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United Kingdom labour law

Index United Kingdom labour law

United Kingdom labour law regulates the relations between workers, employers and trade unions. [1]

790 relations: A fair day's wage for a fair day's work, A Manifesto for Labour Law, AB v CD, Abernethy v Mott, Hay and Anderson, Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, Abrahamsson and Anderson v Fogelqvist, Acas, Actuary, Adam Smith, Addis v Gramophone Co Ltd, Additional Paternity Leave Regulations 2010, Administrative law, Administrator (law), Affirmative action, Ageism, Agency worker law, Agency Workers Regulations 2010, Aggregate demand, Agricultural Wages Act 1948, Agricultural Wages Board, Aileen McColgan, Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977, Akavan Erityisalojen Keskusliitto AEK ry v Fujitsu Siemens Computers Oy, Allonby, Allonby v Accrington and Rossendale College, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants v Osborne, Annabel's (Berkeley Square) Ltd v Revenue and Customs Comrs, Annual general meeting, Anxiety, Apartheid, Apprenticeship, Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act 2009, Archibald v Fife Council, Arthur Scargill, Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Asbestos and the law, Ascension Island, Asset management, Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corp, Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen, Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen v United Kingdom, Association de médiation sociale v Union locale des syndicats CGT, Attorney General of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd, Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher, Automatic enrolment, Automatic stabilizer, Bad faith, Bank payroll tax, ..., Barber v Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Group, Bargaining power, Barker v Corus (UK) plc, Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, BBC, BBC v Hearn, Beatrice Webb, Beveridge Report, Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Weber von Hartz, Bill Wedderburn, Baron Wedderburn of Charlton, Black Death, Blacklisting, Board of directors, Bob Hepple, Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee, Bond (finance), Bowater v Northwest London Hospitals NHS Trust, Breach of contract, Breen v Amalgamated Engineering Union, Brian Kerr, Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore, Bridlington Principles, Brighton, British Aerospace plc v Green, British Airways, British Empire, British National Party, British nationality law, Brussels Regime, Buchan v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Burden of proof (law), Cambridge University Act 1856, Career average pension, Case citation, Cassidy v Ministry of Health, Central Arbitration Committee, Chacón Navas v Eurest Colectividades SA, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chandler v Cape plc, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Cheall v APEX, Chef, Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police v Khan, Child benefit, Child labour, Child tax credit, Civil Contingencies Act 2004, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Clay Cross (Quarry Services) Ltd v Fletcher, Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, Clement Attlee, Closed shop, Clyde & Co LLP v Bates van Winkelhof, Co-determination, Codetermination in Germany, Coleman v Attridge Law, Collective agreement, Collective bargaining, Collective laissez faire, Collective Redundancies Directive 1998, Combination Act 1799, Commission v United Kingdom (2006), Common employment, Common law, Commonwealth, Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968, Commotion Ltd v Rutty, Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers, Companies Act 1985, Companies Act 2006, Company, Comparative advantage, Compensation Act 2006, Conduct of Employment Agencies and Employment Businesses Regulations 2003, Conflict of interest, Conflict of laws, Conspiracy (civil), Conspiracy (criminal), Conspiracy, and Protection of Property Act 1875, Constantine v Imperial Hotels Ltd, Contract, Contracts of Employment Act 1963, Contributory negligence, Copland v United Kingdom, Corporate governance, Corporate veil in the United Kingdom, Credit Suisse First Boston (Europe) Ltd v Lister, Creen v Wright, Cresswell v Board of Inland Revenue, Criminal Justice Act 1948, Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch, Crossley v Faithful & Gould Holdings Ltd, Dacas v Brook Street Bureau (UK) Ltd, Daily Mail, Daniel Kahneman, Das Kapital, Data Protection Act 1998, David Kershaw, David Lloyd George, David Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury, Declaration of Philadelphia, Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, Defamation, Defined benefit pension plan, Defined contribution plan, Defrenne v Sabena (No 2), Demir and Baykara v Turkey, Democracy, Deregulation and Contracting Out Act 1994, Devonald v Rosser & Sons, Dignity, Directive (European Union), Director (business), Disability, Disability Discrimination Act 1995, Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, Dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization, Diversification (finance), Draft Fifth Company Law Directive, Duncombe v Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, E Green & Sons (Castings) Ltd v ASTMS, Eastwood v Magnox Electric plc, Ecclestone v National Union of Journalists, Economic torts, Economic torts in English law, Edmonds v Lawson, Education Reform Act 1988, Edwards v Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Edwards v Halliwell, Electoral Reform Society, Employee Involvement Directive 2001, Employee stock ownership plan, Employer's Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969, Employers and Workmen Act 1875, Employers' Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969, Employment, Employment Act 1980, Employment Act 1982, Employment Act 1990, Employment Act 2002, Employment Act 2008, Employment Act of 1946, Employment Agencies Act 1973, Employment agency, Employment Agency Standards Inspectorate, Employment and Support Allowance, Employment Appeal Tribunal, Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006, Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003, Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003, Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978, Employment Protection Act 1975, Employment Relations Act 1999, Employment Relations Act 1999 (Blacklists) Regulations 2010, Employment Rights (Dispute Resolution) Act 1998, Employment Rights Act 1996, Employment tribunal, Employment Tribunals Act 1996, Enderby v Frenchay Health Authority, English contract law, English tort law, English trust law, English v Thomas Sanderson Ltd, Enterprise Act 2002, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013, Equal Pay Act 1970, Equal Pay Act of 1963, Equal pay for equal work, Equal Remuneration Convention, Equal Treatment Directive 2006, Equality Act 2006, Equality Act 2010, Equality and Human Rights Commission, Equality before the law, Equality Framework Directive 2000, Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman, Equity (law), Esterman v NALGO, Estonia, Etam plc v Rowan, Europe, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, European Court of Justice, European labour law, European Social Charter, European Union, European Union law, European Works Council, European Works Council Directive 2009, Eweida v United Kingdom, Ex turpi causa non oritur actio, Factories Act 1961, Factors of production, Factory Acts, Fair, Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd, Faith school, Family Allowances Act 1945, Fatal Accidents Act 1976, Feudalism, Finance Act 2010, Financial Services Authority, Fiscal year, Fitzpatrick v British Railways Board, Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002, Fixed-term employment contract, Fixed-term Work Directive 1999, Flag of convenience, Floating charge, Forced Labour Convention, Ford Motor Company, Ford v Warwickshire CC, Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935, Foss v Harbottle, Franklin v South Eastern Rly, Freedom of association, Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, Freedom of contract, French Revolution, French v Barclays Bank plc, Frustration in English law, Full employment, Full Employment in a Free Society, Full-time, Fullarton Computer Industries Ltd v Central Arbitration Committee, Further and Higher Education Act 1992, Gallagher v Post Office, Gangmasters (Licensing) Act 2004, Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority, Gender pay gap, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, General strike, George Bramwell, 1st Baron Bramwell, German company law, German honorifics, German labour law, Gisda Cyf v Barratt, Globalization, Good faith, Government procurement, Great Depression, Great Depression in the United Kingdom, Griggs v. Duke Power Co., Guilt (emotion), Gunton v Richmond upon Thames LBC, Halliburton, Handels-og Kontorfunktionaerernes Forbund I Danmark v Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, acting on behalf of Danfoss, Hansard, Harassment, Harries v Church Comrs for England, Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, Health and Safety Executive, Health and safety regulations in the United Kingdom, Heathrow Airport, Helsinki, Henry James Sumner Maine, Hewison v Meridian Shipping Services Pte, High Court of Justice, Hill v CA Parsons & Co Ltd, History of taxation in the United Kingdom, HM Revenue and Customs, HM Revenue and Customs v Stringer, Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970, Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936, Hollister v National Farmers' Union, Houldsworth v Bridge Trustees Ltd, Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919, House of Lords, Housing Benefit, HSBC Bank plc v Madden, Hugh Collins, Human rights, Human Rights Act 1998, Humphrey–Hawkins Full Employment Act, I Have a Dream, Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd v Jones, ICI Ltd v Shatwell, Igbo v Johnson, Matthey Chemicals Ltd, Illegal immigration to the United Kingdom, Immigration Act 1971, Immigration to Europe, Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd, In Place of Strife, Incapacity Benefit, Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1970, Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988, Income Support, Income tax, Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003, Income Tax (Trading and Other Income) Act 2005, Income Tax Act 1842, Income Tax Act 2007, Indefinite leave to remain, Indian independence movement, Industrial action, Industrial Democracy, Industrial Law Journal, Industrial Relations Act 1971, Industrial Revolution, Inequality of bargaining power, Information and Consultation Directive 2002, Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 2004, Insolvency Act 1986, Insolvency Protection Directive 2008, Intention to create legal relations, Internalization, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, International Labour Organization, International law, International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP, International Transport Workers' Federation, IR35, Iron and Steel Act 1967, James v Eastleigh BC, James v Greenwich LBC, James v Redcats (Brands) Ltd, Jerry Hicks (trade unionist), Job security, Jobcentre Plus, Jobholder, Jobseeker's Allowance, Jobseekers Act 1995, Johan Steyn, Baron Steyn, John Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge, John Lewis Partnership, Johnson v Unisys Ltd, Johnston v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, Johnstone v Bloomsbury HA, Joint and several liability, Joint Industrial Council, Joint Stock Companies Act 1856, Judicial review, Kalanke v Freie Hansestadt Bremen, Kapp Putsch, Karl Marx, Kaur v MG Rover Group Ltd, Kücükdeveci v Swedex GmbH & Co KG, Keith Ewing, Krasner v McMath, Kutz-Bauer v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Kwik Fit, Kwik-Fit (GB) Ltd v Lineham, Labour economics, Labour Party (UK), Labour standards in the World Trade Organization, Ladele v London Borough of Islington, Laissez-faire, Land Registration Act 2002, Landeshauptstadt Kiel v Jaeger, Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet, Lavigne v Ontario Public Service Employees Union, Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945, Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg, Layoff, League of Nations, Leave to enter, Legal abstentionism, Leisure Employment Services Ltd v HM Revenue & Customs, Lennie Hoffmann, Baron Hoffmann, Lesney Products & Co v Nolan, Liberal Party (UK), Liberal welfare reforms, LIFO (education), List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI, List of International Labour Organization Conventions, Lister v Hesley Hall Ltd, Litster v Forth Dry Dock and Engineering Co Ltd, London Underground Ltd v National Union of Railwaymen, Maritime and Transport Staff, Low Pay Commission, Luce v Bexley LBC, Lumley v Gye, Lyttle v Bluebird UK Bidco 2 Ltd, M25 motorway, Maastricht Treaty, MacCartney v Oversley House Management, Majrowski v Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust, Malik v Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA, Mandla v Dowell-Lee, Mangold v Helm, Mark Freedland, Marschall v Land Nordrhein Westfalen, Master and Servant Act 1823, Maternity and Parental Leave, etc Regulations 1999, Matthews v Kent and Medway Towns Fire Authority, Maximum wage, McGhee v National Coal Board, McMeechan v Secretary of State for Employment, Member-nominated trustee, Merchant Shipping Act 1995, Miles v Wakefield Metropolitan District Council, Minimum Age Convention, 1973, Minimum wage, Ministry of Labour (United Kingdom), Ministry of Reconstruction, Mitbestimmungsgesetz, Modern immigration to the United Kingdom, Modern Law Review, Mogul Steamship Co Ltd v McGregor, Gow & Co, Montreal v Montreal Locomotive Works Ltd, Morgan v Fry, Multinational corporation, Murray v Foyle Meats Ltd, Mutual trust and confidence, Napoleonic Wars, National Employment Savings Trust, National Health Service, National Health Service Act 1946, National Health Service Act 2006, National Insurance, National Insurance Act 1911, National Insurance Act 1946, National Insurance Fund, National Labor Relations Act of 1935, National Minimum Wage Act 1998, National Minimum Wage Regulations 1999, National Union of Journalists, National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers, National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers v United Kingdom, National Union of Vehicle Builders, Natural justice, Natural rate of unemployment, Nethermere (St Neots) Ltd v Gardiner, New Deal (United Kingdom), New Labour, Nick Browne-Wilkinson, Baron Browne-Wilkinson, Nimz v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Nokes v Doncaster Amalgamated Collieries Ltd, Northern Ireland, Norton Tool Co Ltd v Tewson, Notcutt v Universal Equipment Co (London) Ltd, Notice, O'Hanlon v Revenue and Customs Comrs, O'Kelly v Trusthouse Forte plc, Oakland v Wellswood (Yorkshire) Ltd, Occupational safety and health, Old-Age Pensions Act 1908, Optical Express Ltd v Williams, Ordinance of Labourers 1349, Otto Kahn-Freund, Outsourcing, Oxford University Act 1854, Oy Liikenne Ab v Liskojärvi, P11D, P45 (tax), P60, Palacios de la Villa v Cortefiel Servicios SA, Parental leave, Parental Leave Directive 2010, Parliament, Part-time contract, Part-time Work Directive 1997, Part-time Workers (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2000, Partnership, Party, Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations 2002, Patrick Elias, Paul L. Davies, Paul v NALGO, Pay-as-you-earn tax, Peasants' Revolt, Penal labour, Pension, Pension Law Reform, Pension Protection Fund, Pension Schemes Act 1993, Pension tax simplification, Pensions Act 1995, Pensions Act 2004, Pensions Act 2008, Pensions in the United Kingdom, Pensions Ombudsman, Pfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, Picketing, Police Act 1996, Polkey v AE Dayton Services Ltd, Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, Port of London Act 1908, Positive action, Post Office Act 1977, Postal voting, Posted Workers Directive 1996, Precarious work, Preferential creditor, Preferential Payments in Bankruptcy Amendment Act 1897, Pregnant Workers Directive 1992, Priestley v Fowler, Privacy, Pro rata, Productivity, Proletarian internationalism, Property, Proportionality (law), Prosthesis, Protection from Harassment Act 1997, Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's Insolvency) Convention, 1992, Protest, Pub, Public employment service, Public holidays in the United Kingdom, Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998, Public Order Act 1986, Purposive approach, Qua v John Ford Morrison Solicitors, Quinn v Leathem, R (Amicus) v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, R (Carson) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, R (European Roma Rights Centre) v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport, R (Kwik-Fit (GB) Ltd) v Central Arbitration Committee, R (National Union of Journalists) v Central Arbitration Committee, R v Department of Trade and Industry, ex parte Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematographic and Theatre Union, R v Journeymen-Taylors of Cambridge, R v Negus, R v Secretary of State for Employment, ex p Seymour-Smith, Race Equality Directive 2000, Race Relations Act 1965, Race Relations Act 1968, Race Relations Act 1976, Rainey v Greater Glasgow Health Board, Ravat v Halliburton Manufacturing and Services Ltd, Ray Gunter, RCO Support Services Ltd v Unison, Re Badeck's application, Reading (legislature), Ready Mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd v Minister of Pensions and National Insurance, Real estate, Reasonable person, Reda v Flag Ltd, Redundancy Payments Act 1965, Regeling v Bestuur van de Bedrijfsvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, Report of the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy, Report of the Review Committee on Insolvency Law and Practice, Representation of the People Act 1918, Reserve army of labour, Restraint of trade, Retail price index, Retirement annuity plan, Richard B. Freeman, Richard II of England, Richard Thaler, Ridge v Baldwin, Rigby v Ferodo Ltd, Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949, Right to work, Ring road, Rinner-Kühn v FWW Spezial-Gebäudereinigung GmbH & Co KG, RMT v Serco Ltd, Robert Maxwell, Robert Peel, Robertson v British Gas Corp, Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, Robinson-Steele v RD Retail Services Ltd, Roebuck v NUM (Yorkshire Area) No 2, Rolls Royce plc v Unite the Union, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Rome I Regulation, Rookes v Barnard, Roy Goode, Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws 1832, Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers' Associations, Royal Mail Group Ltd v Communication Workers Union, Royal Marines, Safeway Stores plc v Burrell, Sailor, Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd, Saskatchewan Federation of Labour v Saskatchewan, Süzen v Zehnacker Gebaeudereingung GmbH, Scally v Southern Health and Social Services Board, Scotland, Scottbridge Construction Ltd v Wright, Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Bottrill, Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Slater, Security interest, Serco Ltd v Lawson, Serfdom, Severe Disablement Allowance, Sex Discrimination Act 1975, Sexism, Shamoon v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, Shareholder, Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, Sindicato de Médicos de Asistencia Pública v Conselleria de Sanidad y Consumo de la Generalidad Valenciana, Sirdar v The Army Board, Slave Trade Act 1807, Slavery, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Smith and Grady v United Kingdom, Smith v Glasgow City District Council, Smith v. Maryland, Social clause, Social cost, Social exclusion, Social justice, Social law, Social model of disability, Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1992, Société Générale, London Branch v Geys, Societas Europaea, Solidarity action, Somerset v Stewart, South Africa, South African labour law, South Wales Miners' Federation v Glamorgan Coal Co, Specific performance, Speech-language pathology, St Helen's BC v Derbyshire, Statistics, Status quo bias, Statute of Cambridge 1388, Statute of Labourers 1351, Statutory sick pay, Stevenson, Jordan & Harrison Ltd v MacDonald & Evans, Stewart v Moray Council, Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Stimulus (economics), Strathclyde RC v Wallace, Strike action, Suffragette, Suitable reasonable employment (UK), Supplementary Benefit, Supply chain, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Taff Vale Rly Co v Amalgamated Society of Rly Servants, Tax code (PAYE), Tax return (United Kingdom), Taxation in medieval England, Taxpayer, Temporary Agency Work Directive 2008, Termination of employment, Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, The Guardian, The History of Trade Unionism, The Pensions Regulator, The Wealth of Nations, Theft Act 1968, Thomas Wragg & Sons Ltd v Wood, Tick-box culture, Tolethorpe Hall, Tom Denning, Baron Denning, Tony Clarke, Baron Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony, Tortious interference, Trade Boards Act 1909, Trade Boards Act 1918, Trade Disputes Act 1906, Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927, Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1946, Trade union, Trade Union Act 1871, Trade Union Act 1913, Trade Union Act 1984, Trade Union Act 2016, Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974, Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act 1993, Trades Union Certification Officer, Trades Union Congress, Transco plc v O'Brien, Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006, Transfers of Undertakings Directive 2001, Transnational Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999, Treaty of Rome, Treaty of Versailles, Tribunal, Trotskyism, Truck Acts, Tsar, Turberville v Stampe, UK Visas and Immigration, Ultra vires, Unemployment Act 1934, Unfair dismissal, Unfair dismissal in the United Kingdom, Union security agreement, Unite the Union, United Kingdom agency worker law, United Kingdom company law, United Kingdom general election, 1906, United Kingdom general election, 1979, United Kingdom insolvency law, United States, United States Congress, United States corporate law, United States labor law, United Steelworkers v. Weber, Universal Credit, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University, University of Gothenburg, University of Oxford v Humphreys, University of Stirling v UCU, Vicarious liability, Vicarious liability in English law, Victimisation, Vince Cable, Vogt v. Germany, Volenti non fit injuria, Voluntarism (action), Voting, Wage, Waitrose, Walton v Independent Living Organisation, Western Excavating (ECC) Ltd v Sharp, Western Front (World War I), Whistleblower, Williams v Compair Maxam Ltd, Williams v Natural Life Health Foods Ltd, Wilson and Palmer v United Kingdom, Wilson v Racher, Wilson v St Helens BC, Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd v English, Wiluszynski v London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Winston Churchill, Wolf v Stadt Frankfurt am Main, Woods v WM Car Services (Peterborough) Ltd, Woolworths Group, Work and Families Act 2006, Work–life balance, Workforce, Working Tax Credit, Working time, Working Time Directive 2003, Working Time Regulations 1998, Workplace democracy, Workplace Health and Safety Directive, Works council, Workweek and weekend, World Trade Organization, World War I, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, Yewens v Noakes, Young, James and Webster v United Kingdom, Youth unemployment in the United Kingdom, 1926 United Kingdom general strike, 1977 FA Cup Final, 2004 Morecambe Bay cockling disaster, 2008 Egyptian general strike, 35-hour workweek. Expand index (740 more) »

