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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions. [1]

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A People's History of the United States is a 1980 non-fiction book by American historian and political scientist Howard Zinn.

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Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900December 2, 1990) was an American composer, composition teacher, writer, and later in his career a conductor of his own and other American music.

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Abolitionism in the United States was the movement of the American Civil War to end slavery, whether formal or informal, in the United States.

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Abortion in the United States has been and remains one of the most controversial issues in United States culture and politics.

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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

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Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.

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The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.

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The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures.

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The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty,Weeks, p.168.

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Adobe Systems Incorporated is an American multinational computer software company.

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Adoption in the United States is a legal act of adoption, of permanently placing a person under the age of 18 with a parent or parents other than the birth parents in the United States.

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Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American worldwide semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, United States, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (or, in more recent editions, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) is a novel by Mark Twain, first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885.

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Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation of the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.

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The first of the AFI 100 Years... series of cinematic milestones, AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies is a list of the 100 best American movies, as determined by the American Film Institute from a poll of more than 1,500 artists and leaders in the film industry who chose from a list of 400 nominated movies.

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African American, also referred to as Black American or Afro-American, is an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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The Civil Rights Movement or 1960s Civil Rights Movement, sometimes anachronistically referred to as the "African-American Civil Rights Movement" although the term "African-Americans" was not used in the 1960s, encompasses social movements in the United States whose goals were to end racial segregation and discrimination against black Americans and to secure legal recognition and federal protection of the citizenship rights enumerated in the Constitution and federal law.

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African-American culture, also known as Black-American culture, in the United States refers to the cultural contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from American culture.

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African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of musics and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.

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Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.

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Agriculture is a major industry in the United States, which is a net exporter of food.

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An aide-de-camp (or; French expression meaning literally helper in the (military) camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.

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An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.

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The Airline Deregulation Act is a 1978 United States federal law intended to remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (of new airlines) from commercial aviation.

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Al-Qæda (or; القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several others, at some point between August 1988.

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Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.

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At the time of statehood in 1959 there were twenty indigenous languages spoken within the boundaries of the state of Alaska.

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Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.

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The Alaska Purchase was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire in 1867 by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate.

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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.

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The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the United States and Russia.

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The Alexander Archipelago is a long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska.

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Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

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Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (pronounced, with an audible k and silent p) is an award-winning New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. in 1915.

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Alfred Stieglitz (January 1, 1864 – July 13, 1946) was an American photographer and modern art promoter who was instrumental over his fifty-year career in making photography an accepted art form.

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All Things Considered (ATC) is the flagship news program on the American network National Public Radio (NPR).

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The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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Alzheimer's disease (AD), also known as Alzheimer disease, or just Alzheimer's, accounts for 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.

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Amazon.com, Inc. is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington.

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America is a short form name for the United States of America.

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The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used.

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American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States-based airline, operating an extensive international and domestic network, and is the world's largest airline by fleet size and revenue, and the second-most by number of destinations, only after United Airlines.

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The American bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.

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The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) (stylized in its logo as abc since 1962) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is owned by the Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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American Century is a characterization of the period since the middle of the 20th century as being largely dominated by the United States in political, economic, and cultural terms.

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The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.

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An American comic book is a thin periodical containing primarily comics content.

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The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals (Democracy, Rights, Liberty, Opportunity, and Equality) in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, and an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers.

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American English, or United States (U.S.) English, is the set of dialects of the English language native to the United States.

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The American Film Institute (AFI) is a film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the moving picture arts in the U.S. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership.

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The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States that began during the 1940s and peaked in popularity in the mid-1960s.

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American football (referred to as football in the United States and Canada, also known as gridiron elsewhere) is a sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American westward expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in 1912.

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The American Indian Wars, or Indian Wars, were the multiple conflicts between American settlers or the United States government and the native peoples of North America from the time of earliest colonial settlement until 1924.

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American Jews, also known as Jewish Americans, are American citizens who are Jews, either by religion, ancestry, or both.

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American philosophy is the philosophical activity or output of Americans, both within the United States and abroad.

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The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

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The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.

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American Samoa (aˈmɛɾika ˈsaːmʊa; also Amelika Sāmoa or Sāmoa Amelika) is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa.

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The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century.

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Jordan Hall "The American's Creed" is the title of a resolution passed by the U.S. House of Representatives April 3, 1918.

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Americans are citizens of the United States of America.

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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).

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Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer who first demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages, but instead constituted an entirely separate landmass hitherto unknown to Afro-Eurasians.

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The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a partially government-funded American passenger railroad service.

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Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries during the 20th century.

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Anarchism in the United States began as an individualist anarchist philosophy in the mid 19th century and started to grow in influence as it entered the American labor movements, growing an anarcho-communist current as well as gaining notoriety for violent propaganda by the deed and campaigning for diverse social reforms in the early 20th century.

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Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art.

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The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these six frames.

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Annuit cœptis (in classical Latin) is one of two mottos on the reverse side of the Great Seal of the United States.

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Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer and environmentalist.

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The anti-lynching movement was a civil rights movement in the United States that aimed to eradicate the practice of lynching.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.

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Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.

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The Appalachian Mountains (or,There are at least eight possible pronunciations depending on three factors.

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Apple Inc. (commonly known as Apple) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.

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Many exhibitions have been held in the vast spaces of U.S. National Guard armories, but the Armory Show refers to the 1913 International Exhibition of Modern Art that was organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, the first large exhibition of modern art in America.

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The arms industry is a global business that manufactures weapons and military technology and equipment.

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on behalf of the American Heart Association.

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Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.

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The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, were an agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.

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An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to work station where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.

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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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At-large is a designation for members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body (for example, a city, state or province, nation, club or association), rather than a subset of that membership.

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Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Atlanta (locally) is the capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2013 population of 447,841.

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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945 during World War II.

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The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, during the final stage of the Second World War.

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The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the United States Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941.

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August Wilson (April 27, 1945 – October 2, 2005) was an American playwright whose work included a series of ten plays, The Pittsburgh Cycle, for which he received two Pulitzer Prizes for Drama.

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Australia–United States relations refers to international relations between the Commonwealth of Australia and the United States of America.

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Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing or automobile racing) is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

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In Hinduism, an avatar (from Sanskrit अवतार "descent") is a deliberate descent of a deity to Earth, or a descent of the Supreme Being (e.g., Vishnu for Vaishnavites), and is mostly translated into English as "incarnation", but more accurately as "appearance" or "manifestation".

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The terms average Joe, ordinary Joe, Joe Sixpack, Joe Lunchbucket (for males) and ordinary, average, or plain Jane (for females), are used primarily in North America to refer to a completely average person, typically an average American.

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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.

