in the treaties of the European Union.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Welsh Labour (Llafur Cymru) is the part of the United Kingdom Labour Party that operates in Wales.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Wembley Arena (originally the Empire Pool and, since 1 July 2014, currently known as The SSE Arena, Wembley for sponsorship reasons) is an indoor arena in Wembley, London.
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
William Jefferson Hague, Baron Hague of Richmond, (born 26 March 1961), is a British Conservative politician and life peer.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
Withdrawal from the European Union is the legal and political process whereby a member state of the European Union ceases to be a member of the union.
The Women's Equality Party is a feminist political party in the United Kingdom that was conceived by Catherine Mayer and Sandi Toksvig at the Women of the World Festival 2015, when they concluded that there was a need for a political party in the United Kingdom to campaign for gender equality to the benefit of all.
The World Pensions & Investments Forum is a research and policy-oriented conference organised by the World Pensions Council (WPC), also known as the International Association of Pension Funds (IAPF), in partnership with regional and supranational organisations, large public and private institutional investors from G10 countries, the emerging nations of Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia and the MENA area.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
YouGov is an international Internet-based market research and data analytics firm, headquartered in the UK, with operations in Europe, North America, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific.
The 2012 Chicago Summit was a meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), held in Chicago, Illinois, on May 20 and 21 of 2012.
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