A fair day's wage for a fair day's work

A fair day's wage for a fair day's work is an objective of the labor movement, trade unions and other workers' groups, to increase pay, and adopt reasonable hours of work.

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A Manifesto for Labour Law

A Manifesto for Labour Law: towards a comprehensive revision of workers’ rights (Institute of Employment Rights, 2016) is a set of reform proposals for UK labour law, written by fifteen labour rights experts in academia and legal practice from the UK, Europe and the Commonwealth.

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AB v CD

AB v CD IRLR 808 is a UK labour law case, concerning the governance of trade unions in the United Kingdom.

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Abernethy v Mott, Hay and Anderson

Abernethy v Mott, Hay and Anderson ICR 323 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal.

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Abolition of Forced Labour Convention

Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957, the full title of which is Convention concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour, 1957 (No. 105), is one of the eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization, which cancels certain forms of forced labour still allowed under the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, such as punishment for strikes and as a punishment for holding certain political views.

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Abrahamsson and Anderson v Fogelqvist

Abrahamsson and Anderson v Fogelqvist (2000) is a Swedish and EU labour law case, concerning positive action.

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Acas

The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas) is a Crown non-departmental public body of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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Actuary

An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Addis v Gramophone Co Ltd

Addis v Gramophone Co Ltd is an old English contract law and UK labour law case, which used to restrict damages for non-pecuniary losses for breach of contract.

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Additional Paternity Leave Regulations 2010

The Additional Paternity Leave Regulations 2010 are a statutory instrument involving UK labour law, which introduced a basic right for mothers to transfer their right to unpaid leave to their partner if the mother has returned to work.

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Administrative law

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.

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Administrator (law)

In law an administrator (or administratrix for women) can be.

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.

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Ageism

Ageism (also spelled "agism") is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age.

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Agency worker law

Agency worker law refers to a body of law which regulates the conduct of employment agencies and the labour law rights of people who get jobs through them.

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Agency Workers Regulations 2010

The Agency Workers Regulations 2010 are a statutory instrument forming part of UK labour law.

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Aggregate demand

In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.

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Agricultural Wages Act 1948

The Agricultural Wages Act 1948 was a UK Act of Parliament under which the Agricultural Wages Board regulated the amount that farm workers were paid, in order to guarantee a fair minimum wage scale, depending, for example, on type of work, or years of experience.

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Agricultural Wages Board

The Agricultural Wages Board was a non-departmental government body which regulated wages for farm workers under the Agricultural Wages Act 1948, until it was abolished in the Conservative led government's "bonfire of the quangos" after the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013.

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Aileen McColgan

Aileen McColgan is a British barrister and academic.

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Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977

The Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that nationalised large parts of the UK aerospace and shipbuilding industries and established two corporations, British Aerospace and British Shipbuilders (s.1).

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Akavan Erityisalojen Keskusliitto AEK ry v Fujitsu Siemens Computers Oy

Akavan Erityisalojen Keskusliitto AEK ry v Fujitsu Siemens Computers Oy (2009) is a European labour law case, concerning the information and consultation in the European Union.

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Allonby

Allonby is a village on the coast of the Allerdale district in Cumbria, England.

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Allonby v Accrington and Rossendale College

Allonby v Accrington & Rossendale College (2004) is a European Union law case concerning the right of men and women to equal pay for work of equal value under Article 141 of the Treaty of the European Community.

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Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants v Osborne

Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants v Osborne AC 87 is a UK labour law case, which ruled that members of trade unions would now have to "contract in" if they wanted a portion of their salary to go to a trade union, unlike the previous system of "contracting out", in which the portion of salary was taken unless the individual explicitly stated otherwise.

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Annabel's (Berkeley Square) Ltd v Revenue and Customs Comrs

Revenue and Customs Commissioners v Annabel’s (Berkeley Square) Ltd is a UK labour law case regarding the treatment of tips under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998.

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Annual general meeting

An annual general meeting (commonly abbreviated as AGM, also known as the annual meeting) is a meeting of the general membership of an organization.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Apartheid

Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.

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Apprenticeship

An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).

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Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act 2009

The Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act 2009 (c 22) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Archibald v Fife Council

Archibald v Fife Council is a UK labour law case, concerning the Disability Discrimination Act 1995.

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Arthur Scargill

Arthur Scargill (born 11 January 1938) is a British trade unionist.

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Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides the right to freedom of expression and information, subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".

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Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights is a provision of the European Convention which protects the right to a fair trial.

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Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides a right to respect for one's "private and family life, his home and his correspondence", subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".

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Asbestos and the law

Litigation related to asbestos injuries and property damages has been claimed to be the longest-running mass tort in U.S. history.

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Ascension Island

Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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Asset management

Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.

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Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corp

Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd.

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Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen

The Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen (ASLEF) is a British trade union representing train drivers.

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Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen v United Kingdom

Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen v United Kingdom was a landmark case before the European Court of Human Rights and upheld the right of ASLEF, a British trade union, to be able to choose its members.

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Association de médiation sociale v Union locale des syndicats CGT

Association de médiation sociale v Union locale des syndicats CGT (2014) is an EU law case, concerning the protection of human rights in the European Union.

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Attorney General of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd

is a judicial decision of the Privy Council in relation to contract law, company law and constitutional law.

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Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher

Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher is a landmark UK labour law and English contract law case decided by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, concerning the scope of statutory protection of rights for working individuals.

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Automatic enrolment

In public services, automatic enrolment defines programmes where citizens are automatically included unless they opt out.

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Automatic stabilizer

In macroeconomics, automatic stabilizers are features of the structure of modern government budgets, particularly income taxes and welfare spending, that act to dampen fluctuations in real GDP.

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Bad faith

Bad faith (Latin: mala fides) is double mindedness or double heartedness in duplicity, fraud, or deception.

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Bank payroll tax

The bank payroll tax was a one-off tax that was introduced in the United Kingdom in 2010.

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Barber v Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Group

Barber v Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Group (1990) is an EU labour law and UK labour law case concerning sex discrimination in pensions.

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Bargaining power

Bargaining power is the relative ability of parties in a situation to exert influence over each other.

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Barker v Corus (UK) plc

Barker v Corus (UK) plc is a notable House of Lords decision in the area of industrial liability in English tort law, which deals with the area of causation.

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Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch

The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, abbreviated BGB, is the civil code of Germany.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC v Hearn

BBC v Hearn ICR 686 is a UK labour law case, concerning collective action and the scope of a "trade dispute" under what is now TULRCA 1992 section 244.

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Beatrice Webb

Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer.

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Beveridge Report

The Beveridge Report, officially entitled Social Insurance and Allied Services, is a government report, published in November 1942, influential in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom.

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Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Weber von Hartz

Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Weber von Hartz (1986) is an EU labour law case, that sets out the test for objective justification for indirect discrimination.

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Bill Wedderburn, Baron Wedderburn of Charlton

Kenneth William Wedderburn, Baron Wedderburn of Charlton, QC, FBA (13 April 1927 – 9 March 2012) was a British politician and member of the House of Lords, affiliated with the Labour Party.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Blacklisting

Blacklisting is the action of a group or authority, compiling a blacklist (or black list) of people, countries or other entities to be avoided or distrusted as not being acceptable to those making the list.

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Board of directors

A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

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Bob Hepple

Sir Bob Alexander Hepple, QC FBA (11 August 1934 – 21 August 2015) was a South African-born academic and leader in the fields of labour law, equality and human rights.

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Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee

Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee 1 WLR 582 is an English tort law case that lays down the typical rule for assessing the appropriate standard of reasonable care in negligence cases involving skilled professionals (e.g. doctors): the Bolam test.

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Bond (finance)

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

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Bowater v Northwest London Hospitals NHS Trust

Bowater v Northwest London Hospitals NHS Trust is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal.

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Breach of contract

Breach of contract is a legal cause of action and a type of civil wrong, in which a binding agreement or bargained-for exchange is not honored by one or more of the parties to the contract by non-performance or interference with the other party's performance.

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Breen v Amalgamated Engineering Union

Breen v Amalgamated Engineering Union 2 QB 175 is a UK labour law case, concerning trade union regulation.

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Brian Kerr, Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore

Brian Francis Kerr, Baron Kerr of Tonaghmore, (born 22 February 1948) is a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and former Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland.

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Bridlington Principles

The Bridlington Principles are a set of rules aimed at resolving conflicts among trade unions.

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Brighton

Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.

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British Aerospace plc v Green

British Aerospace plc v Green ICR 1006 is a UK labour law case, concerning redundancy.

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British Airways

British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British National Party

The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.

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British nationality law

British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.