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A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalarius) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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The Bahá'í Faith (fa Bahá'iyyat, بهائية Bahá'iyya In English, "Bahá'í" is pronounced with two syllables according to the on the Bahá'í World News Service Website (Bahá'í: Ba-HIGH). In Persian, بهائی is pronounced with three syllables. The exact realization of the English pronunciation varies. The Oxford English Dictionary has, Merriam-Webster has, and the Random House Dictionary has, all with three syllables. See and – A Guide to Pronunciation part 1 and 2, for more pronunciation instructions.) is a monotheistic religion which emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind.

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Bajo Nuevo Bank, also known as the Petrel Islands (Bajo Nuevo, Islas Petrel), is a small, uninhabited reef with some small islets, covered with grass, located in the western Caribbean Sea at, with a lighthouse on Low Cay at.

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Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean about southwest of Honolulu.

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The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek hali "sea", aiētos "eagle", leuco "white", cephalos "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.

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Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain.

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Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding.

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Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York.

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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.

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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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The Beat Generation was a group of authors whose literature explored and influenced American culture in the post-World War II era.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially cattle.

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Beringia is a loosely defined region surrounding the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Bering Sea.

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Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.

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Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter (born September 4, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress.

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The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the south-eastern and south-central United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a strong role in society and politics, and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.

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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.

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A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.

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Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, which are each parts of the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.

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The term black church or African-American church refers to Christian churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States.

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Black nationalism (BN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity.

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Blues is a genre and musical form that originated in African-American communities in the "Deep South" of the United States around the end of the 19th century.

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Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, artist and writer.

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Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.

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Breakfast is the first meal taken after rising from a night's sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work.

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The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.

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British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.

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Broadway theatre,Although theater is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences), many Broadway venues, performers and trade groups for live dramatic presentations use the spelling theatre.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Buddhism is one of the largest religions in the United States behind Christianity, Judaism and nonreligious, and approximately equal with Islam and Hinduism.

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The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, who are generally the heads of the federal executive departments.

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California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.

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The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a period in American History which began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.

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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Relations between Canada and the United States of America have spanned more than two centuries.

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Canals and navigations are human-made channels for water.

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Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.

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Capital in the Twenty-First Century is a 2013 book by French economist Thomas Piketty.

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Capital punishment, death penalty or execution is punishment by death.

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Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.

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The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean located in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

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Carolinian is an Austronesian language spoken in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is an official language along with English and Chamorro.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz and based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Rick's.

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The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.

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A cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

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The Catholic Church in the United States is part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.

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CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System; corporate name CBS Broadcasting, Inc.) is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network that is the flagship property of CBS Corporation.

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The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) is an economic policy think-tank that was founded in 1999 by economists Dean Baker and Mark Weisbrot.

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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chamorro (Chamorro: Finu' Chamorro or Chamoru) is a Malayo-Polynesian language (Austronesian) spoken by about 47,000 people (about 35,000 people on Guam and about 12,000 in the Northern Mariana Islands).

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Charles Edward Ives (October 20, 1874May 19, 1954) was an American modernist composer.

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Charles Sanders Peirce (like "purse", September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is the Native American Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people.

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The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli) is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.

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Chicago is the third most populous city in the United States.

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The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.

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The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the United States federal court system (the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert, and an ecoregion designation, that straddles the U.S.-Mexico border in the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chinese Americans, also known as American Chinese or Sino-Americans, are Americans of full or partial Chinese – particularly Han Chinese – descent.

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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequences of movements of physical bodies (or their depictions) in which motion, form, or both are specified.

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A Christian revival, or revivalism, is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity is the most popular religion in the United States, with 70.6% of polled American adults identifying themselves as Christian in 2014.

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Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo; Cristóbal Colón; Cristóvão Colombo; born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451, Genoa; died 20 May 1506, Valladolid) was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer and citizen of the Republic of Genoa.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow.

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Charles Edward Anderson "Chuck" Berry (born October 18, 1926) is an American guitarist, singer and songwriter, and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music.

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Citizen Kane is a 1941 American drama film by Orson Welles, its producer, co-author, director and star.

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Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Classical Hollywood cinema, or the classical Hollywood narrative, are terms used in film history which designate both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production used in the American film industry between 1927 and 1963.

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Classless society refers to a society in which no one is born into a social class.

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The Clerk of the United States House of Representatives is an officer of the United States House of Representatives, whose primary duty is to act as the chief record-keeper for the House.

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CliffsNotes (formerly Cliffs Notes, originally Cliff's Notes and often, erroneously, CliffNotes) are a series of student study guides available primarily in the United States.

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Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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The climate of the United States varies due to differences in latitude, and a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts.

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Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coastal California, also known as the California Coastline and the Golden Coast, refers to the coastal regions of the US state of California.

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Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink.

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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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The Cold War period of 1985–1991 began with the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union.

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Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter.

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The history of basketball is traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts.

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College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities.

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The Colonial empires began with a race of exploration between the then most advanced maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, in the 15th century.

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Colorado is a U.S. state encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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"Columbia" is a historical and poetic name used for the United States of America and also as one of the names of its female personification.

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Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff.

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A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions.

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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.

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Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.

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A community college is a type of educational institution.

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A Compact of Free Association (COFA) is a type of diplomatic relationship that an independent country has with the United States of America, as an associated country.

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A computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

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Computer hardware (usually simply called hardware when a computing context is implicit) is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system.

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The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a confederation of secessionist American states existing from 1861 to 1865.

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of philosophical and "ethical-sociopolitical teachings" sometimes described as a religion.

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The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government that provides budget and economic information to Congress.

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A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress.

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The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.

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Conquistadors (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government on three occasions.

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Historically, the central themes in American conservatism have included respect for American traditions, support of republicanism and the rule of law, Judeo-Christian values, anti-Communism, advocacy of American exceptionalism and a defense of Western civilization from perceived threats posed by moral relativism, multiculturalism, and postmodern ridicule of traditional culture.

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The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.

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Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the peoples of the two countries.

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The U.S. consumer confidence index (CCI) is an indicator designed to measure consumer confidence, which is defined as the degree of optimism on the state of the economy that consumers are expressing through their activities of savings and spending.

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A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the price level of a market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households.

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Consumer spending, consumer demand, consumption, or consumption expenditure is the purchasing of goods and services by individuals or families.

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Containment is a military strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.

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The contiguous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. (federal district), on the continent of North America.

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The Continental Army was formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cornel Ronald West (born June 2, 1953) is an American philosopher, academic, activist, author, public intellectual, and prominent member of the Democratic Socialists of America.

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), atherosclerotic heart disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease, is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden coronary death.

