196 relations: Affidavit, Alexander Hamilton, Alfred A. Knopf, American Revolutionary War, Anti-Federalism, Archivist of the United States, Article Five of the United States Constitution, Article One of the United States Constitution, Article Seven of the United States Constitution, Articles of Confederation, Barron v. Baltimore, Basic Books, Bill of Rights 1689, Brown v. Plata, Capital punishment, Cato Institute, Church of England, Codification (law), Colgrove v. Battin, Coming into force, Commerce Clause, Common law, Confrontation Clause, Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Connecticut General Assembly, Constitutional convention (political meeting), Constitutionalism in the United States, Cruel and unusual punishment, David O. Stewart, Defamation, Delaware, District of Columbia v. Heller, Don W. Wilson, Double jeopardy, Due process, Earl Warren, Edmund Randolph, Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Elbridge Gerry, Eminent domain, English law, Enumerative definition, Establishment Clause, Estelle v. Gamble, Everson v. Board of Education, Exclusionary rule, Federal government of the United States, Federal Hall, Federal judiciary of the United States, Federalism, ..., Federalist No. 46, Federalist No. 84, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, FindLaw, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First inauguration of George Washington, Fisher Ames, Fordham Law Review, Founding Fathers of the United States, Four Freedoms, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Francis Dana, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free Exercise Clause, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of association, Freedom of speech in the United States, Freedom of the press in the United States, Furman v. Georgia, George Mason, George W. Bush, George Wythe, Georgia (U.S. state), Gerrymandering, Gideon v. Wainwright, Gitlow v. New York, Google Books, Gordon S. Wood, Grand jury, Gregg v. Georgia, Griswold v. Connecticut, Gun politics in the United States, HighBeam Research, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Independence Hall, Individual and group rights, Institute of Bill of Rights Law, Jack N. Rakove, James Madison, James Monroe, James Wilson, John Hancock, John Lansing Jr., Joint resolution, Jury trial, Kentucky, Kentucky General Assembly, List of ambassadors of the United States to France, List of amendments to the United States Constitution, Luther Martin, Magna Carta, Maryland, Massachusetts, Massachusetts General Court, McDonald v. City of Chicago, Miranda v. Arizona, Monarch, National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives Building, Natural and legal rights, Near v. Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York (state), New York Public Library, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, New York Times Co. v. United States, Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution, North Carolina, Obergefell v. Hodges, Ohio General Assembly, Oxford University Press, Patients' rights, Patrick Henry, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, Philadelphia, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, Popular sovereignty, President, President of the United States, Prior restraint, Probable cause, Public trial, Quartering Acts, Random House, Rhode Island, Richard Henry Lee, Richard Labunski, Right to counsel, Right to keep and bear arms, Right to petition, Right to privacy, Robert Yates (politician), Roe v. Wade, Roger Sherman, SAGE Publications, Salary Grab Act, Samuel Adams, Search and seizure, Search warrant, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Second Bill of Rights, Second Continental Congress, Self-incrimination, Separation of powers, Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Simon & Schuster, Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, South Carolina, South Dakota v. Dole, Speedy Trial Clause, State court (United States), Substantive due process, Talton v. Mayes, Taxpayer Bill of Rights, Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, The Federalist Papers, Third Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Jefferson, Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, U.S. state, United States congressional conference committee, United States Constitution, United States free speech exceptions, United States House of Representatives, United States v. Cruikshank, United States v. Miller, University of Texas at Austin, University Press of New England, Vermont, Virginia, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Virginia House of Delegates, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Warrant (law), Washington, D.C., We Hold These Truths, West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, Western calligraphy, William Rehnquist, Writ of assistance, Wyoming Legislature, Yale University Press, 1st United States Congress. Expand index (146 more) » « Shrink index
An affidavit is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution.