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Brussels Regime

The Brussels Regime is a set of rules regulating which courts have jurisdiction in legal disputes of a civil or commercial nature between individuals resident in different member states of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

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Buchan v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry

Buchan and Ivey v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry IRLR 80 is a UK insolvency law and labour law case, concerning the protection of employees' salaries on their employer's insolvency.

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Burden of proof (law)

The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.

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Cambridge University Act 1856

The Cambridge University Act 1856 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulates corporate governance at the University of Cambridge.

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Career average pension

A career average pension or career average revalued earnings pension (CARE pension) is a type of occupational pension scheme, where people saving for retirement pay for a benefit after retirement where they will receive a sum that is calculated according to their average earnings over their career.

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Case citation

Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported.

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Cassidy v Ministry of Health

Cassidy v Ministry of Health 2 KB 343 is an English tort law and UK labour law case concerning the scope of protection for people to employment rights.

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Central Arbitration Committee

The Central Arbitration Committee is a UK government body, whose task is to oversee the regulation of UK labour law as it relates to trade union recognition and collective bargaining.

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Chacón Navas v Eurest Colectividades SA

Chacón Navas v Eurest Colectividades SA (2006) is an EU labour law case that sets forth a uniform definition of disability in the European Union.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Chandler v Cape plc

Chandler v Cape plc is a decision of the Court of Appeal which addresses the availability of damages for a tort victim from a parent company, in circumstances where the victim suffered industrial injury during employment by a subsidiary company.

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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.

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Cheall v APEX

Cheall v APEX 2 AC 180 is a UK labour law case, concerning the governance of trade unions in the United Kingdom.

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Chef

A chef is a trained professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, often focusing on a particular cuisine.

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Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police v Khan

Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police v Khan is a UK labour law case concerning the test for victimisation and the legitimate steps an employer can take after dismissed a person who is bringing a discrimination claim against them.

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Child benefit

Child benefit (children's allowance) is a social security payment which is distributed to the parents or guardians of children, teenagers and in some cases, young adults.

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Child labour

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.

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Child tax credit

A child tax credit is a tax credit available in some countries, which depends on the number of dependent children in a family.

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Civil Contingencies Act 2004

The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (c 36) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that establishes a coherent framework for emergency planning and response ranging from local to national level.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Clay Cross (Quarry Services) Ltd v Fletcher

Clay Cross (Quarry Services) Ltd v Fletcher 1 WLR 1429 is a UK labour law case concerning sex discrimination, unequal pay, and the limits of justifications for it.

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Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (codified at), was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency.

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Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.

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Closed shop

A pre-entry closed shop (or simply closed shop) is a form of union security agreement under which the employer agrees to hire union members only, and employees must remain members of the union at all times in order to remain employed.

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Clyde & Co LLP v Bates van Winkelhof

Clyde & Co LLP v Bates van Winkelhof is a UK labour law case, concerning the scope of protection for workers.

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Co-determination

Codetermination (also "copartnership" or "worker participation") is the practice of workers of an enterprise having the right to vote for representatives on the board of directors in a company.

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Codetermination in Germany

Codetermination in Germany is a concept that involves the right of workers to participate in management of the companies they work for.

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Coleman v Attridge Law

Coleman v Attridge Law (2008) C-303/06 (and AG Opinion) is an employment law case heard by the European Court of Justice.

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Collective agreement

A collective agreement, collective labour agreement (CLA) or collective bargaining agreement (CBA) is a special type of commercial agreement, usually as one negotiated "collectively" between management (on behalf of the company) and trade unions (on behalf of employees).

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Collective bargaining

Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers.

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Collective laissez faire

Collective laissez faire is a term in legal and economic theory used to refer to the policy of a government to leave trade unions and employers free to collectively bargain with one another, with limited government intervention and oversight.

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Collective Redundancies Directive 1998

The Collective Redundancies Directive is an EU Directive concerning the procedures and warnings that any employer is under a duty to its workforce to follow if it finds it necessary to make more than 20 employees over 90 days (or 10 to 30 employees depending on firm size over 30 days if the member state chooses this option).

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Combination Act 1799

The Combination Act 1799...

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Commission v United Kingdom (2006)

Commission v United Kingdom (2006) is a European labour law and UK labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive, which is relevant for the Working Time Regulations 1998.

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Common employment

Common employment was an historical defence in English tort law that said workers implicitly undertook the risks of being injured by their co-workers, with whom they were in "common employment".

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Commonwealth

A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.

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Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962

The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968

The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968 (c. 9) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Commotion Ltd v Rutty

Commotion Ltd v Rutty IRLR 171 is an Employment Appeal Tribunal case in which an employer, who denied its staff flexible working time, was found in breach of the Employment Rights Act 1996 for failing to have any lawful reason.

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Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers

The Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (9 December 1989) is a principles-based charter of human rights that apply specifically to the workforce in the European Union.

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Companies Act 1985

The Companies Act 1985 (c.6) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, enacted in 1985, which enabled companies to be formed by registration, and set out the responsibilities of companies, their directors and secretaries.

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Companies Act 2006

The Companies Act 2006 (c 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which forms the primary source of UK company law.

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Company

A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.

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Comparative advantage

The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.

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Compensation Act 2006

The Compensation Act 2006 (c 29) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, introduced in response to concerns about a growing compensation culture but conversely to ensure that the public received dependable service from claims management companies.

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Conduct of Employment Agencies and Employment Businesses Regulations 2003

The Conduct of Employment Agencies and Employment Businesses Regulations 2003 is a statutory instrument that regulates employment agencies under UK labour law.

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Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.

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Conflict of laws

Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.

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Conspiracy (civil)

A civil conspiracy or collusion is an agreement between two or more parties to deprive a third party of legal rights or deceive a third party to obtain an illegal objective.

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Conspiracy (criminal)

In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.

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Conspiracy, and Protection of Property Act 1875

The Conspiracy and Protection of Property Act 1875 (38 & 39 Vict. c.86) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom relating to labour relations, which together with the Employers and Workmen Act 1875, fully decriminalised the work of trade unions.

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Constantine v Imperial Hotels Ltd

Constantine v Imperial Hotels Ltd KB 693 is an English tort law and contract case, concerning the implied duty of an innkeeper to offer accommodation to a guest unless for just cause.

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Contract

A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.

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Contracts of Employment Act 1963

The Contracts of Employment Act 1963 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which introduced the requirement to give reasonable notice before dismissal (now Employment Rights Act 1996 section 86) and written particulars of a contract of employment (now Employment Rights Act 1996 section 1).

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Contributory negligence

Contributory negligence in common law jurisdictions is generally a defense to a claim based on negligence, an action in tort.

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Copland v United Kingdom

Copland v United Kingdom is a UK labour law case and English contract law case, concerning health care in the UK.

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Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.

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Corporate veil in the United Kingdom

The corporate veil in the United Kingdom is a metaphorical reference used in UK company law for the concept that the rights and duties of a corporation are, as a general principle, the responsibility of that company alone.

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Credit Suisse First Boston (Europe) Ltd v Lister

Credit Suisse First Boston (Europe) Ltd v Lister is a UK labour law case, concerning the effects of a business transfer on an employee's rights at work.

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Creen v Wright

Creen v Wright (1875-76) LR 1 CPD 591 is an English contract law and labour law case concerning wrongful dismissal and the appropriate period of reasonable notice to be implied at common law in a contract of employment.

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Cresswell v Board of Inland Revenue

Cresswell v Board of Inland Revenue ICR 508 is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Criminal Justice Act 1948

The Criminal Justice Act 1948 (11 & 12 Geo 6 c 58) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch

Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co Ltd v Veitch is a landmark UK labour law case on the right to take part in collective bargaining.

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Crossley v Faithful & Gould Holdings Ltd

Crossley v Faithful & Gould Holdings Ltd is an English contract law case, concerning implied terms.

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Dacas v Brook Street Bureau (UK) Ltd

Dacas v Brook Street Bureau (UK) Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning the employment rights of agency workers.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Daniel Kahneman

Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).

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Das Kapital

Das Kapital, also known as Capital.

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Data Protection Act 1998

The Data Protection Act 1998 was a United Kingdom Act of Parliament designed to protect personal data stored on computers or in an organised paper filing system.

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David Kershaw

David Kershaw is a Professor of Law at the London School of Economics, specialising in company law.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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David Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury

David Edmond Neuberger, Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury, (born 10 January 1948) is an English judge.

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Declaration of Philadelphia

The Declaration of Philadelphia (10 May 1944) restated the traditional objectives of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and then branched out in two new directions: the centrality of human rights to social policy, and the need for international economic planning.

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Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work

The Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work was adopted in 1998, at the 86th International Labour Conference.

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Defamation

Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.

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Defined benefit pension plan

A defined benefit pension plan is a type of pension plan in which an employer/sponsor promises a specified pension payment, lump-sum (or combination thereof) on retirement that is predetermined by a formula based on the employee's earnings history, tenure of service and age, rather than depending directly on individual investment returns.

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Defined contribution plan

A defined contribution (DC) plan is a type of retirement plan in which the employer, employee or both make contributions on a regular basis.

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Defrenne v Sabena (No 2)

Defrenne v Sabena (No 2) (1976) is a foundational European Union law case, concerning direct effect and the European Social Charter in the European Union.

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Demir and Baykara v Turkey

Demir and Baykara v Turkey is a landmark European Court of Human Rights case concerning Article 11 ECHR and the right to engage in collective bargaining.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Deregulation and Contracting Out Act 1994

The Deregulation and Contracting Out Act 1994 (c. 40) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Devonald v Rosser & Sons

Devonald v Rosser & Sons 2 KB 728 is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Dignity

Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.

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Directive (European Union)

A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.

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Director (business)

A director is a person from a group of managers who leads or supervises a particular area of a company.

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Disability

A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Disability Discrimination Act 1995

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (informally, and hereafter, the DDA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which has now been repealed and replaced by the Equality Act 2010, except in Northern Ireland where the Act still applies.

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Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention

The Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation or Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (ILO Convention No.111) is an International Labour Organization Convention on anti-discrimination.

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Dispute settlement in the World Trade Organization

Dispute settlement is regarded by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as the organization's "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy".

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Diversification (finance)

In finance, diversification is the process of allocating capital in a way that reduces the exposure to any one particular asset or risk.

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Draft Fifth Company Law Directive

The Draft Fifth Company Law Directive (1972–1988) is a European Union proposal for a Directive, primarily aimed to implement a right of employees to vote for the boards of directors in large companies.

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Duncombe v Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families

and is a UK labour law case, concerning the test for when the continued used of a fixed term contract is objectively justified, and when employees are covered by employment rights during work abroad.

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E Green & Sons (Castings) Ltd v ASTMS

E Green & Sons (Castings) Ltd v ASTMS IRLR 135 (EAT) is a UK labour law case, concerning the information and consultation in the European Union.

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Eastwood v Magnox Electric plc

Eastwood v Magnox Electric plc is a UK labour law case concerning damages for wrongful dismissal, which were held to not be limited if a breach of contract occurs during the performance of the contract, rather than at the point of termination.

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Ecclestone v National Union of Journalists

Ecclestone v National Union of Journalists IRLR 166 is a UK labour law case, concerning trade union regulation.

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Economic torts

Economic torts, which are also called business torts, are torts that provide the common law rules on liability which arise out of business transactions such as interference with economic or business relationships and are likely to involve pure economic loss.

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Economic torts in English law

Economic torts in English law refer to a species of civil wrong which protects the economic wealth that a person will gain in the ordinary course of business.

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Edmonds v Lawson

Edmonds v Lawson EWCA Civ 69 is a UK labour law case regarding the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 and who is/is not included; it also considered whether a pupil barrister provides consideration to his/her master and/or chambers and whether that relationship demonstrated adequate intention.

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Education Reform Act 1988

The Education Reform Act 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education legislation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland since the 'Butler' Education Act 1944.

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Edwards v Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

is a UK labour law case, concerning wrongful dismissal.

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Edwards v Halliwell

Edwards v Halliwell 2 All ER 1064 is a UK labour law and UK company law case about the internal organisation of a trade union, or a company, and litigation by members to make an executive follow the organisation's internal rules.

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Electoral Reform Society

The Electoral Reform Society (ERS) is a political pressure group based in the United Kingdom which promotes electoral reform.

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Employee Involvement Directive 2001

The Employee Involvement Directive is an EU Directive concerning the right of workers to elect members of the board of directors in a European Company.

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Employee stock ownership plan

An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is an employee-owner program that provides a company's workforce with an ownership interest in the company.

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Employer's Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969

The Employer's Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969 is a short statute which makes employers strictly liable for defective equipment that causes any injury.

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Employers and Workmen Act 1875

The Employers and Workmen Act 1875 (38 & 39 Vict, c 90, 13 August 1875) was a British Act of Parliament enacted during Benjamin Disraeli's second administration.

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Employers' Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969

The Employers' Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 is a UK Act of Parliament that requires that employers carry insurance against the personal injury of their employees.

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Employment

Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.

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Employment Act 1980

The Employment Act 1980 (c 42) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the first term of Margaret Thatcher's premiership and mainly relating to trade unions.

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Employment Act 1982

The Employment Act 1982 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (1982 c. 46), mainly relating to trade unions.

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Employment Act 1990

The Employment Act 1990 is a piece of industrial relations legislation of the United Kingdom.

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Employment Act 2002

The Employment Act 2002 is a UK Act of Parliament, which made a series of amendments to existing UK labour law.

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Employment Act 2008

The Employment Act 2008 (c 24) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which reformed a wide range of different provisions of UK labour law.

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Employment Act of 1946

The Employment Act of 1946 ch.

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Employment Agencies Act 1973

The Employment Agencies Act 1973 (c.35) is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament and part of a wider body of UK agency worker law.

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Employment agency

An employment agency is an organization which matches employers to employees.

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Employment Agency Standards Inspectorate

The Employment Agency Standards Inspectorate is a division of the Employment Relations Directorate, part of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, which is meant to oversee employment agencies operating in the United Kingdom.

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Employment and Support Allowance

Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) is a United Kingdom welfare payment for adults having difficulty finding work because of their long-term medical condition or disability.

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Employment Appeal Tribunal

The Employment Appeal Tribunal is a tribunal in England and Wales and Scotland, and is a superior court of record.

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Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006

The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 (SI 2006/2408) is a piece of secondary legislation in the United Kingdom, which prohibits employers unreasonably discriminating against employees on grounds of age.