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Corporate tax is imposed in the United States at the federal, most state, and some local levels on the income of entities treated for tax purposes as corporations.

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Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2 The CPI currently ranks 177 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt).".

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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.

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The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United States and the United Kingdom, and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the early 1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.

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Country music is a genre of American popular music that originated in the Southern United States in the 1920s.

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In the United States, a county is a political and geographic subdivision of a state, usually assigned some governmental authority.

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A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit worthiness of a debtor, especially a business (company) or a government, but not individual consumers.

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A creed (also confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

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The culture of the United States is primarily Western, but is influenced by African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American cultures.

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David Llewelyn Wark "D.

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Dallas is a major city in Texas and is the largest urban center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

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Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.

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DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher.

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The Death Penalty Information Center (abbreviated DPIC) is a non-profit organization that focuses on disseminating studies and reports related to the death penalty by itself and others to the news media and general public.

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Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.

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A declaration of war is a formal act by which one nation goes to war against another.

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The Deep South is a descriptive category of the cultural and geographic subregions in the Southern United States.

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Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Deism, derived from the Latin word "Deus" meaning "God", is a theological/philosophical position that combines the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge with the conclusion that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator of the universe.

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The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states.

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The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party to its right.

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Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.

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Denali (also known as Mount McKinley, its former official name) is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of above sea level.

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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.

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Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era deals with the efforts made by Southern states of the former Confederacy at the turn of the 20th century in the United States to prevent their black citizens from registering to vote and voting.

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The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.

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Donald Richard "Don" DeLillo (born November 20, 1936) is an American novelist, playwright and essayist.

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A drive-through, or drive-thru, is a type of service provided by a business that allows customers to purchase products without leaving their cars.

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Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974) was an American composer, pianist and bandleader of jazz orchestras.

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The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.

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E pluribus unum—Latin for "Out of many, one" (alternatively translated as "One out of many" or "One from many")—is a phrase on the Seal of the United States, along with Annuit cœptis (Latin for "He/she/it approves (has approved) of the undertakings") and Novus ordo seclorum (Latin for "New Order of the Ages"), and adopted by an Act of Congress in 1782.

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The East Coast of the United States runs along the Atlantic Ocean.

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The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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eBay Inc. is an American multinational corporation and e-commerce company, providing consumer to consumer & business to consumer sales services via Internet.

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The Economic Policy Institute is a 501(c)(3) non-profit American think tank based in Washington, D.C., affiliated with the labor movement.

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The United States is the world's largest national economy, representing 22% of nominal global GDP and 17% of global GDP (PPP).

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Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole.

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The educational attainment of the U.S. population is similar to that of many other industrialized countries with the vast majority of the population having completed secondary education and a rising number of college graduates that outnumber high school dropouts.

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Edward Franklin Albee III (born March 12, 1928) is an American playwright known for works such as The Zoo Story (1958), The Sandbox (1959), and Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962).

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Edward Harrigan (October 26, 1844 – June 6, 1911), sometimes called Ned Harrigan, was an American actor, singer, dancer, playwright, lyricist and theater producer who, together with Tony Hart (as Harrigan & Hart), formed one of the most celebrated theatrical partnerships of the 19th century.

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Edward Jean Steichen (March 27, 1879 – March 25, 1973) was a Luxembourgish American photographer, painter, and art gallery and museum curator.

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The United States Electoral College is the institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years.

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Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and is usually associated with changing over from another power source.

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Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which the electrons have a fundamental role.

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Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor.

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The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.

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Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet.

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Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known by his stage name Eminem, is an American rapper, record producer, singer and songwriter from Detroit, Michigan.

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Emmanuel Saez (born November 26, 1972) is a French and American economist who is Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio.

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The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

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The United States is the 2nd largest energy consumer (after China) in terms of total use in 2010.

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English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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English Dissenters were Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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The English overseas possessions comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonized, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union between England and the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian physicist, who is credited with the creation of the first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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As with many other countries there are a number of environmental issues in the United States.

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The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that originally ran about from Albany, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, at Lake Erie.

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Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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The Establishment Clause is the first of several pronouncements in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, stating, The Establishment Clause was written by Congressman Fisher Ames in 1789, who derived it from discussions in the First Congress of various drafts that would become the amendments comprising the Bill of Rights.

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Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature.

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European Americans (also known as Euro-Americans) are Americans with ancestry from Europe.

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European colonization of the Americas began as early as the 10th century, when Norse sailors explored and settled limited areas on the shores of present-day Greenland and Canada.

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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evangelicalism, Evangelical Christianity, or Evangelical Protestantism is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity, maintaining that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.

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This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country.

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Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigmatic writings of the Jazz Age.

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Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California.

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Fast food is the term given to food that is prepared and served very quickly, first popularized in the 1950s in the United States.

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The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nation's prime Federal law enforcement organization.

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The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is a United States federal law enforcement agency.

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The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government, created by Congressional statute (see and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.

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Drug use has increased in all categories since the beginning of prohibition on January 17, 1920, with the exception of opium; its use is at a fraction of its peak level.

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The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.

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The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the Federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.

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Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.

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A federal republic is a federation of states with a democratic form of government.

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The Federal Reserve Bank of New York is one of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks of the United States.

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The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States.

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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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Federalism in the United States is the constitutional relationship between U.S. state governments and the federal government of the United States.

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The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM) is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.

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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.

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Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Filipino Americans (Tagalog: Pilipino Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent and comprise about 3.4 million people, or 1.1% of the U.S. population.

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In film, film grammar is defined as follows.

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The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.

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First grade (called Grade 1 in some countries) is the first grade in elementary school.

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The Great Awakening, was an evangelical and revitalization movement.

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The First Transcontinental Railroad (known originally as the "Pacific Railroad" and later as the "Overland Route") was a contiguous railroad line constructed in the United States between 1863 and 1869 west of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers to connect the Pacific coast at San Francisco Bay with the existing eastern U.S. rail network at Council Bluffs, Iowa.

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The first transcontinental telegraph (completed in 1861) was a line that connected an existing network in the eastern United States to a small network in California by a link between Omaha and Carson City via Salt Lake City.

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Fitch Ratings Inc.

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Florida is a state in the southeast United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida.

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The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Foreign born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence.

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Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 52 states and the European Union.

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Foreign trade of the United States comprises the international imports and exports of the United States, one of the world's most significant economic markets.

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The members of the Big Four and Four Policemen were the four major Allies of World War II: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the Republic of China.

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The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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The Fox Broadcasting Company (commonly referred to as Fox; stylized as FOX), is an American commercial broadcast television network that is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group division of 21st Century Fox.

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French–American relations refers to the international relations between France and the United States since 1776.

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Franchising is the practice of the right to use a firm's business model and brand for a prescribed period of time.

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Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter.

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Frank Owen Gehry, (born Frank Owen Goldberg), Globe and Mail, July 28, 2010 is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles.

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Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed.

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt (his own pronunciation, or) (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.

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The Free Exercise Clause is the accompanying clause with the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Freedom of religion or freedom of belief is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.

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In the United States, freedom of religion is a constitutionally protected right provided in the religion clauses of the First Amendment.

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The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War.

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The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.

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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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The French language is spoken as a minority language in the United States.

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A frontier is the political and geographical areas near or beyond a boundary.

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Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.

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Funk is a music genre that originated in the mid- to late 1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).

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Furman v. Georgia, was a United States Supreme Court decision that ruled on the requirement for a degree of consistency in the application of the death penalty.

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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly traded media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, near McLean in Greater Washington DC.

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A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.

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Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

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The term "United States", when used in the geographical sense, is the contiguous United States, the state of Alaska, the island state of Hawaii, the five insular territories of Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa, and minor outlying possessions.

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George Balanchine (born Giorgi Melitonovitch Balanchivadze, გიორგი ბალანჩივაძე, Гео́ргий Баланчива́дзе) (April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th century's most prolific choreographers.

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George Gershwin (September 26, 1898 July 11, 1937) was an American composer and pianist.

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George Walton Lucas, Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur.

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George Washington (Contemporary records, which used the Julian calendar and the Annunciation Style of enumerating years, recorded his birth as February 11, 1731. The provisions of the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, implemented in 1752, altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 (it had been March 25). These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and for those between January 1 and March 25, an advance of one year. For a further explanation, see: Old Style and New Style dates. –, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–97), the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15, 1887 – March 6, 1986) was an American artist.

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German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who are of German descent.

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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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German–American relations are the relations between Germany and the United States.

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The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.

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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.

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The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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The Global Food Security Index consists of a set of indices from 105 countries.

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In monotheism and henotheism, God is conceived as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith.

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The Golden Globe Award is an American accolade bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.

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Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic-historical-romance film adapted from Margaret Mitchell's Pulitzer-winning 1936 novel.

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The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.

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In the United States, the title governor refers to the chief executive of each state or insular territory, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the state.

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The "Great American Novel" is the concept of a novel that shows the culture of the United States of America at a specific time.

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The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America.

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The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession.

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The Great Lakes (also called the Laurentian Great Lakes, or the Great Lakes of North America) are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.

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The Great Plains is the broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie states and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada.

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The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44).

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The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.

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Guam (or; Chamorro: Guåhån) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean.

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The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent.

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Gun politics is a controversial area of American politics that is primarily defined by the actions of two groups: gun control and gun rights activists.

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Gun violence in the United States results in thousands of deaths and thousands more injuries annually.

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Habeas corpus (Latin for "you have the body") is a legal action or writ by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment.

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Hardboiled (or hard-boiled) fiction is a literary genre that shares some of its characters and settings with crime fiction (especially detective stories).

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Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.

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Harper Perennial is a paperback imprint of the publishing house HarperCollins Publishers.

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HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the world's largest publishing companies and, alongside Hachette, Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster, is part of the "Big Five" English-language publishing companies.

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Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, known locally as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield, or Hartsfield–Jackson, is located seven miles (11 km) south of the central business district of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hawaii (locally,; Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959.

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The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.

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Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.

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The Headquarters of the United Nations is a complex in New York City.

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Health insurance is insurance against the risk of incurring medical expenses among individuals.

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Helianthus or sunflowers (from the ήλιος, Hēlios, "sun" and ανθός, anthos, "flower") L. is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.

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Henry Cowell (March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American composer, music theorist, pianist, teacher, publisher, and impresario.

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Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American author, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.

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Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

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Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, writer of short stories, and poet from the American Renaissance period.

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A high school (also secondary school, senior school, secondary college) is a school that provides adolescents with part or all of their secondary education.

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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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Hinduism is a minority religion in the United States, American Hindus in 2008 accounted for an estimated 0.5% of total US population.

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Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (hispanos, latinos) are Americans descending from the countries of Latin America and Iberia.

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The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s.

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Socialism in the United States began with utopian communities in the early 19th century such as the Shakers, the activist visionary Josiah Warren and intentional communities inspired on Charles Fourier.

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The United States Constitution was written in 1787 during the Philadelphia Convention.

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The Democratic Party of the United States is the oldest voter-based political party in the world.

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The Republican Party, also commonly called the GOP (for "Grand Old Party"), is one of the world's oldest political parties still in existence, the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its great rival, the Democratic Party.

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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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Homelessness in the United States is an area of concern for social service providers, government officials, policy professionals, and society at large.

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Homeschooling, also known as home education, is the education of children inside the home, as opposed to in the formal settings of a public or private school.

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Horse racing is an equestrian sport, involving two or more jockeys riding horses over a set distance for competition.

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House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s.

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The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America.

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Household income is a measure of the combined incomes of all people sharing a particular household or place of residence.

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Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country.

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Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the American South, and the fourth most populous city in the United States.

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Howland Island is an uninhabited coral island located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean, about southwest of Honolulu.

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The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism.

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Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters.

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A humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa or Cwa) is a zone of subtropical climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters.

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Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia, not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York.

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Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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Illegal immigration to the United States is the act by foreign nationals violating United States immigration laws by either entering the country without government permission (i.e., a visa) or once lawfully entering, remaining within the country beyond the termination date of a temporary visa.

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The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico.

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The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart–Celler Act, abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.

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Immigration to the United States is a complex demographic phenomenon that has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States.

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The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in that journal.

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Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.

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"In God We Trust" is the official motto of the United States.

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An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light which produces light with a wire filament heated to a high temperature by an electric current passing through it, until it glows (see Incandescence).

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Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment, rehabilitation, or both for the commission of felony and other offenses.

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Income inequality in the United States has increased significantly since the 1970s after several decades of stability, meaning the share of the nation's income received by higher income households has increased.

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Indentured servitude was a labor system whereby young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years.

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Independence Day of the United States, also referred to as Fourth of July or July Fourth in the U.S., is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, by the Continental Congress declaring that the thirteen American colonies regarded themselves as a new nation, the United States of America, and no longer part of the British Empire.

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An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated to any political party.

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The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the United States of America.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans of Indian ancestry.

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Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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An individual sport is a sport in which participants compete as individuals.

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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis.

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Intel Corporation (commonly referred to as Intel) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California.

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Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical.

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The International Centre for Prison Studies (ICPS) is a research centre at the University of Essex.

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The International Energy Agency (IEA; Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.

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The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, Interstate Freeway System, Interstate System, or simply the Interstate) is a network of controlled-access highways that forms a part of the National Highway System of the United States.