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Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003

The Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 is a plank of United Kingdom labour law designed to combat discrimination in relation to people's religion or belief, or absence of religion or belief.

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Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003

The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 are secondary legislation in the United Kingdom, which prohibited employers unreasonably discriminating against employees on grounds of sexual orientation, perceived sexual orientation, religion or belief and age.

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Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978

Employment Protection (Consolidation) Act 1978 was a UK Act of Parliament that formed a central part of UK labour law.

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Employment Protection Act 1975

The Employment Protection Act 1975 (c 71) (EPA 1975) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Employment Relations Act 1999

The Employment Relations Act 1999 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Employment Relations Act 1999 (Blacklists) Regulations 2010

The Employment Relations Act 1999 (Blacklists) Regulations 2010 is a UK labour law regulation which penalises a practice of listing trade union members for the purpose of discrimination against them, and potentially leads to criminal sanctions for employers and agencies who do so.

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Employment Rights (Dispute Resolution) Act 1998

The Employment Rights (Dispute Resolution) Act 1998 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which regulates UK labour law.

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Employment Rights Act 1996

The Employment Rights Act 1996 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament passed by the Conservative government to codify existing law on individual rights in UK labour law.

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Employment tribunal

Employment tribunals are tribunal public bodies in England and Wales and Scotland which have statutory jurisdiction to hear many kinds of disputes between employers and employees.

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Employment Tribunals Act 1996

The Employment Tribunals Act 1996 is a UK Act of Parliament, relating to UK labour law, that establishes the Employment Tribunals and Employment Appeal Tribunal, and sets their jurisdiction.

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Enderby v Frenchay Health Authority

Enderby v Frenchay Health Authority (1992) is an EU labour law, relevant for UK labour law, that concerns the justification test for unequal pay between men and women.

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English contract law

English contract law is a body of law regulating contracts in England and Wales.

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English tort law

English tort law is the law governing implicit civil responsibilities that people have to one another, as opposed to those responsibilities laid out in contracts.

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English trust law

English trust law concerns the creation and protection of asset funds, which are usually held by one party for another's benefit.

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English v Thomas Sanderson Ltd

English v Sanderson Blinds Ltd EWCA Civ 1421 is a UK labour law case on the question of whether a person can claim discrimination for sexuality without being (or without revealing that one is) actually gay.

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Enterprise Act 2002

The Enterprise Act 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made major changes to UK competition law with respect to mergers and also changed the law governing insolvency bankruptcy.

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Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013

The Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 (c 24), also known as ERRA, is a major Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom aimed at reforming the regulatory environment faced by small and medium-sized business.

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Equal Pay Act 1970

The Equal Pay Act 1970 is an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament which prohibits any less favourable treatment between men and women in terms of pay and conditions of employment.

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Equal Pay Act of 1963

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 is a United States labor law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex (see Gender pay gap).

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Equal pay for equal work

Equal pay for equal work is the concept of labor rights that individuals in the same workplace be given equal pay.

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Equal Remuneration Convention

The Convention concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, or Equal Remuneration Convention is the 100th International Labour Organization Convention and the principal one aimed at equal remuneration for work of equal value for men and women.

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Equal Treatment Directive 2006

The Equal Treatment Directive is an Act of the European Union, which implements the principle of equal treatment between men and women in EU labour law.

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Equality Act 2006

The Equality Act 2006 (c 3) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom covering the United Kingdom.

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Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and has the same goals as the four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements.

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Equality and Human Rights Commission

The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales, established by the Equality Act 2006 with effect from 1 October 2007.

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Equality before the law

Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).

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Equality Framework Directive 2000

Council Directive 2000/78/EC, called Employment Equality Framework Directive, is an EU Directive, and a major part of EU labour law which aims to combat discrimination on grounds of disability, sexual orientation, religion or belief and age in the workplace.

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Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman

Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman is an English contract law case, concerning implied terms.

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Equity (law)

In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law which was developed in the English Court of Chancery and which is now administered concurrently with the common law.

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Esterman v NALGO

Esterman v NALGO ICR 625 is a UK labour law case, concerning trade union regulation.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Etam plc v Rowan

Etam plc v Rowan IRLR 150 is a UK labour law case concerning discrimination, and genuine occupational requirements.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

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European labour law

European labour law regulates basic transnational standards of employment and partnership at work in the European Union and countries adhering to the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Social Charter

The European Social Charter is a Council of Europe treaty which was opened for signature on October 18, 1961 and initially became effective on February 26, 1965, after West Germany had become the fifth of the 13 signing nations to ratify it.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European Union law

European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.

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European Works Council

European Works Councils (EWC) are information and consultation bodies representing employees in European multinational companies.

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European Works Council Directive 2009

The European Works Council Directive (or sometimes the "Transnational Works Council Directive") is a European Union Directive on the establishment of works councils, for the purpose of information and consultation, in companies that operate transnationally within the EU.

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Eweida v United Kingdom

Eweida v United Kingdom is a UK labour law case concerning a public dispute between British Airways (BA) and one of their employees over its uniform policy.

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Ex turpi causa non oritur actio

Ex turpi causa non oritur actio (Latin "from a dishonorable cause an action does not arise") is a legal doctrine which states that a plaintiff will be unable to pursue legal remedy if it arises in connection with his own illegal act.

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Factories Act 1961

The Factories Act 1961 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Factors of production

In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.

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Factory Acts

The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.

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Fair

A fair (archaic: faire or fayre), also known as funfair, is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities.

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Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (abbreviated as FLSA) is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week.

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Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd

Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services Ltd is a leading case on causation in English tort law.

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Faith school

A faith school is a school in the United Kingdom that teaches a general curriculum but which has a particular religious character or formal links with a religious organisation.

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Family Allowances Act 1945

The Family Allowances Act 1945 (8 & 9 Geo. VI c. 41) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.

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Fatal Accidents Act 1976

The Fatal Accidents Act 1976 (c 30) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, that allows relatives of people killed by the wrongdoing of others to recover damages.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Finance Act 2010

The Finance Act 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom enacting the March 2010 United Kingdom Budget.

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Financial Services Authority

The Financial Services Authority (FSA) was a quasi-judicial body responsible for the regulation of the financial services industry in the United Kingdom between 2001 and 2013.

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Fiscal year

A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.

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Fitzpatrick v British Railways Board

Fitzpatrick v British Railways Board ICR 221 is a UK labour law case, concerning collective bargaining.

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Fixed-term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002

Fixed Term Employees (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2002 form a UK statutory instrument aimed to protect employees who have fixed-term contracts.

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Fixed-term employment contract

A fixed-term contract is a contractual relationship between an employee and an employer that lasts for a specified period.

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Fixed-term Work Directive 1999

The Fixed-term Work Directive is one of three EU Directives that regulate atypical work.

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Flag of convenience

Flag of convenience (FOC) is a business practice whereby a ship's owners register a merchant ship in a ship register of a country other than that of the ship's owners, and the ship flies the civil ensign of that country, called the flag state.

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Floating charge

A floating charge is a security interest over a fund of changing assets (e.g. stocks) of a company or other artificial person.

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Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention, the full title of which is the Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, 1930 (No.29), is one of eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization.

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Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

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Ford v Warwickshire CC

Ford v Warwickshire CC 2 AC 71 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935

Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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Foss v Harbottle

Foss v Harbottle (1843) is a leading English precedent in corporate law.

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Franklin v South Eastern Rly

Franklin v. South Eastern Railway (1858) 3 H&N 211; 157 ER 448 is an English tort law case relating to the measure of damages that can be gained for the death of a close relative under the Fatal Accidents Act 1846, governed instead by the Fatal Accidents Act 1976.

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Freedom of association

Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.

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Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention

The Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (1948) is an International Labour Organization Convention, and one of eight conventions that form the core of international labour law, as interpreted by the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

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Freedom of contract

Freedom of contract is the freedom of private or public individuals and groups (of any legal entity) to form nonviolent contracts without government restrictions.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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French v Barclays Bank plc

French v Barclays Bank plc is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Frustration in English law

Frustration in English law is an English contract law doctrine that acts as a device to set aside contracts where an unforeseen event either renders contractual obligations impossible, or radically changes the party's principal purpose for entering into the contract.

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Full employment

Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".

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Full Employment in a Free Society

Full Employment in a Free Society (1944) is a book by William Beveridge, author of the Beveridge Report.

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Full-time

Full-time employment is employment in which a person works a minimum number of hours defined as such by his/her employer.

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Fullarton Computer Industries Ltd v Central Arbitration Committee

Fullarton Computer Industries Ltd v Central Arbitration Committee is a UK labour law case, concerning collective bargaining.

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Further and Higher Education Act 1992

The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within England and Wales with consequential effects on associated matters in Scotland which had previously been governed by the same legislation as England and Wales.

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Gallagher v Post Office

Gallagher v Post Office 3 All ER 712 is a UK labour law case, concerning the enforceability of collective agreements.

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Gangmasters (Licensing) Act 2004

The Gangmasters (Licensing) Act 2004 (c 11) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that regulates the agencies that place vulnerable workers in agricultural work, and the shellfish collecting and packing industries (s.3).

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Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority

The Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority (GLAA), formerly Gangmasters Licensing Authority (GLA), is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom regulating the supply of workers to the agricultural, horticultural and shellfish industries.

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Gender pay gap

The gender pay gap is the average difference between the remuneration for men and women who are working.

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General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.

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General strike

A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.

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George Bramwell, 1st Baron Bramwell

George William Wilshere Bramwell, 1st Baron Bramwell, (12 June 1808 – 9 May 1892), was an English judge.

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German company law

German company law (Gesellschaftsrecht) is an influential legal regime for companies in Germany.

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German honorifics

Honorifics are words that connote esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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German labour law

German labour law refers to the regulation of employment relationships and industrial partnerships in Germany.

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Gisda Cyf v Barratt

Gisda Cyf v Barratt is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Good faith

Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.

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Government procurement

Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods, services or constructions on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Depression in the United Kingdom

The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression.

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Griggs v. Duke Power Co.

Griggs v Duke Power Co, (1971), was a court case argued before the Supreme Court of the United States on December 14, 1970.

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Guilt (emotion)

Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a universal moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation.

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Gunton v Richmond upon Thames LBC

Gunton v Richmond upon Thames LBC ICR 755 is a UK labour law case, concerning wrongful dismissal.

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Halliburton

Halliburton is an American multinational corporation.

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Handels-og Kontorfunktionaerernes Forbund I Danmark v Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, acting on behalf of Danfoss

Handels-og Kontorfunktionaerernes Forbund I Danmark v Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, acting on behalf of Danfoss (1989) is an EU labour law case, which held that if an employer is to justify indirect discrimination, measures taken must be directly related to being able to do the job.

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Hansard

Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.

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Harassment

Harassment covers a wide range of behaviors of an offensive nature.

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Harries v Church Comrs for England

Harries v The Church Commissioners for England 1 WLR 1241 is an English trusts law case, concerning the possibility to invest ethically.

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Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974

The Health and Safety at Work etc.

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Health and Safety Executive

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in Great Britain.

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Health and safety regulations in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom there are many regulations relevant to safety and health at work.

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Heathrow Airport

Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom.

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Henry James Sumner Maine

Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, (15 August 1822 – 3 February 1888), was a British comparative jurist and historian.

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Hewison v Meridian Shipping Services Pte

is an English tort law case, concerning an employer's liability for an employee's illegal acts.

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High Court of Justice

The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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Hill v CA Parsons & Co Ltd

Hill v CA Parsons & Co Ltd Ch 305 is a UK labour law case, concerning wrongful dismissal.

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History of taxation in the United Kingdom

History of taxation in the United Kingdom includes the history of all collections by governments under law, in money or in kind, including collections by monarchs and lesser feudal lords, levied on persons or property subject to the government, with the primary purpose of raising revenue.

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HM Revenue and Customs

Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HM Revenue and Customs or HMRC) is a non-ministerial department of the UK Government responsible for the collection of taxes, the payment of some forms of state support and the administration of other regulatory regimes including the national minimum wage.

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HM Revenue and Customs v Stringer

Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs v Stringer and Schultz-Hoff v Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund is a European labour law and UK labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive, which is relevant for the Working Time Regulations 1998.

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Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970

Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936

Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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Hollister v National Farmers' Union

Hollister v National Farmers’ Union ICR 542 is a UK labour law case concerning redundancy and unfair dismissal.

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Houldsworth v Bridge Trustees Ltd

Houldsworth v Bridge Trustees Ltd UKSC 42 is a UK pensions and UK labour law case concerning the difference between a final salary and a money purchase pension scheme.

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Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919

Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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House of Lords

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Housing Benefit

Housing Benefit is a means tested social security benefit in the United Kingdom that is intended to help meet housing costs for rented accommodation.

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HSBC Bank plc v Madden

HSBC Bank plc v Madden and Post Office v Foley is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Hugh Collins

Hugh Collins FBA (born 21 June 1953) is the Vinerian Professor of English Law at the University of Oxford and a fellow of All Souls College.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Human Rights Act 1998

The Human Rights Act 1998 (c42) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998, and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000.

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Humphrey–Hawkins Full Employment Act

The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act (known informally as the Humphrey–Hawkins Full Employment Act) is an act of legislation by the United States government.

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I Have a Dream

"I Have a Dream" is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he calls for an end to racism in the United States and called for civil and economic rights.

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Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd v Jones

Iceland Frozen Foods Ltd v Jones ICR 17 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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ICI Ltd v Shatwell

ICI Ltd v Shatwell AC 656 is a UK labour law case concerning.

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Igbo v Johnson, Matthey Chemicals Ltd

Igbo v Johnson, Matthey Chemicals Ltd ICR 505 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Illegal immigration to the United Kingdom

Although it is difficult to measure how many people reside in the UK without authorisation, a Home Office study based on Census 2001 data released in March 2005 estimated a population of between 310,000 and 570,000.

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Immigration Act 1971

The Immigration Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning immigration.

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Immigration to Europe

Immigration to Europe has a long history, but increased substantially in the later 20th century.

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Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd

Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd 1 WLR 589 is an English trust law case, especially relevant for UK labour law and UK company law, concerning pension funds and the implementation of a poison pill.

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In Place of Strife

In Place of Strife (Cmnd 3888) was a UK Government white paper written in 1969.

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Incapacity Benefit

Incapacity Benefit is a British social security benefit that was introduced in 1995 in an attempt to control the rising number of people on out-of-work sickness benefits.

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Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1970

The Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1970 was an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom which was repealed in 1992.