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The invention of the telephone is the culmination of work done by many individuals, the history of which involves a collection of claims and counterclaims.

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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Because there are no formal diplomatic relations between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United States of America, instead of exchanging ambassadors, Iran maintains an interests section at the Pakistani Embassy in Washington, D.C., while the United States has maintained a corresponding interests section at the Swiss Embassy in Tehran (since 1980).

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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.

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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.

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The Irish American (Gaedheal-Mheiriceánaigh) ethnic group comprises Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.

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The Iroquois, also known as the Haudenosaunee, are a historically powerful and important northeast Native American confederacy.

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The Iroquois Nationals are the national lacrosse team of the Six Nations/Iroquois and compete in international competition.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Irving Berlin (born Israel Isidore Baline, May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was a Russian-born Jewish-American composer and lyricist.

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Angela Isadora Duncan (May 26 or 27, 1877 – September 14, 1927) was an American dancer.

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Islam is the fourth-largest faith in the United States, after Christianity, Judaism and Buddhism.

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Israel–United States relations are a very important factor in the United States government's overall policy in the Middle East, and Congress has placed considerable importance on the maintenance of a close and supportive relationship.

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It's a Wonderful Life is a 1946 American Christmas fantasy drama film produced and directed by Frank Capra, based on the short story "The Greatest Gift", which Philip Van Doren Stern wrote in 1939 and published privately in 1945.

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Italian cuisine (cucina italiana) has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots stretching to antiquity.

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Italy–United States relations are the bilateral relations between the Italian Republic and the United States of America.

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Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956), known professionally as Jackson Pollock, was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement.

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Jacksonian democracy is the political movement during the Second Party System toward greater democracy for the common man symbolized by American politician Andrew Jackson and his supporters.

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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.

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James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer and dancer.

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James Francis CameronSpace Foundation.

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James McGill Buchanan, Jr. (October 3, 1919 – January 9, 2013) was an American economist known for his work on public choice theory, for which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1986.

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The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.

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are the relations between the United States and Japan.

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Jarvis Island (formerly known as Bunker Island) is an uninhabited coral island located in the South Pacific Ocean at, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands.

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Shawn Corey Carter (born December 4, 1969), known by his stage name Jay Z (formerly Jay-Z), is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur.

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Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African American communities in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.

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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Jerome Robbins (October 11, 1918 – July 29, 1998), was an American theater producer, director, and dance choreographer known primarily for Broadway Theater and Ballet/Dance, but who also occasionally directed films and directed/produced for television.

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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.

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Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States.

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Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden, Jr.

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John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American novelist and short-story writer, known for the postmodernist and metafictional quality of his work.

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John Andrew Boehner (born, 1949) is the 61st and current Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.

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John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer, music theorist, writer, and artist.

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John Dewey, FAA (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Ford (February 1, 1894 – August 31, 1973) was an American film director.

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John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director, screenwriter and actor.

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John L. Hess (December 27, 1917 – January 21, 2005) was a prominent American investigative journalist who worked for many years at The New York Times.

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John Marshall (September 24, 1755July 6, 1835) was the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1801–1835).

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John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher.

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John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States.

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John von Neumann (Hungarian: Neumann János,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor, polymath, and polyglot.

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Marion Mitchell Morrison (born Marion Robert Morrison; May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), better known by his stage name John Wayne, was an American film actor, director, and producer.

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John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.

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The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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Johnston Atoll, also known as Kalama Atoll to Native Hawaiians, is an unincorporated territory of the United States currently administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) of the Department of the Interior as part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument.

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The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the President of the United States on military matters.

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Joseph Reed (August 27, 1741 – March 5, 1785) was a lawyer, military officer and statesman of the Revolutionary Era who lived the majority of his life in Pennsylvania, United States.

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The Journal of Cold War Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal on the history of the Cold War.

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Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary.

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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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Judith Butler (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of feminist, queer and literary theory.

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A jury trial or trial by jury is a legal proceeding in which a jury either makes a decision or makes findings of fact, which then direct the actions of a judge.

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Kanye Omari West (born June 8, 1977) is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer, and fashion designer.

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Katheryn Elizabeth "Katy" Hudson (born October 25, 1984), better known by her stage name Katy Perry, is an American singer, songwriter and actress.

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The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW·h, or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours, or 3.6 megajoules.

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A kindergarten (German), literally children's garden, is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.

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The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device.

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The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1, Cengage Learning (2012)"From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland".

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Kingman Reef is a largely submerged, uninhabited triangular shaped reef, east-west and north-south, located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between the Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at.

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Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

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The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul: 한국전쟁, Hanja: 韓國戰爭, Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosungul: 조국해방전쟁, Joguk Haebang Jeonjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union.

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LA Weekly is a free weekly tabloid-sized alternative weekly in Los Angeles, California.

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Labor unions are legally recognized as representatives of workers in many industries in the United States.

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Lacrosse is a contact team sport played between two teams using a small rubber ball (62.8-64.77 mm, 140-147 g) and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick.

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Many languages are used, or historically have been used in the United States.

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Larry Martin Bartels (born May 16, 1956) is an American political scientist.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.

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Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the people of Latin America, and includes both high culture (literature, high art) and popular culture (music, folk art and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices.

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The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.

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Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 British-American epic historical drama film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence.

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Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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The Lee Resolution, also known as the resolution of independence, was an act of the Second Continental Congress declaring the United Colonies to be independent of the British Empire.

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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States", was a program under which the United States supplied Free France, United Kingdom, the Republic of China, and later the USSR and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.

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LGBT or GLBT is an initialism that stands for '''l'''esbian, '''g'''ay, '''b'''isexual, and '''t'''ransgender.

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Laws regarding LGBT adoption in the United States vary, as adoption in the United States is regulated and licensed at the state level.

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Liberia, Cape Mesurado, Grain Coast, Pepper Coast, (Little America) or (LIB), commonly and officially referred to as the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.

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The Libertarian Party (LP) is a libertarian political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, free markets, non-interventionism, and laissez-faire.

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Light rail is defined in the United States (and elsewhere) as a mode of electrified (or in a few exceptional cases, diesel-powered) rail-based transit, usually urban in nature, which is distinguished by operation in routes of generally exclusive, though not necessarily grade-separated, rights-of-way.

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Linux (pronounced or, less frequently) is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system (OS) assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution.

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Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport.

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tags; they are used to transclude this list of airlines to the main List of airlines.

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The list of airports in the United States is broken down into separate lists due to the large number of airports.

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The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service.

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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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The average wage is a measure for the financial well-being of a country's inhabitants.

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This is a list of countries by total energy consumption per capita.

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This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on the The World Factbook of the CIA.