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Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988

The Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988, also known as ICTA, was the foremost United Kingdom Act of Parliament concerned with taxation until the Income Tax Act 2007 and the Corporation Tax Act 2010.

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Income Support

Income Support is an income-related benefit in the United Kingdom for some people who are on a low income.

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Income tax

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).

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Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003

The Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003 (c 1) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Income Tax (Trading and Other Income) Act 2005

The Income Tax (Trading and Other Income) Act 2005 (c 5) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Income Tax Act 1842

The Income Tax Act 1842 (citation 5 & 6 Vict c. 35) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which re-introduced an income tax in Britain, at the rate of 7 pence (2.9%, there then being 240 pence in the pound) in the pound on all annual incomes greater than £150 (£12,730 in 2015).

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Income Tax Act 2007

The Income Tax Act 2007 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Indefinite leave to remain

Indefinite leave to remain (ILR) or permanent residency (PR) is an immigration status granted to a person who does not hold the right of abode in the United Kingdom (UK), but who has been admitted to the UK without any time limit on his or her stay and who is free to take up employment or study, without restriction.

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Indian independence movement

The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.

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Industrial action

Industrial action (Europe, India, South Africa and Australia) or job action (Canada and US) refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour, most times when they are forced out of work due to contract termination and no agreement being reached, meant to reduce productivity in a workplace.

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Industrial Democracy

Industrial Democracy (1st edn 1897; 9th edn 1926) is a book written by British socialist reformers Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb, concerning the organisation of trade unions and collective bargaining.

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Industrial Law Journal

The Industrial Law Journal is a legal journal which publishes articles in the field of labour and employment law, published quarterly by the Industrial Law Society in the United Kingdom, and founded in 1971.

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Industrial Relations Act 1971

The Industrial Relations Act 1971 (c.72) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, since repealed.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inequality of bargaining power

In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.

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Information and Consultation Directive 2002

Information and Consultation of Employees Directive is a european Labour Law that requires undertakings to inform and consult employees on significant changes to businesses in a standing procedure, typically called a work council.

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Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 2004

The Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 2004 are a United Kingdom statutory instrument, which implemented the EU Information and Consultation of Employees Directive establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community.

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Insolvency Act 1986

The Insolvency Act 1986 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that provides the legal platform for all matters relating to personal and corporate insolvency in the UK.

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Insolvency Protection Directive 2008

The Insolvency Protection Directive is an EU Directive concerning the protection of employees in the event of insolvency of an employer.

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Intention to create legal relations

Intention to create legal relations', otherwise "intention to be legally bound", is a doctrine used in contract law, particularly English contract law and related common law jurisdictions.

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Internalization

Internalization (or internalisation) has different definitions depending on the field that the term is used in.

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.

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International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP

The Rosella or International Transport Workers Federation v Viking Line ABP (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, including UK labour law, which held that there is a positive right to strike.

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International Transport Workers' Federation

The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers' trade unions, founded in 1896.

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IR35

IR35 refers to the United Kingdom's anti-avoidance tax legislation designed to tax "disguised employment" at a rate similar to employment.

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Iron and Steel Act 1967

The Iron and Steel Act 1967 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulated corporate governance in the iron and steel industries.

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James v Eastleigh BC

James v Eastleigh Borough Council 2 AC 751 is a leading discrimination case relevant for UK labour law, concerning the test for discrimination.

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James v Greenwich LBC

James v Greenwich London Borough Council is a UK labour law case, concerning implied contracts for workers who work through employment agencies.

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James v Redcats (Brands) Ltd

James v Redcats (Brands) Ltd is a legal case on the definition of a worker under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998.

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Jerry Hicks (trade unionist)

Jerry Hicks is a British trade unionist.

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Job security

Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of job security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of becoming unemployed.

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Jobcentre Plus

Jobcentre Plus (Canolfan byd Gwaith; Ionad Obrach is Eile) is a quango used by the UK Department for Work and Pensions for its working-age support service in the United Kingdom, its services offered directly by the Department for Work and Pensions.

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Jobholder

A jobholder is a new type of employment status in UK labour law, that was introduced by the Pensions Act 2008, sections 1 and 88.

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Jobseeker's Allowance

Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) is an unemployment benefit paid by the Government of the United Kingdom to people who are unemployed and actively seeking work.

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Jobseekers Act 1995

The Jobseekers Act 1995 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which empowers the government to provide unemployment income insurance, or "Jobseeker's Allowance" while people are looking for work.

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Johan Steyn, Baron Steyn

Johan van Zyl Steyn, Baron Steyn, PC (15 August 1932 – 28 November 2017) was a South African-British judge, until September 2005 a Law Lord.

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John Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge

John Duke Coleridge, 1st Baron Coleridge, PC (3 December 1820 – 14 June 1894) was an English lawyer, judge and Liberal politician.

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John Lewis Partnership

The John Lewis Partnership PLC (JLP) is a British company which operates John Lewis department stores, Waitrose supermarkets, its banking and financial services, and other retail-related activities.

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Johnson v Unisys Ltd

Johnson v Unisys Limited is a leading UK labour law case on the measure of damages for unfair dismissal and the nature of the contract of employment.

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Johnston v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary

Johnston v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (1986) is a UK labour law and EU labour law case concerning sex discrimination and genuine occupational requirements.

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Johnstone v Bloomsbury HA

Johnstone v Bloomsbury Health Authority QB 333 is an English contract law case, concerning implied terms and unfair terms under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977.

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Joint and several liability

Where two or more persons are liable in respect of the same liability, in most common law legal systems they may either be.

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Joint Industrial Council

A Joint Industrial Council (JIC) or National Joint Industrial Council (NJIC), known as a Whitley Council in some fields, especially white-collar and government, is a statutory council of employers and trade unions established in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.

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Joint Stock Companies Act 1856

The Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict. c.47) was a consolidating statute, recognised as the founding piece of modern United Kingdom company law legislation.

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Judicial review

Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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Kalanke v Freie Hansestadt Bremen

Kalanke v Freie Hansestadt Bremen (1995) C-450/93 is a German and EU labour law case, concerning positive action.

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Kapp Putsch

The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kaur v MG Rover Group Ltd

is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Kücükdeveci v Swedex GmbH & Co KG

Kücükdeveci v Swedex GmbH & Co KG (2010) is a leading EU labour law case, which held that there is a general principle of law in all European Union member states, against discrimination, and in favour of equal treatment.

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Keith Ewing

Keith D. Ewing (born 1955) is Professor of Public Law at King's College London and co-author of two of Britain's leading textbooks in constitutional and administrative law, and labour law.

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Krasner v McMath

Krasner v McMath (also, Re Huddersfield Fine Worsteds Ltd) is a UK labour and insolvency law case concerning the priority of payments to workers of an insolvent company in priority to other creditors.

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Kutz-Bauer v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg

Kutz-Bauer v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg ECR I-02741 (2002) is an EU labour law case, which held that in justifying discrimination, budgetary considerations alone cannot be decisive.

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Kwik Fit

Kwik Fit is a car servicing and repair company in the United Kingdom, specialising in tyres, brakes, exhausts, MOT testing, car servicing, air conditioning recharge, oil changes and windscreen repair.

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Kwik-Fit (GB) Ltd v Lineham

Kwik-Fit (GB) Ltd v Lineham ICR 183 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Labour standards in the World Trade Organization

Labour Standards in the World Trade Organization are binding rules, which form a part of the jurisprudence and principles applied within the rule making institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

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Ladele v London Borough of Islington

Ladele v London Borough of Islington is a UK labour law case concerning discrimination against same sex couples by a religious person in a public office.

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Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Land Registration Act 2002

The Land Registration Act 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which repealed and replaced previous legislation governing land registration, in particular the Land Registration Act 1925, which governed an earlier, though similar, system.

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Landeshauptstadt Kiel v Jaeger

Landeshauptstadt Kiel v Jaegar (2003) is a European labour law case concerning the EU Working Time Directive.

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Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet

Laval un Partneri Ltd v Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet (2007) is an EU law case, relevant to all labour law within the European Union, which held that there is a positive right to strike.

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Lavigne v Ontario Public Service Employees Union

Lavigne v Ontario Public Service Employees Union, 2 S.C.R. 211 is a leading Supreme Court of Canada decision on freedom of expression under section 2(b) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and freedom of association under section 2(d) of the Charter.

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Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945

The Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which allows a judge to apportion liability for compensatory damages as he feels to be "just and equitable" between a tortfeasor and an injured person who was partly to blame.

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Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg

Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg (1986) was a European Union law case about the free movement of workers within the territory of the European Union.

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Layoff

A layoff is the temporary suspension or permanent termination of employment of an employee or, more commonly, a group of employees (collective layoff) for business reasons, such as personnel management or downsizing an organization.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Leave to enter

Leave to enter is permission for entry to the United Kingdom granted by British immigration officers.

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Legal abstentionism

Legal abstentionism is a term used in labour law and industrial relations to refer to the policy of a government to not regulate labour markets through statutory means, by relying heavily on minimum standards.

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Leisure Employment Services Ltd v HM Revenue & Customs

Leisure Employment Services Ltd v HM Revenue & Customs is a UK labour law case on the interpretation of the National Minimum Wage Act 1998.

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Lennie Hoffmann, Baron Hoffmann

Leonard Hubert "Lennie" Hoffmann, Baron Hoffmann PC GBS (born 8 May 1934) is a retired senior South African-British judge.

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Lesney Products & Co v Nolan

Lesney Products & Co v Nolan is a UK labour law case concerning redundancy.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Liberal welfare reforms

The Liberal welfare reforms (1906–1914) were a series of acts of social legislation passed by the British Liberal Party after the 1906 General Election.

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LIFO (education)

Last in First Out (LIFO) (or otherwise known as "Last One Hired is the First One Fired" is a policy often used by school districts and other employers to prioritize layoffs by seniority. Under LIFO layoff rules, junior teachers and other employees lose their jobs before senior ones. Laying off junior employees first is not exclusive to the education sector or to the United States, but is perhaps most controversial there. LIFO's proponents claim that it protects teachers with tenure and gives them job stability, and that it is an easily administered way of accomplishing layoffs following a budget cut. LIFO's critics respond that it is bad for students. They prefer that the best teachers remain regardless of how long they have been teaching. LIFO and tenure were originally intended to provide college professors with academic freedom and ensure that they could research topics of their own choosing. In the K-12 sector, tenure was introduced to lower high teacher turnover rates. In 1932, over 20% of teachers were dismissed due to personal disagreements and difference of opinion. By 2010, LIFO was criticized on grounds that "seniority based layoffs result in promising, inexperienced teachers losing their positions, while their less effective, but more senior, peers continue to teach." As of early 2014, 2 states provided that seniority could not be considered when deciding which teachers to layoff, 18 states and the District of Columbia left the layoff criteria to school district discretion, 20 states provided that seniority could be considered among other factors, and 10 states provided that seniority was the sole factor, or one that had to be considered.

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List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.

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List of International Labour Organization Conventions

The list of International Labour Organization Conventions totals 190 laws which aim to improve the labour standards of people around the world.

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Lister v Hesley Hall Ltd

Lister v Hesley Hall Ltd is an English tort law case, creating a new precedent for finding where an employer is vicariously liable for the torts of their employees.

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Litster v Forth Dry Dock and Engineering Co Ltd

Litster v Forth Dry Dock and Engineering Co Ltd is a UK labour law case concerning the Business Transfers Directive 2001 relevant for the implementing TUPER 2006, though decided under the older 1981 version.

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London Underground Ltd v National Union of Railwaymen, Maritime and Transport Staff

London Underground Ltd v National Union of Railwaymen, Maritime and Transport Staff ICR 170 is a UK labour law case, concerning the right to strike.

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Low Pay Commission

The Low Pay Commission (LPC) is an independent body in the United Kingdom that advises the government on the National Minimum Wage.

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Luce v Bexley LBC

Luce v Bexley LBC ICR 591 (EAT) is a UK labour law case, concerning collective bargaining.

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Lumley v Gye

Lumley v Gye is a foundational English tort law case, heard in 1853, in the field of economic tort.

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Lyttle v Bluebird UK Bidco 2 Ltd

Lyttle v Bluebird UK Bidco 2 Ltd(2015) is a UK labour law case, concerning the information and consultation in the European Union.

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M25 motorway

The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a motorway that encircles almost all of Greater London, England (with the exception of North Ockendon), in the United Kingdom.

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Maastricht Treaty

The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).

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MacCartney v Oversley House Management

McCartney v Oversley House Management IRLR 514 is a UK labour law case regarding the National Minimum Wage Act 1998.

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Majrowski v Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust

Majrowski v Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust is a UK labour law case holding that an employer will be vicariously liable for the harassment of an employee by another.

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Malik v Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA

Malik and Mahmud v Bank of Credit and Commerce International SA is a leading English contract law and UK labour law case, which confirmed the existence of the implied term of mutual trust and confidence in all contracts of employment.

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Mandla v Dowell-Lee

Mandla v Dowell-Lee is a United Kingdom law case on racial discrimination.

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Mangold v Helm

Mangold v Helm (2005) was a case before the European Court of Justice (ECJ).

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Mark Freedland

Mark Freedland is professor of employment law at the University of Oxford and a fellow and tutor of St John's College.

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Marschall v Land Nordrhein Westfalen

Marschall v Land Nordrhein Westfalen (1997) C-409/95 is a German and EU labour law case concerning positive action.

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Master and Servant Act 1823

The Master and Servant Act 1823 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Maternity and Parental Leave, etc Regulations 1999

The Maternity and Parental Leave, etc Regulations 1999 is a statutory instrument, concerning UK labour law, which details the rights to maternity and parental leave for employees in the United Kingdom.

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Matthews v Kent and Medway Towns Fire Authority

Matthews v Kent & Medway Towns Fire Authority is a UK labour law case concerning discrimination of part-time workers, and justifications.

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Maximum wage

A maximum wage, also often called a wage ceiling, is a legal limit on how much income an individual can earn.

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McGhee v National Coal Board

McGhee v National Coal Board, 3 All E.R. 1008, 1 W.L.R. 1, is a leading tort case decided by the House of Lords.

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McMeechan v Secretary of State for Employment

is a UK labour law case concerning the scope of protection for people to employment rights.

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Member-nominated trustee

A member nominated trustee, in UK law, is a person appointed by employees, or members of an occupational pension plan, in accordance with the Pensions Act 2004 sections 241-242.

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Merchant Shipping Act 1995

The Merchant Shipping Act 1995 is an Act of Parliament passed in the United Kingdom in 1995.

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Miles v Wakefield Metropolitan District Council

Miles v Wakefield Metropolitan District Council is a UK labour law case, concerning the theory of partial performance and strike action.

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Minimum Age Convention, 1973

The Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, is a convention adopted in 1973 by the International Labour Organization.

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Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

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Ministry of Labour (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Labour was a British government department established by the New Ministries and Secretaries Act 1916.

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Ministry of Reconstruction

The Ministry of Reconstruction was a department of the United Kingdom government which existed after both World War I and World War II in order to provide for the needs of the population in the post war years.

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Mitbestimmungsgesetz

Mitbestimmungsgesetz (in English, Codetermination Act) of 1976 is a German law which requires companies of over 2000 employees to have half the supervisory board of directors as representatives of workers.

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Modern immigration to the United Kingdom

Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Hong Kong.

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Modern Law Review

The Modern Law Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of Modern Law Review Ltd.

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Mogul Steamship Co Ltd v McGregor, Gow & Co

Mogul Steamship Co Ltd v McGregor, Gow & Co AC 25 is an English tort law case concerning the economic tort of conspiracy to injure.

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Montreal v Montreal Locomotive Works Ltd

Montreal v Montreal Locomotive Works Ltd is a Privy Council case relating to tax and commercial business, but of interest to Canadian and UK labour law on the definition for employees.

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Morgan v Fry

Morgan v Fry 2 QB 710 is a UK labour law case, concerning the right to strike at common law.

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Multinational corporation

A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

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Murray v Foyle Meats Ltd

Murray v Foyle Meats Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning redundancy, specifically the interpretation of the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Mutual trust and confidence

Mutual trust and confidence is a phrase used in English law, particularly with reference to contracts in UK labour law, to refer to the obligations owed in an employment relationship between the employer and the worker.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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National Employment Savings Trust

The National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) is a defined contribution workplace pension scheme in the United Kingdom.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Health Service Act 1946

The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.

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National Health Service Act 2006

National Health Service Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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National Insurance

National Insurance (NI) is a tax system in the United Kingdom paid by workers and employers for funding state benefits.

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National Insurance Act 1911

The National Insurance Act 1911 created National Insurance, originally a system of health insurance for industrial workers in Great Britain based on contributions from employers, the government, and the workers themselves.

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National Insurance Act 1946

The National Insurance Act 1946 (c 67) was a British Act of Parliament which established a comprehensive system of social security throughout the United Kingdom.

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National Insurance Fund

The three British National Insurance Funds hold the contributions of the National Insurance Scheme, set up by the Government of the United Kingdom in 1911.

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National Labor Relations Act of 1935

The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (49 Stat. 449) (also known as the Wagner Act after New York Senator Robert F. Wagner) is a foundational statute of United States labor law which guarantees basic rights of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining for better terms and conditions at work, and take collective action including strike if necessary.

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National Minimum Wage Act 1998

The National Minimum Wage Act 1998 creates a minimum wage across the United Kingdom, which from 1 April 2018 was £7.83 per hour for workers aged over 25, £7.38 per hour for workers aged 21 to 24, and £5.90 per hour for workers aged 18 to 20.

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National Minimum Wage Regulations 1999

The National Minimum Wage Regulations 1999 were passed as a statutory instrument under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 to specify various detailed points about how to calculate whether someone is being paid the minimum wage, who gets it, and how to enforce it.

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National Union of Journalists

The National Union of Journalists (NUJ) is a trade union for journalists in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.

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National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers

The National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (commonly known as the RMT) is a British trade union covering the transport sector.

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National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers v United Kingdom

National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers v United Kingdom is a UK labour law case, concerning collective action and the right to take secondary action under ECHR article 11.

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National Union of Vehicle Builders

The National Union of Vehicle Builders (NUVB) was a trade union in the United Kingdom.

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Natural justice

In English law, natural justice is technical terminology for the rule against bias (nemo iudex in causa sua) and the right to a fair hearing (audi alteram partem).

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Natural rate of unemployment

The natural rate of unemployment is the name that was given to a key concept in the study of economic activity.

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Nethermere (St Neots) Ltd v Gardiner

Nethermere (St Neots) Ltd v Gardiner And Another ICR 612 is a British labour law case in the Court of Appeal in the field of home work and vulnerable workers.

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New Deal (United Kingdom)

The New Deal (renamed Flexible New Deal from October 2009) was a workfare programme introduced in the United Kingdom by the first New Labour government in 1998, initially funded by a one-off £5 billion windfall tax on privatised utility companies.

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New Labour

New Labour refers to a period in the history of the British Labour Party from the late-1990s until 2010 under the leadership of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.

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Nick Browne-Wilkinson, Baron Browne-Wilkinson

Nicolas Christopher Henry Browne-Wilkinson, Baron Browne-Wilkinson PC (called Nick; born 30 March 1930) is a former Senior Lord of Appeal in Ordinary in the United Kingdom and former Head of the Privy Council and Vice-Chancellor of the High Court.

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Nimz v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg

Nimz v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg (1991) is an EU labour law case, which held that a justification that part-time employees could be paid less, since full-time employees could acquire skills quicker, was doubtful.

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Nokes v Doncaster Amalgamated Collieries Ltd

Nokes v Doncaster Amalgamated Collieries Ltd AC 1014 is a UK labour law case concerning the common law position before the Business Transfers Directive 2001 and TUPER 2006 and deciding that a change in employer could not result in a burden being placed on an employee without his consent.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Norton Tool Co Ltd v Tewson

Norton Tool Co Ltd v Tewson is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal and the measure of damages as a remedy.

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Notcutt v Universal Equipment Co (London) Ltd

Notcutt v Universal Equipment Co (London) Ltd ICR 414 is an English contract law and UK labour law case, concerning the frustration of an agreement.

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Notice

Notice is the legal concept describing a requirement that a party be aware of legal process affecting their rights, obligations or duties.

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O'Hanlon v Revenue and Customs Comrs

O'Hanlon v Revenue and Customs Commissioners is a UK labour law case concerning disability discrimination.

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O'Kelly v Trusthouse Forte plc

O'Kelly v Trusthouse Forte plc ICR 728 was a UK labour law case, in which a bare majority held that a requirement for a contract is "mutuality of obligation" between the parties, which was thought to mean an ongoing duty to offer and accept work.

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Oakland v Wellswood (Yorkshire) Ltd

Oakland v Wellswood (Yorkshire) Ltd is a UK labour law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.

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Occupational safety and health

Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.

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Old-Age Pensions Act 1908

The Old-Age Pensions Act 1908 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1908.

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Optical Express Ltd v Williams

Optical Express Ltd v Williams IRLR 936 is a UK labour law case, concerning redundancy.

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Ordinance of Labourers 1349

The Ordinance of Labourers 1349 is often considered to be the start of English labour law.

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Otto Kahn-Freund

Sir Otto Kahn-Freund QC (17 November 1900 – 16 August 1979) was a scholar of labour law and comparative law.

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Outsourcing

In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.

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Oxford University Act 1854

The Oxford University Act 1854 (17 & 18 Vict c81) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulates corporate governance at the University of Oxford, England.

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Oy Liikenne Ab v Liskojärvi

Oy Liikenne Ab v Pekka Liskojärvi and Pentti Juntunen (2001) is an EU labour law case, concerning the effects of a business transfer on an employee's rights at work.

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P11D

Form P11D (Expenses and Benefits) is a tax form filed by United Kingdom employers for each director and for each employee earning over £8500 per year, and sent to the tax office with which their PAYE scheme is registered.

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P45 (tax)

In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a P45 is the reference code of a form titled Details of employee leaving work.

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P60

In the UK and Ireland, a P60 (End of Year Certificate) is a statement issued to taxpayers at the end of a tax year.

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Palacios de la Villa v Cortefiel Servicios SA

Palacios de la Villa v Cortefiel Servicios SA IRLR 989 is European Union law case, concerning age discrimination law.

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Parental leave

Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.

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Parental Leave Directive 2010

The Parental Leave Directive is a European Union Directive, which concerns the basic rights of all parents to leave in the European Union.

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Parliament

In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Part-time contract

A part-time contract is a form of employment that carries fewer hours per week than a full-time job.

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Part-time Work Directive 1997

Part-time Work Directive is one of three EU Directives that regulate atypical work.

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Part-time Workers (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2000

The Part-time Workers (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment) Regulations 2000is a UK labour law measure which requires that employers give people on part-time contracts comparable treatment to people on full-time contracts who do the same jobs.

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Partnership

A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.

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Party

A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion.

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Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations 2002

The Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulations 2002 are a statutory instrument concerning UK labour law.

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Patrick Elias

Sir Patrick Elias, QC (born 28 March 1947), styled The Rt Hon.

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Paul L. Davies

Paul Lyndon Davies QC, FBA (born 24 September 1944) is Allen & Overy Professor of Corporate Law Emeritus at the University of Oxford, Emeritus Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford and Emeritus Professor of Law at the London School of Economics, where he was the Cassel Professor of Commercial Law from 1998 to 2009.

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Paul v NALGO

Paul v NALGO IRLR 413 is a UK labour law case, concerning the governance of trade unions in the United Kingdom.

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Pay-as-you-earn tax

A pay-as-you-earn tax (PAYE) or pay-as-you-go (in Australia) is a withholding tax on income payments to employees.

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Peasants' Revolt

The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381.

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Penal labour

Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.

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Pension

A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.

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Pension Law Reform

Pension Law Reform (1993) Cm 2342, also known as the Goode Report after its leading author, Roy Goode, was a UK government commissioned inquiry into the state of pensions in the United Kingdom, which ultimately led to a set of statutory reforms in the Pensions Act 1995.

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Pension Protection Fund

The Board of the Pension Protection Fund (PPF) is a statutory fund in the United Kingdom, intended to protect members if their pension fund becomes insolvent.

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Pension Schemes Act 1993

The Pension Schemes Act 1993 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament that concerns the administration of occupational pensions.

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Pension tax simplification

Pension tax simplification, often simply referred to as "pension simplification" and taking effect from A-day on 6 April 2006 was a policy announced in 2004 by the Labour government to rationalise the British tax system as applied to pension schemes.

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Pensions Act 1995

The Pensions Act 1995 is a piece of United Kingdom legislation to improve the running of pension schemes.

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Pensions Act 2004

The Pensions Act 2004 (c 35) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to improve the running of pension schemes.

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Pensions Act 2008

The Pensions Act 2008 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Pensions in the United Kingdom

Pensions in the United Kingdom fall into three major divisions and 7 sub-divisions, including both defined-benefit and defined-contribution.

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Pensions Ombudsman

The Pensions Ombudsman is the official ombudsman institution responsible for investigating complaints regarding pensions in the United Kingdom.

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Pfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz

Pfeiffer v Deutsches Rotes Kreuz, Kreisverband Waldshut eV (2005) is an EU law and European labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive.

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Picketing

Picketing is a form of protest in which people (called picketers) congregate outside a place of work or location where an event is taking place.

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Police Act 1996

The Police Act 1996 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which defined the current police areas in England and Wales, constituted the current police authorities for those areas, and set out the relationship between the Home Secretary and the English and Welsh territorial police forces.

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Polkey v AE Dayton Services Ltd

Polkey v AE Dayton Services Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Poor Law Amendment Act 1834

The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey.

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Port of London Act 1908

The Port of London Act 1908 (8 Edw 7, c 68) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulated corporate governance at the Port of London.

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Positive action

In Europe, positive action are measures which are targeted at protected groups in order to enable or encourage members of those groups to overcome or minimise disadvantage; or to meet the different needs of protected group; or to enable or encourage persons in protected groups to participate in an activity.

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Post Office Act 1977

The Post Office Act 1977 (c 44) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which regulated corporate governance at the Port Office.

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Postal voting

Postal voting is voting in an election whereby ballot papers are distributed to electors or returned by post, in contrast to electors voting in person at a polling station or electronically via an electronic voting system.

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Posted Workers Directive 1996

The Posted Workers Directive is an EU directive concerned with the free movement of workers within the European Union.

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Precarious work

Precarious work is non-standard employment that is poorly paid, insecure, unprotected, and cannot support a household.

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Preferential creditor

A preferential creditor (in some jurisdictions called a preferred creditor) is a creditor receiving a preferential right to payment upon the debtor's bankruptcy under applicable insolvency laws.

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Preferential Payments in Bankruptcy Amendment Act 1897

The Preferential Payments in Bankruptcy Amendment Act 1897 (61 Vict. c.19) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, affecting UK insolvency law.

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Pregnant Workers Directive 1992

The Pregnant Workers Directive is a European Union Directive.

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Priestley v Fowler

Priestley v Fowler is an old English tort law case, which introduced the old rule of common employment (or "fellow servant rule" in the United States).

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Privacy

Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.

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Pro rata

Pro rata is an adverb or adjective, meaning in proportion.

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Productivity

Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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Proletarian internationalism

Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events.

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Property

Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Proportionality (law)

Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts.

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Prosthesis

In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.

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Protection from Harassment Act 1997

The Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (c 40) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's Insolvency) Convention, 1992

Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's Insolvency) Convention, 1992 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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Protest

A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations.

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Pub

A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.

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Public employment service

A public employment service is a government's organization which matches employers to employees.

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Public holidays in the United Kingdom

Public holidays in the United Kingdom are days on which most businesses and non-essential services are closed, although an increasing number of retail businesses (especially the larger ones) do open on some of the public holidays.

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Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998

The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (c.23) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that protects whistleblowers from detrimental treatment by their employer.

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Public Order Act 1986

The Public Order Act 1986 (c 64) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Purposive approach

The purposive approach (sometimes referred to as purposivism, purposive construction, purposive interpretation, or the modern principle in construction) is an approach to statutory and constitutional interpretation under which common law courts interpret an enactment (a statute, part of a statute, or a clause of a constitution) within the context of the law's purpose.

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Qua v John Ford Morrison Solicitors

Qua v John Ford Morrison Solicitors ICR 482 is a UK labour law case concerning emergency leave to care for children.

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Quinn v Leathem

Quinn v Leathem, is a case on economic tort and is an important case historically for British labour law.

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R (Amicus) v Secretary of State for Trade and Industry

R.