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This is a list of countries by exports per capita.

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Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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This article includes three lists of countries by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e. the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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This is a list of countries by imports, based on the World Trade Organization and The World Factbook.

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This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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This is a list of countries by public debt to GDP ratio as listed by Eurostat for the EU and by CIA's World Factbook 2012 for the rest of the world.

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This article includes two lists of countries of the world sorted by their total expenditure on health at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, and their total expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP).

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This is a list of diplomatic missions in the United States.

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This is a list of diplomatic missions of the United States of America.

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The two sortable tables below list the metropolitan and micropolitan areas of the United States and Puerto Rico for the 929 Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs)The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines a Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) as one or more adjacent counties or county equivalents that have at least one urban core area of at least 10,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.

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The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined 381 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) for the United States and seven for Puerto Rico.

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This is a list of national animals.

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This is a list of national birds, most official, but some unofficial.

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine.

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Under the United States Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States.

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This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.

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The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, one federal district (Washington, D.C.), and one incorporated territory (Palmyra Atoll).

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In the majority of nations, including almost all industrialized nations, advances in employee relations have seen the introduction of statutory minimum tariffs for employee leave from work, i.e. the amount of entitlement to paid holiday/vacation.

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This is a list of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union.

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The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States.

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This is a list of armed conflicts involving the United States of America since its founding during the American Revolution.

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Below are links to lists of American institutions of higher education in the United States by State grouped by Census Region, as well as lists of institutions in United States Insular Areas and outside of the US and its territories.

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Landmark court decisions, in present day common law legal systems, establish precedents that determine a significant new legal principle or concept, or otherwise substantially affect the interpretation of existing law.

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Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.

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Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state.

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Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the second-largest city in the United States, the most populous city in the U.S. state of California, and the county seat of Los Angeles County.

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The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881.

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Louis Armstrong (August 4, 1901 – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was an American jazz trumpeter, singer, and one of the pivotal and most influential figures in jazz music.

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Louisiana (or; État de Louisiane,; Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn) is a state located in the southern region of the United States.

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The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles) by the United States from France in 1803.

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Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan, is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624.

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Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Lynching, the practice of executing people by extrajudicial mob action, occurred in the United States chiefly from the late 18th century through the 1960s.

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A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.

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Madonna Louise Ciccone (born August 16, 1958) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Maine (État du Maine) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south; New Hampshire to the west; and the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast.

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The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream American Protestant and oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant churches in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.

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Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

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Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization that is the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.

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Major League Soccer (MLS) is a professional soccer league, sanctioned by U.S. Soccer, that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.

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The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in the United States and Canada.

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Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.

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Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City.

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The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.

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In the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent.

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Marbury v. Madison,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.

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Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926August 5, 1962) was an American actress, model, and singer.

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A Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU, pronounced "Mew"), formerly called Marine Amphibious Unit (MAU), is the smallest Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) in the United States Fleet Marine Force.

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Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist.

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Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 – September 2, 1943) was an American Modernist painter, poet, and essayist.

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The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ),Pronunciations:* English: Republic of the Marshall Islands * Marshallese: Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

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Martha Graham (May 11, 1894 – April 1, 1991) was an American modern dancer and choreographer whose influence on dance has been compared with the influence Picasso had on the modern visual arts, Stravinsky had on music, or Frank Lloyd Wright had on architecture.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968), was an American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.

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Martin Charles Scorsese (born November 17, 1942) is an American director, producer, screenwriter, actor, and film historian, whose career spans more than 45 years.

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Martin Waldseemüller (Latinized Martinus Ilacomylus, Ilacomilus or Hylacomylus; 11 September 1470 – 16 March 1520) was a German cartographer.

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Mass communication is the study of how people and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.

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Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Mass transportation systems in the United States include buses, trolleybuses (or "trackless trolleys"), trams (or "streetcars"), ferries, and a variety of trains, including rapid transit (known as metros, subways, undergrounds, etc.), light rail, and commuter rail.

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Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Materials science, also commonly known as materials science and engineering, is an interdisciplinary field which deals with the discovery and design of new materials, with an emphasis on solids.

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The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony.

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McDonald's is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in 119 countries across 35,000 outlets.

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McFarland & Company, Inc. is a book publisher of primarily academic and adult nonfiction based in Jefferson, North Carolina.

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Measles, also known as morbilli, rubeola, or red measles, is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus.

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Median income is the amount that divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount, and half having income below that amount.

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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.

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The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.

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The melting pot is a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture.

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In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer.

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Mexican Americans (mexico-americanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.

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The Mexican Cession of 1848 is a historical name in the United States for the region of the modern day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, but had not been part of the areas east of the Rio Grande which had been claimed by the Republic, though the Texas annexation resolution two years earlier had not specified Texas's southern and western boundary.

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The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States and the Centralist Republic of Mexico (which became the Second Federal Republic of Mexico during the war) from 1846 to 1848.

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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Mexico–United States relations refers to the foreign relations between the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) and the United States of America.

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Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor.

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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Microsoft Corporation (commonly referred to as Microsoft) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Redmond, Washington, that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal computers and services.

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Midway Atoll (also called Midway Island and Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Pihemanu Kauihelani) is a atoll in the North Pacific Ocean.

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The Midwestern United States, or the Midwest, is one of the four geographic regions defined by the United States Census Bureau, occupying the northern central part of the country.

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The military budget is the portion of the discretionary United States federal budget allocated to the Department of Defense, or more broadly, the portion of the budget that goes to any military-related expenditures.

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The military history of the United States' involvement in World War II covers the war against Japan, Germany and Italy starting with the 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor.

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Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist, statistician and writer who taught at the University of Chicago for more than three decades.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.

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Minority group is a term referring to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, i.e. those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and may be defined by law.

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Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.

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The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent.

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The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1600, varying regionally.

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The Missouri River is the longest river in North America.

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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.

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Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, from a variety of other combat sports and martial arts.

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Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (1851) is a novel by Herman Melville considered an outstanding work of Romanticism and the American Renaissance.

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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert dance, primarily arising out of both Germany and the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.

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Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.

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The Mojave Desert (pronounced: mo-hah-vee) is a rain shadow, mostly high desert area, that occupies a significant portion of southeastern California and smaller parts of central California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona in the United States.

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Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.

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The Mormon Corridor is a term for the areas of Western North America that were settled between 1850 and approximately 1890 by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), who are commonly known as Mormons.

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Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity.

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Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, which began with Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.

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Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an ethnic group.

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Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races".

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A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.

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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the body's joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back.

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The music of the United States reflects the country's multi-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles.

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Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting, and dance.

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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is a family-owned and -operated business venture that sanctions and governs multiple auto-racing sports events.

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Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist and short story writer.

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The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

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The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) is the statistical branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System.