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R (Carson) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions

R v SS for Work and Pensions ex parte Carson and Reynolds and is a UK labour law and Human Rights Act 1998 case on age discrimination.

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R (European Roma Rights Centre) v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport

R (European Roma Rights Centre) v Immigration Officer at Prague Airport is a UK asylum case concerning Article 33 of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

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R (Kwik-Fit (GB) Ltd) v Central Arbitration Committee

is a UK labour law case, concerning collective bargaining and the statutory recognition procedure of Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, Schedule A1.

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R (National Union of Journalists) v Central Arbitration Committee

is a UK labour law case, concerning collective bargaining.

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R v Department of Trade and Industry, ex parte Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematographic and Theatre Union

R v Dept of Trade and Industry, ex p Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematographic and Theatre Union (2001) is a European labour law and UK labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive, which is relevant for the Working Time Regulations 1998.

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R v Journeymen-Taylors of Cambridge

R v Journeymen-Taylors of Cambridge (1721) 88 ER 9 is a labour law case, concerning the historical attitude of the common law to trade unions.

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R v Negus

R v Negus (1873) LR 2 CP 34 is an old English law case under the Larceny Acts which addressed the then definition of "control" for the purpose of determining who was a worker.

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R v Secretary of State for Employment, ex p Seymour-Smith

R (Seymour-Smith) v Secretary of State for Employment and (1999) is a landmark case in UK labour law and European labour law on the qualifying period of work before an employee accrues unfair dismissal rights.

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Race Equality Directive 2000

The Race Equality Directive is an Act of the European Union, concerning European labour law.

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Race Relations Act 1965

The Race Relations Act 1965 was the first legislation in the United Kingdom to address racial discrimination.

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Race Relations Act 1968

The Race Relations Act 1968 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom making it illegal to refuse housing, employment, or public services to a person on the grounds of colour, race, ethnic or national origins.

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Race Relations Act 1976

The Race Relations Act 1976 was established by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to prevent discrimination on the grounds of race.

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Rainey v Greater Glasgow Health Board

Rainey v Greater Glasgow Health Board IRLR 26 is a UK labour law case concerning the justifications for unequal pay.

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Ravat v Halliburton Manufacturing and Services Ltd

Ravat v Halliburton Manufacturing and Services Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning the test for when workers are covered by employment rights when they work abroad.

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Ray Gunter

Raymond Jones Gunter (30 August 1909 – 12 April 1977) was a British Labour Party politician.

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RCO Support Services Ltd v Unison

RCO Support Services v Unison EWCA Civ 464 is a UK labour law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.

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Re Badeck's application

Re Badeck’s application (2000) is a German and EU labour law case concerning positive action.

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Reading (legislature)

A reading of a bill is a debate on the bill held before the general body of a legislature, as opposed to before a committee or an other group.

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Ready Mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd v Minister of Pensions and National Insurance

Ready Mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd v Minister of Pensions and National Insurance 2 QB 497 is a UK labour law case concerning the definition of a contract of service, rather than a contract for services.

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Real estate

Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.

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Reasonable person

In law, a reasonable person, reasonable man, or the man on the Clapham omnibus is a hypothetical person of legal fiction crafted by the courts and communicated through case law and jury instructions.

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Reda v Flag Ltd

Reda v Flag Ltd is a case from Bermuda law, advised upon by the Privy Council, that is relevant for UK labour law and UK company law concerning the dismissal of a director.

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Redundancy Payments Act 1965

The Redundancy Payments Act 1965 (c 62) was a UK Act of Parliament that introduced into UK labour law the principle that after a qualifying period of work, people would have a right to a severance payment in the event of their jobs becoming economically unnecessary to the employer.

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Regeling v Bestuur van de Bedrijfsvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid

Regeling v Bestuur van de Bedrijfsvereniging voor de Metaalnijverheid (1999) is a European insolvency law and labour law case, concerning the protection of employees' salaries on their employer's insolvency.

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Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000

The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (c.23) (RIP or RIPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, regulating the powers of public bodies to carry out surveillance and investigation, and covering the interception of communications.

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Report of the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy

The Report of the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy (1977) Cmnd 6706, also the Bullock Report for short, was a report proposing for a form of worker participation or workers' control, chaired by Alan Bullock.

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Report of the Review Committee on Insolvency Law and Practice

Report of the Review Committee on Insolvency Law and Practice (1982) Cmnd 8558, also known as the "Cork Report" was an investigation and set of recommendations on modernisation and reform of UK insolvency law.

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Representation of the People Act 1918

The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in Great Britain and Ireland.

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Reserve army of labour

Reserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.

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Restraint of trade

Restraint of trade is a common law doctrine relating to the enforceability of contractual restrictions on freedom to conduct business.

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Retail price index

In the United Kingdom, the retail prices index or retail price index (RPI) is a measure of inflation published monthly by the Office for National Statistics.

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Retirement annuity plan

A retirement annuity plan (RAP) is a UK pension plan designed to build a lump sum for retirement.

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Richard B. Freeman

Richard Barry Freeman (born June 29, 1943) is an economist.

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Richard II of England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.

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Richard Thaler

Richard H. Thaler (born September 12, 1945) is an American economist and the Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of Behavioral Science and Economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

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Ridge v Baldwin

Ridge v Baldwin AC 40 was a UK labour law case heard by the House of Lords.

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Rigby v Ferodo Ltd

Rigby v Ferodo Ltd ICR 29 is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949

The Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (1949) is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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Right to work

The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment, and may not be prevented from doing so.

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Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.

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Rinner-Kühn v FWW Spezial-Gebäudereinigung GmbH & Co KG

Rinner-Kühn v FWW Spezial-Gebaudereinigung GmbH & Co KG (1989) is an EU labour law case, concerning indirect discrimination and objective justification.

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RMT v Serco Ltd

RMT v Serco Ltd and ASLEF v London & Birmingham Railway is a joined UK labour law case, concerning the right to strike under the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992.

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Robert Maxwell

Ian Robert Maxwell (10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991), born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch, was a British media proprietor and Member of Parliament (MP).

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Robert Peel

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).

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Robertson v British Gas Corp

Robertson v British Gas Corp ICR 351 is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions

Robins v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (2007) is a UK insolvency law and labour law case, concerning the protection of employees' salaries on their employer's insolvency.

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Robinson-Steele v RD Retail Services Ltd

Robinson-Steele v RD Retail Services Ltd (2006) C-131/04 is a European labour law and UK labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive, which is relevant for the Working Time Regulations 1998.

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Roebuck v NUM (Yorkshire Area) No 2

Roebuck v NUM (Yorkshire Area) No 2 ICR 676 is a UK labour law case, concerning trade union regulation.

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Rolls Royce plc v Unite the Union

Rolls Royce plc v Unite the Union EWCA Civ 387 is a UK labour law case, concerning redundancy.

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Rolls-Royce Holdings

Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.

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Rome I Regulation

The Rome I Regulation (Regulation (EC) No of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 on the law applicable to contractual obligations) is a regulation which governs the choice of law in the European Union.

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Rookes v Barnard

Rookes v Barnard is a UK labour law and English tort law case and the leading case in English law on punitive damages and was a turning point in judicial activism against trade unions.

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Roy Goode

Sir Royston Miles "Roy" Goode (born 6 April 1933) is an academic commercial lawyer in the United Kingdom.

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Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws 1832

The 1832 Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws was a group set up to decide how to change the Poor Law systems in England and Wales.

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Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers' Associations

The Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations (also known as the Donovan Commission) was an inquiry into the system of collective UK labour law, chaired by Lord Donovan and heavily influenced by the opinions of Hugh Clegg.

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Royal Mail Group Ltd v Communication Workers Union

Royal Mail Group Ltd v Communication Workers Union EWCA Civ 1045 is a UK labour law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.

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Royal Marines

The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.

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Safeway Stores plc v Burrell

Safeway Stores plc v Burrell is a UK labour law case, concerning redundancy.

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Sailor

A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.

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Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd

is a landmark UK company law case.

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Saskatchewan Federation of Labour v Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan Federation of Labour v Saskatchewan is a Canadian labour law case on the right to strike.

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Süzen v Zehnacker Gebaeudereingung GmbH

Süzen v Zehnacker Gebäudereinigung GmbH (1997) C-13/95 is a European Union labour law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.

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Scally v Southern Health and Social Services Board

Scally v Southern Health and Social Services Board 1 AC 294 is an English contract law case, relevant for pensions and UK labour law, concerning implied terms.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottbridge Construction Ltd v Wright

Scottbridge Construction Ltd v Wright is a UK labour law case regarding the National Minimum Wage Act 1998.

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Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Bottrill

Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Bottrill is a UK company law and UK labour law case, which relates to issues such as lifting the corporate veil and the definition of "employee".

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Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Slater

Secretary of State for Trade and Industry v Slater IRLR 928 is a UK labour law case, concerning the effects of a business transfer on an employee's rights at work.

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Security interest

A security interest is a legal right granted by a debtor to a creditor over the debtor's property (usually referred to as the collateral) which enables the creditor to have recourse to the property if the debtor defaults in making payment or otherwise performing the secured obligations.

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Serco Ltd v Lawson

Lawson v Serco Ltd is a UK labour law case, concerning the test for when workers are covered by employment rights when they work abroad.

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Serfdom

Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.

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Severe Disablement Allowance

Severe Disablement Allowance (SDA) was a United Kingdom state benefit intended for those below the state pension age who cannot work because of illness or disability.

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Sex Discrimination Act 1975

The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (c. 65) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which protected men and women from discrimination on the grounds of sex or marital status.

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Sexism

Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.

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Shamoon v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary

Shamoon v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary is a UK labour law case concerning the appropriate test for determining who is a comparator.

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Shareholder

A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation.

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Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield

Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist, reformer and a co-founder of the London School of Economics.

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Sindicato de Médicos de Asistencia Pública v Conselleria de Sanidad y Consumo de la Generalidad Valenciana

Sindicato de Medicos de Asistencia Publica v Conselleria de Sanidad y Consumo de la Generalidad Valenciana (2000) is a European labour law case concerning the Working Time Directive, which is relevant for the Working Time Regulations 1998.

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Sirdar v The Army Board

Sirdar v The Army Board (1999) is a UK labour law case concerning genuine occupational requirements for a job.

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Slave Trade Act 1807

The Slave Trade Act 1807, officially An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Slavery Abolition Act 1833

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.

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Smith and Grady v United Kingdom

Smith and Grady v UK (1999) 29 EHRR 493 was a notable decision of the European Court of Human Rights that unanimously found that the investigation into and subsequent discharge of personnel from the Royal Navy on the basis they were homosexual was a breach of their right to a private life under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

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Smith v Glasgow City District Council

Smith v Glasgow City District Council ICR 796 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal on the requirement for an employer to state a main reason for a dismissal.

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Smith v. Maryland

Smith v. Maryland, 442 U.S. 735 (1979), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the installation and use of the pen register was not a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment, and hence no warrant was required.

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Social clause

Within the context of international trade, a social clause is the integration of seven core ILO labour rights conventions into trade agreements.

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Social cost

Social cost in economics is the sum of the private costs resulting from a transaction and the costs imposed on the consumers as a consequence of being exposed to the md's transaction for which they are not compensated or charged.

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Social exclusion

Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Social law

Social law is a unified concept of law, which replaces the classical division of public law and private law.

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Social model of disability

The social model of disability is a reaction to the dominant medical model of disability which in itself is a functional analysis of the body as machine to be fixed in order to conform with normative values.

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Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1992

The Social Security Contributions and Benefits Act 1992 is the primary legislation concerning the state retirement provision, accident insurance, statutory sick pay and maternity pay in the United Kingdom.

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Société Générale, London Branch v Geys

Société Générale, London Branch v Geys is a UK labour law case, concerning wrongful dismissal.

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Societas Europaea

A societas Europaea (SE; Latin: European society or company; plural: societates Europaeae) is a public company registered in accordance with the corporate law of the European Union (EU), introduced in 2004 with the Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company.

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Solidarity action

Solidarity action (also known as secondary action, a secondary boycott, or a sympathy strike) is industrial action by a trade union in support of a strike initiated by workers in a separate corporation, but often the same enterprise, group of companies, or connected firm.

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Somerset v Stewart

Somerset v Stewart (1772) (also known as Somersett's case, and in State Trials as v.XX Sommersett v Steuart) is a famous judgment of the Court of King's Bench in 1772, which held that chattel slavery was unsupported by the common law in England and Wales, although the position elsewhere in the British Empire was left ambiguous.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South African labour law

South African labour law regulates the relationship between employers, employees and trade unions in the Republic of South Africa.

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South Wales Miners' Federation v Glamorgan Coal Co

South Wales Miners' Federation v Glamorgan Coal Co. AC 239 is an old UK labour law case, and part of an infamous three tort cases that imposed liability on trade unions for going on strike.

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Specific performance

Specific performance is an equitable remedy in the law of contract, whereby a court issues an order requiring a party to perform a specific act, such to complete performance of the contract.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

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St Helen's BC v Derbyshire

St Helen’s Borough Council v Derbyshire is a UK labour law case concerning victimisation, which now falls under section 27 of the Equality Act 2010.

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Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Status quo bias

Status quo bias is an emotional bias; a preference for the current state of affairs.

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Statute of Cambridge 1388

The Statute of Cambridge 1388 (12 Rich. 2, ch. 7) was a piece of English legislation that placed restrictions on the movements of labourers and beggars.

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Statute of Labourers 1351

The Statute of Labourers was a law created by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage, designed to suppress the labour force by prohibiting increases in wages and prohibiting the movement of workers from their home areas in search of improved conditions.

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Statutory sick pay

In the United Kingdom Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) is paid by their employer to all employees who normally pay National Insurance contributions (NIC), often referred to as earning above the Lower Earnings Limit (LEL) if they are sick for a period longer than 4 consecutive days but less than 28 weeks.

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Stevenson, Jordan & Harrison Ltd v MacDonald & Evans

Stevenson, Jordan & Harrison Ltd v MacDonald & Evans 1 TLR 101 is a UK labour law case, concerning the right of employees to intellectual property in the work they produce.

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Stewart v Moray Council

Stewart v Moray Council ICR 1253 is a UK labour law case, concerning the information and consultation in the European Union.

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Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie

Udo Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie (1988) is a European Union law case, concerning the free movement of workers in the European Union.

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Stimulus (economics)

In economics, stimulus refers to attempts to use monetary or fiscal policy (or stabilization policy in general) to stimulate the economy.

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Strathclyde RC v Wallace

Strathclyde RC v Wallace 1 WLR 259 is a UK labour law case concerning indirect discrimination and equal pay.

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Strike action

Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.

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Suffragette

Suffragettes were members of women's organisations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for women's suffrage, the right to vote in public elections.

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Suitable reasonable employment (UK)

Suitable reasonable employment is a concept which is used in United Kingdom redundancy scenarios.

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Supplementary Benefit

Supplementary Benefit was a means-tested benefit in the United Kingdom, paid to people on low incomes, whether or not they were classed as unemployed, such as pensioners, the sick and single parents.

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Supply chain

A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

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Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.

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Taff Vale Rly Co v Amalgamated Society of Rly Servants

Taff Vale Railway Co v Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, commonly known as the Taff Vale case, is a formative case in UK labour law.

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Tax code (PAYE)

In the UK, every person paid under the PAYE scheme is allocated a tax code by HM Revenue and Customs.

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Tax return (United Kingdom)

In the United Kingdom, a tax return is a document that must be filed with the HM Revenue & Customs declaring liability for taxation.

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Taxation in medieval England

Taxation in medieval England was the system of raising money for royal and governmental expenses.

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Taxpayer

A taxpayer is a person or organization (such as a company) subject to a tax on income.

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Temporary Agency Work Directive 2008

The Temporary Agency Work Directive is an EU Directive agreed in November 2008 which seeks to guarantee those working through employment agencies equal pay and conditions with employees in the same business who do the same work.

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Termination of employment

Termination of employment, is an employee's departure from a job and the end of an employee's duration with an employer.

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Termination of Employment Convention, 1982

Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 is an International Labour Organization Convention.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The History of Trade Unionism

The History of Trade Unionism (1894, new edition 1920) is a book by Sidney and Beatrice Webb on the British trade union movement's development before 1920.

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The Pensions Regulator

The Pensions Regulator is a non-departmental public body which holds the position of the regulator of work-based pension schemes in the UK.

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The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

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Theft Act 1968

The Theft Act 1968 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Thomas Wragg & Sons Ltd v Wood

Thomas Wragg & Sons Ltd v Wood ICR 313 is a UK labour law case, concerning redundancy.

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Tick-box culture

Tick-box culture is described as bureaucratic and external impositions on professional working conditions, which can be found in many organizations around the world.

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Tolethorpe Hall

Tolethope Hall in the parish of Little Casterton, Rutland, England, PE9 4BH is a country house near Stamford, Lincolnshire at.

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Tom Denning, Baron Denning

Alfred Thompson “Tom” Denning, Baron Denning, (23 January 1899 – 5 March 1999) was an English lawyer and judge.

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Tony Clarke, Baron Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony

Anthony Peter Clarke, Baron Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony (called Tony; born 13 May 1943) is a British lawyer.

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Tortious interference

Tortious interference, also known as intentional interference with contractual relations, in the common law of torts, occurs when one person intentionally damages someone else's contractual or business relationships with a third party causing economic harm.

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Trade Boards Act 1909

The Trade Boards Act 1909 was a piece of social legislation passed in the United Kingdom in 1909.

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Trade Boards Act 1918

The Trade Boards Act 1918 (c 32) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that heavily shaped the post-World War I system of UK labour law, particularly regarding collective bargaining and the establishment of minimum wages.

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Trade Disputes Act 1906

The Trade Disputes Act 1906 (6 Edw. 7 c. 47) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed under the Liberal government of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.

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Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927

The Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 (17 and 18 Geo V c 22) was a British Act of Parliament passed in response to the General Strike of 1926, introduced by the Attorney General for England and Wales, Sir Douglas Hogg MP.

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Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1946

The Trade Disputes And Trade Unions Act 1946 (9 & 10 Geo. VI c. 52) was a British Act of Parliament passed by post-war Labour government to repeal the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Trade Union Act 1871

Trade Union Act 1871 (34 & 35 Vict) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which legalised trade unions for the first time in the United Kingdom.

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Trade Union Act 1913

The Trade Union Act of 1913 was passed by the Liberal British Government under Prime Minister H. H. Asquith to remedy the situation caused by the 1909 Osborne Judgment, and gave unions the right to divide their subscriptions into a political and a social fund.

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Trade Union Act 1984

The Trade Union Act 1984 was a law in the United Kingdom that required all trade unions to hold a secret ballot before calling a strike.

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Trade Union Act 2016

The Trade Union Act 2016 is a UK labour law passed by the David Cameron administration of the UK Conservative Party.

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Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992

The Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 is a UK Act of Parliament which regulates British labour law.

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Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974

The Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974 ("TULRA") was a UK Act of Parliament (now repealed) on industrial relations.

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Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act 1993

The Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act 1993 was a UK labour law that abolished the minimum wages set by sectors through 27 remaining wage councils.

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Trades Union Certification Officer

The Trades Union Certification Officer was established in the United Kingdom by Act of Parliament in 1975.

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Trades Union Congress

The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions.

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Transco plc v O'Brien

is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006

The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 known colloquially as TUPE and pronounced tu-pee, are the United Kingdom's implementation of the European Union Transfer of Undertakings Directive.

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Transfers of Undertakings Directive 2001

The Transfers of Undertakings Directive is a European Union law that protects the contracts of employment of people working in businesses that are transferred between owners.

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Transnational Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999

Transnational Information and Consultation of Employees Regulations 1999 (SI 1999/3323) is a UK labour law that requires employers to inform and consult employees on significant changes to businesses in a standing procedure.

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Treaty of Rome

The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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Tribunal

A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.

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Trotskyism

Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.

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Truck Acts

Truck Acts is the name given to legislation that outlaws truck systems, which are also known as "company store" systems, commonly leading to debt bondage.

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Tsar

Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.

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Turberville v Stampe

Turberville v Stampe (1697) is an English tort law case concerning vicarious liability, also known as the respondeat superior doctrine.

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UK Visas and Immigration

UK Visas and Immigration (UKVI) is a division of the Home Office responsible for the United Kingdom's visa system.

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Ultra vires

Ultra vires is a Latin phrase meaning "beyond the powers".

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Unemployment Act 1934

The Unemployment Act 1934 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, reaching statute on 28 June 1934.

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Unfair dismissal

In labour law, unfair dismissal is an act of employment termination made without good reason or contrary to the country's specific legislation.

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Unfair dismissal in the United Kingdom

Unfair dismissal in the United Kingdom is the part of UK labour law that requires fair, just and reasonable treatment by employers in cases where a person's job could be terminated.

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Union security agreement

A union security agreement is a contractual agreement, usually part of a union collective bargaining agreement, in which an employer and a trade or labor union agree on the extent to which the union may compel employees to join the union, and/or whether the employer will collect dues, fees, and assessments on behalf of the union.

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Unite the Union

Unite the Union, commonly known as Unite, is a British and Irish trade union, formed on 1 May 2007, by the merger of Amicus and the Transport and General Workers' Union.

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United Kingdom agency worker law

United Kingdom agency worker law refers to the law which regulates people's work through employment agencies in the United Kingdom.

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United Kingdom company law

The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006.

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United Kingdom general election, 1906

The 1906 United Kingdom general election was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906.

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United Kingdom general election, 1979

The 1979 United Kingdom general election was held on 3 May 1979 to elect 635 members to the British House of Commons.

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United Kingdom insolvency law

United Kingdom insolvency law regulates companies in the United Kingdom which are unable to repay their debts.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States corporate law

United States corporate law regulates the governance, finance and power of corporations in US law.

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United States labor law

United States labor law sets the rights and duties for employees, labor unions, and employers in the United States.

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United Steelworkers v. Weber

United Steelworkers of America v. Weber,, was a case regarding affirmative action in which the United States Supreme Court held that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not bar employers from favoring women and minorities.

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Universal Credit

Universal Credit is a social security benefit in the United Kingdom introduced in 2013 to replace six means-tested benefits and tax credits: income based Jobseeker's Allowance, Housing Benefit, Working Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, income based Employment and Support Allowance and Income Support.

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Gothenburg

The University of Gothenburg (Göteborgs universitet) is a university in Sweden's second largest city, Gothenburg.

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University of Oxford v Humphreys

University of Oxford v Humphreys is a UK employment law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.

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University of Stirling v UCU

is a UK labour law case, concerning the information and consultation in the European Union.

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Vicarious liability

Vicarious liability is a form of a strict, secondary liability that arises under the common law doctrine of agency, respondeat superior, the responsibility of the superior for the acts of their subordinate or, in a broader sense, the responsibility of any third party that had the "right, ability or duty to control" the activities of a violator.

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Vicarious liability in English law

Vicarious liability in English law is a doctrine of English tort law that imposes strict liability on employers for the wrongdoings of their employees.

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Victimisation

Victimisation (or victimization) is the process of being victimised or becoming a victim.

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Vince Cable

Sir John Vincent Cable (born 9 May 1943) is a British politician serving as Leader of the Liberal Democrats and Member of Parliament for Twickenham since 2017.

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Vogt v. Germany

Vogt v. Germany (1996) 21 EHRR 205, (17851/91) was a case decided by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in 1995.

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Volenti non fit injuria

Volenti non fit iniuria (or injuria) (Latin: "to a willing person, injury is not done") is a common law doctrine which states that if someone willingly places themselves in a position where harm might result, knowing that some degree of harm might result, they are not able to bring a claim against the other party in tort or delict.

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Voluntarism (action)

Voluntarism, sometimes referred to as voluntary action, is the principle that individuals are free to choose goals and how to achieve them within the bounds of certain societal and cultural constraints, as opposed to actions that are coerced or predetermined.

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Voting

Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.

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Wage

A wage is monetary compensation (or remuneration, personnel expenses, labor) paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done.

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Waitrose

Waitrose is a chain of British supermarkets, which forms the food retail division of Britain's largest employee-owned retailer, the John Lewis Partnership.

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Walton v Independent Living Organisation

Walton v Independent Living Organisation is a UK labour law case regarding the National Minimum Wage Act 1998.

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Western Excavating (ECC) Ltd v Sharp

Western Excavating (ECC) Ltd v Sharp ICR 221 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Western Front (World War I)

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.

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Whistleblower

A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.

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Williams v Compair Maxam Ltd

Williams v Compair Maxam Ltd ICR 156.

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Williams v Natural Life Health Foods Ltd

Williams v Natural Life Health Foods Ltd is an important English tort law, company law and contract law case.

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Wilson and Palmer v United Kingdom

Wilson v United Kingdom is a UK labour law and European labour law case concerning discrimination by employers against their workers who join and take action through trade unions.

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Wilson v Racher

Wilson v Racher ICR 428 is a UK labour law case concerning constructive dismissal.

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Wilson v St Helens BC

Wilson v St Helens Borough Council 2 AC 52 is a UK labour law case concerning transfers of undertakings, and the job security rights of employees.

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Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd v English

Wilsons and Clyde Coal Ltd v English is a UK labour law case concerning the employer's duty to provide a safe system of work for all its employees.

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Wiluszynski v London Borough of Tower Hamlets

Wiluszynski v London Borough of Tower Hamlets ICR 439 is a UK labour law case concerning the contract of employment.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Wolf v Stadt Frankfurt am Main

Wolf v Stadt Frankfurt am Main (2010) C-229/08 is a European labour law case, concerning the.

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Woods v WM Car Services (Peterborough) Ltd

Woods v WM Car Services (Peterborough) Ltd ICR 693 is a UK labour law case, concerning unfair dismissal, now governed by the Employment Rights Act 1996.

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Woolworths Group

Woolworths Group was a listed British company that owned the high-street retail chain, Woolworths.

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Work and Families Act 2006

The Work and Families Act 2006 (c 18) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Work–life balance

Work–life balance is the term used to describe the balance that an individual needs between time allocated for work and other aspects of life.

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Workforce

The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.

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Working Tax Credit

Working Tax Credit (WTC) is a state benefit in the United Kingdom made to people who work and have a low income.

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Working time

Working time is the period of time that a person spends at paid labor.

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Working Time Directive 2003

The Working Time Directive, is a Directive of the European Union.

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Working Time Regulations 1998

The Working Time Regulations 1998 is the United Kingdom statutory instrument which implements the EU Working Time Directive 93/104/EC.

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Workplace democracy

Workplace democracy is the application of democracy in all its forms (including voting systems, debates, democratic structuring, due process, adversarial process, systems of appeal) to the workplace.

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Workplace Health and Safety Directive

The Safety and Health at Work Directive is a European Union directive that sets out general principles for protection of workers' Occupational safety and health.

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Works council

A works council (very rarely called "work council") is a "shop-floor" organization representing workers that functions as a local/firm-level complement to trade unions but is independent of these at least in some countries.

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Workweek and weekend

The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention

The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182.

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Yewens v Noakes

Yewens v Noakes (1881) 6 QBD 530, was an English tax law case which addressed the question of the division between master and servant.

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Young, James and Webster v United Kingdom

Young, James and Webster v United Kingdom is a UK labour law case, concerning freedom of association and the closed shop.

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Youth unemployment in the United Kingdom

Youth unemployment in the United Kingdom is the level of unemployment among young people, typically defined as those aged 18–25.

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1926 United Kingdom general strike

The 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom was a general strike that lasted 9 days, from 3 May 1926 to 12 May 1926.

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1977 FA Cup Final

The 1977 FA Cup Final was the final match of the 1976–77 FA Cup, the 96th season of England's premier cup football competition.

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2004 Morecambe Bay cockling disaster

The Morecambe Bay cockling disaster (Shi bèi cǎn'àn, "cockle-picking tragedy") occurred on the evening of 5 February 2004 at Morecambe Bay in North West England, when at least 21 Chinese illegal immigrant labourers were drowned by an incoming tide after picking cockles off the Lancashire/Cumbrian coast.

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2008 Egyptian general strike

The 2008 Egyptian general strike was a strike which occurred on 6 April 2008, by Egyptian workers, primarily in the state-run textile industry, in response to low wages and rising food costs.

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35-hour workweek

The 35-hour working week is a measure adopted first in France, in February 2000, under Prime Minister Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government.

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Redirects here:

British Labour Law, British employment law, British labour law, Labour law of the United Kingdom, UK employment law, UK labor law, UK labour law, Ukemplaw, United Kingdom employment law.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_labour_law

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