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The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world.

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The national debt of the United States is the amount owed by the federal government of the United States.

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The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).

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The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, of the Virgin Islands, and of Puerto Rico, as well as of the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.

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The National Highway System (NHS) is a network of strategic highways within the United States, including the Interstate Highway System and other roads serving major airports, ports, rail or truck terminals, railway stations, pipeline terminals and other strategic transport facilities.

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The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league composed of 30 member clubs: 23 in the United States and 7 in Canada.

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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) which has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy.

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The National Mining Association (NMA), is a United States trade organization that lists itself as the voice of the mining industry in Washington, D.C. NMA was formed in 1995, and has more than 325 corporate members.

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The National Research Council (NRC) is the working arm of the United States National Academies, which produces reports that shape policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine.

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National security (NS) of the United States is a collective term encompassing the policies of both U.S. national defense and foreign relations.

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A national sport or national pastime is a sport or game that is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.

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This is a list of official National symbols of the United States.

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Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

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In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries.

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Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Natural Resources are all that exists without the actions of humankind.

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Navassa Island (La Navasse, Lanavaz) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea.

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.

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The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American commercial broadcast television and radio network that is the flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.

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Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.

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Neo-Druidism or Neo-Druidry, commonly referred to as Druidry by many adherents,.

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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Nevada is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States.

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The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later.

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New England is a region which comprises six states of the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

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New Hollywood or post-classical Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the "American New Wave", refers to the time from roughly the late-1960s (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) to the early 1980s (Heaven's Gate, One from the Heart) when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in United States, influencing the types of films produced, their production and marketing, and the way major studios approached filmmaking.

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New Mexico (Nuevo México; Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state located in the southwestern and western regions of the United States, admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912.

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The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

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New Zealand–United States relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and the United States of America.

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The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex.

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Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher,, by Zoltán Gendler Szabó, in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960, ed.

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Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).

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Nomination is part of the process of selecting a candidate for either election to an office, or the bestowing of an honor or award.

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Nonsectarian or nonsectarianism refers to a type of secular private educational institution or other organization either not affiliated with or not restricted to a particular religious group.

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Nonviolence (from Sanskrit ahimṣā, non-violence, "lack of desire to harm or kill") is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.

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North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

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The North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses 25 distinct regions in twenty countries primarily in North America, including the Caribbean and the U.S. territories.

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North Dakota (locally) is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889.

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North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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North Korea–United States relations (Korean: 미조관계 Romaja: Mijo gwangye) are currently extremely hostile and have developed primarily during the Korean War, but in recent years have been largely defined by North Korea three tests of nuclear weapons, its development of long-range missiles capable of striking targets thousands of miles away, and its ongoing threats to strike the United States and South Korea with nuclear weapons and conventional forces.

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The Northeastern United States, or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bounded to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

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Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe.

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The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas), is one of five inhabited American insular areas.

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The Northwestern United States is an informal geographic region of the United States.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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The phrase Novus ordo seclorum (English pronunciation) Latin for "New order of the ages") appears on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States, first designed in 1782 and printed on the back of the United States one-dollar bill since 1935. The phrase is sometimes mistranslated as "New World Order" by people who believe in a conspiracy behind the design.

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National Public Radio (NPR) is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States.

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Nuclear binding energy is the energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.

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Nuclear power in the United States is provided by 99 commercial reactors with a net summer capacity of 98,621 megawatts (MW), consisting of 65 pressurized water reactors and 34 boiling water reactors, producing a total of 797 terawatt-hours of electricity, which accounted for 19.47% of the nation's total electric energy generation in 2014.

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The United States was the first country to develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in warfare, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.

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The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).

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Obesity in the United States has been increasingly cited as a major health issue in recent decades.

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An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.

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Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.

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The Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security under the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Policy.

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Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid.

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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Oklahoma (Cherokee: Asgaya gigageyi / ᎠᏍᎦᏯ ᎩᎦᎨᏱ; or translated ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ (òɡàlàhoma), Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state located in the South Central United States.

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Old-time music is a genre of North American folk music.

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The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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On the Waterfront is a 1954 American crime drama film with elements of film noir.

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One World Trade Center (also known as 1 World Trade Center, One WTC and 1 WTC; the current building was dubbed the "Freedom Tower" during initial basework) refers to the main building of the new World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City.

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The movement against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War began in the U.S. with demonstrations in 1964 and grew in strength in later years.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

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The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. Signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

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Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States (the Union), why they united to form the Confederate States of America (the "Confederacy"), and why the North refused to let them go.

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George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985), known professionally as Orson Welles, was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film.

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right The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United States of America.

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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Phineas Taylor "P.

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Pacific Islander is a term used to refer to the people of the Pacific Islands.

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Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry of indigenous inhabitants of Oceania.

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The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Palau (historically Belau or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Palmyra Atoll is an unoccupied equatorial Northern Pacific atoll administered as an unorganized incorporated territory by the United States federal government.

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Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.

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Papua New Guinea (PNG;; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries that provides paid time off work to care for a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare.

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The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors, following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918.

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A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization and whose curriculum includes general religious education in addition to secular subjects, such as science, mathematics and language arts.

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Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot and are also known as floor leaders.

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The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators who are elected by the party caucuses that hold the majority and the minority respectively.

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Note: this article adopts the U.S. Department of Transportation's definition of a passenger vehicle, to mean a car or truck, used for passengers, excluding buses and trains. The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country in the world.

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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), commonly called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or colloquially Obamacare, is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.

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Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz, which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000, continuing in reruns afterward.

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The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of China under the leadership of the Communist Party (CPC).

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The People's Party, also known as the Populist Party or the Populists, was a short-lived agrarian-populist political party in the United States that most historians agree was on the left-wing of American politics.

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Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid—in particular when referencing the polyatomic anions found in solution, perchlorate is often written with the formula ClO4−.

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The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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United States lawful permanent residency is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.

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A personal computer is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities and original sale price make it useful for individuals, and is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator.

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Personalization, also known as customization, consists of tailoring a service or a product to accommodate specific individuals, as opposed to general groups.

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Perspectives on Politics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political science.

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Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Philippines – United States relations (Filipino: Ugnayang Pilipinas at Estados Unidos) are bilateral relations between the United States of America and its former colony the Republic of the Philippines.

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Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the state of Arizona.

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The phonograph is a device invented in 1877 for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.

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Photography is the science, art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south.

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Pilgrims is a name commonly applied to early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States, with the men commonly called Pilgrim Fathers.

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Plains Indians are the Native American tribes and First Nation band governments who have traditionally lived on the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies in North America.

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A plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.

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Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the United States are settled by plea bargain rather than by a jury trial.

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The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers, or members of a legislative assembly based on single-member constituencies.

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Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth, or Plymouth Bay Colony) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.

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Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system".

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Political divisions of the United States are the various governing entities that together form the United States.

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Political party strength in U.S. states refers to the level of representation of the various political parties of the U.S. in each state-wide elective office providing legislators to the state and to the U.S. Congress and electing the executives at the state (U.S. state governor) and national (U.S. President) level.

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Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Political Research Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of political science.

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Politics of the Southern United States (or Southern politics) refers to the political landscape of the Southern United States.

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Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamia, "state of marriage to many spouses" or "frequent marriage") involves marriage that includes more than two partners and can fall under the broader category of polyamory.

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Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States.

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The Popular Democratic Party (Partido Popular Democrático, PPD) is a political party that advocates for maintaining the current political status of Puerto Rico as that of an unincorporated territory of the United States with self-government.

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The term popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.

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In biology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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The population figure for Indigenous peoples in the Americas before the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus has proven difficult to establish.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig (Sus domesticus).

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In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.

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The end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones.

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The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of economic prosperity in the mid-20th century which occurred, following the end of World War II in 1945, and lasted until the early 1970s.

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Postmodern literature is literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and often is (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II era.

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Postmodernism is a late-20th-century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.

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Poverty is a state of deprivation, or a lack of the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.

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The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.

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The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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A preamble is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy.

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The President and Fellows of Harvard College (also called the Harvard Corporation) is the smaller of Harvard University's two governing boards, the other being its Board of Overseers.

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The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.

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A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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A primary election is an election that narrows the field of candidates before an election for office.

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Private schools, also known as independent schools, non-governmental, or nonstate schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments; thus, they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public (government) funding; at some private schools students may be able to get a scholarship, which makes the cost cheaper, depending on a talent the student may have (e.g. sport scholarship, art scholarship, academic scholarship), financial need, or tax credit scholarships that might be available.

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The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s.

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The Progressive Party of 1912 was an American political party.

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A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

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Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcoholic beverages that remained in place from 1920 to 1933.

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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.

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Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological and/or cultural values.

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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Protestantism is the largest group of Christianity in the United States, with its combined denominations accounting for about half the country's population.

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Also known as the state that never stretched to the west coast.

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A proxy war is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.

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A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.

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In the United States, a utilities commission, utility regulatory commission (URC), public utilities commission (PUC) or public service commission (PSC) is a governing body that regulates the rates and services of a public utility.

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Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.

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The Pulitzer Prize for Drama is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music.

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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Race, as a social construct, is a group of people who share similar and distinct physical characteristics.

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The United States has a racially and ethnically diverse population.

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Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).

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Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, included the segregation or "hypersegregation" of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.

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Radio is the radiation (wireless transmission) of electromagnetic energy through space.

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Rail transportation in the United States today consists primarily of freight shipments.

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Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, and poet who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.

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Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864 – August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of the American automotive industry, for whom both the Oldsmobile and REO brands were named.

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Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics attributed to Paul Harvey) refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.

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Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

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Reclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and impurities, and used in sustainable landscaping irrigation, to recharge groundwater aquifers, to meet commercial and industrial water needs, and for drinking.

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The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.

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The term Reconstruction Era, in the context of the history of the United States, has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress, with the reconstruction of state and society.

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Red states and blue states refer to those states of the United States whose residents predominantly vote for the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates.

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A regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases.

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Religious humanism is an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with religious rituals and beliefs that center on human needs, interests, and abilities.

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Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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The Republic of Texas (Spanish: República de Texas) was an independent sovereign country in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.

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The Republican Party, commonly referred to as GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Republicanism is the guiding political philosophy of the United States.

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A research institute is an establishment endowed for doing research.

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The reserve components of the United States Armed Forces are military organizations whose members generally perform a minimum of 39 days of military duty per year and who augment the active duty (or full-time) military when necessary.

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A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, England, United Kingdom and a division of Thomson Reuters.

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Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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The rights of Englishmen are the perceived traditional rights of the subjects of the monarch of England.

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In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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The Roaring Twenties were the period of sustained economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in New York, Montreal, Chicago, Detroit, Paris, Berlin, London, Los Angeles, and many other major cities during the 1920s in the United States, Canada and Europe.

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Robert Bernard Altman (February 20, 1925 – November 20, 2006) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.

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Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher who was most prominent in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,Jim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992), ISBN 0-571-12939-0.

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The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Roe v. Wade,, is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion.

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In political science, rollback is the strategy of forcing change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime.

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Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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Roy Fox Lichtenstein (pronounced; October 27, 1923 – September 29, 1997) was an American pop artist.

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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and as a forage crop.

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The salad bowl concept suggests that the integration of the many different cultures of United States residents combine like a salad, as opposed to the more traditional notion of a cultural melting pot.

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Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Samoan (Gagana fa'a Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa — IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the independent country of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.

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San Bernardino is a city located in the Riverside-San Bernardino metropolitan area (sometimes called the "Inland Empire").

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San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California and the only consolidated city-county in California.

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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Schindler's List is a 1993 American epic historical period drama film, directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg and scripted by Steven Zaillian.

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The United States came into being around the Age of Enlightenment (circa 1680 to 1800), an era in Western philosophy in which writers and thinkers rejecting the superstitions of the past instead, chose to emphasize the intellectual, scientific and cultural life, centered upon the 18th century, in which reason was advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority.

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Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from the Irish province of Ulster who migrated to North America during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights.

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The Second Great Awakening was a Religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States.

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Historians and political scientists use the phrase Second Party System as a term of periodization to designate the political party system operating in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, after the First Party System ended.

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The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those potentially subject to military conscription.

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The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).

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The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven".

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Serranilla Bank (Isla Serranilla or Banco Serranilla) is a partially submerged reef, with small uninhabited islets, in the western Caribbean Sea.

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The Settlement of the Americas is of intense interest to archaeologists and anthropologists.

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The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the Western world from the 1960s to the 1980s.

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In principle, a sheriff is a legal official with responsibility for a "shire", i.e. county.

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, also kami-no-michi, is the ethnic religion of the people of Japan.

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Show business, sometimes shortened to show biz or showbiz (since 1945), is a vernacular term for all aspects of entertainment, especially light entertainment.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown or the German Battle, ending on October 19, 1781 at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.

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The Sierra Nevada (or,, snowy range) is a mountain range in the western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Basin and Range Province.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic dharma which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia.

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Silicon Valley is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area, which is located in the part of the U.S. state of California known as Northern California.

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Singin' in the Rain is a 1952 American musical comedy film directed by Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen, starring Kelly, Donald O'Connor and Debbie Reynolds, and choreographed by Kelly and Donen.