The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
Article Five of the United States Constitution describes the process whereby the Constitution, the nation's frame of government, may be altered.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
Article Seven of the United States Constitution sets the number of state ratifications necessary in order for the Constitution to take effect and prescribes the method through which the states may ratify it.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Barron v. Baltimore,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court case in 1833, which helped define the concept of federalism in US constitutional law.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
Brown v. Plata, 563 U.S. 493 (2011), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that a court-mandated population limit was necessary to remedy a violation of prisoners’ Eighth Amendment constitutional rights.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
Colgrove v. Battin,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that six person civil juries were constitutional.
Coming into force or entry into force (also called commencement) refers to the process by which legislation, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right…to be confronted with the witnesses against him." Generally, the right is to have a face-to-face confrontation with witnesses who are offering testimonial evidence against the accused in the form of cross-examination during a trial.
The Congressional Apportionment Amendment (originally titled Article the First) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution, one of twelve proposed amendments to the United States Constitution approved by the 1st Congress on September 25, 1789, and sent to the legislatures of the several states for ratification.
The Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut.
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution.
Constitutionalism in the United States is a basic value espoused by political parties, activist groups and individuals across a wide range of the political spectrum, that the powers of federal, state and local governments are limited by the Constitution of the United States and that the civil and political rights of citizens should not be violated.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
David O. Stewart (born April 2, 1951) is an American lawyer-turned-author who writes historical narratives and lives in Garrett Park, Maryland.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home, and that Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban and requirement that lawfully-owned rifles and shotguns be kept "unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock" violated this guarantee.
Don W. Wilson (born December 7, 1942) was appointed the Archivist of the United States, serving from December 4, 1987, to March 24, 1993.
Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney and politician.
The Eighth Amendment (Amendment VIII) of the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishments.
Elbridge Gerry (July 17, 1744 (O.S. July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
An enumerative definition of a concept or term is a special type of extensional definition that gives an explicit and exhaustive listing of all the objects that fall under the concept or term in question.
In United States law, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, together with that Amendment's Free Exercise Clause, form the constitutional right of freedom of religion.
Estelle v. Gamble,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States established the standard of what a prisoner must plead in order to claim a violation of Eighth Amendment rights under 42 U.S.C. § 1983.
Everson v. Board of Education, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court which applied the Establishment Clause in the country's Bill of Rights to State law.
In the United States, the exclusionary rule is a legal rule, based on constitutional law.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Federal Hall is the name given to the first of two historic buildings located at 26 Wall Street, New York City.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
FindLaw is a business of Thomson Reuters that provides online legal information and online marketing services for law firms.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The first inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States was held on Thursday, April 30, 1789 on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City, New York.
Fisher Ames (April 9, 1758 – July 4, 1808) was a Representative in the United States Congress from the 1st Congressional District of Massachusetts.
The Fordham Law Review is a student-run law journal associated with the Fordham University School of Law that covers a wide range of legal scholarship.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, 1941.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
Francis Dana (June 13, 1743 – April 25, 1811) was an American lawyer, jurist, and statesman from Massachusetts.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Free Exercise Clause accompanies the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
In the United States, freedom of speech and expression is strongly protected from government restrictions by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, many state constitutions, and state and federal laws.
Freedom of the press in the United States is legally protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Furman v. Georgia, was a criminal case in which the United States Supreme Court struck down all death penalty schemes in the United States in a 5–4 decision, with each member of the majority writing a separate opinion.
George Mason (sometimes referred to as George Mason IV; October 7, 1792) was a Virginia planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates, together with fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who refused to sign the Constitution.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Wythe (1726 – June 8, 1806) was the first American law professor, a noted classics scholar, and a Virginia judge.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
Gideon v. Wainwright,, is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history.
Gitlow v. New York,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Gordon Stewart Wood (born November 27, 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
Gregg v. Georgia, Proffitt v. Florida, Jurek v. Texas, Woodson v. North Carolina, and Roberts v. Louisiana,, reaffirmed the United States Supreme Court's acceptance of the use of the death penalty in the United States, upholding, in particular, the death sentence imposed on Troy Leon Gregg.
Griswold v. Connecticut,, is a landmark case in the United States about access to contraception.
Gun politics is an area of American politics defined by two opposing groups advocating for tighter gun control on the one hand and gun rights on the other.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.
Independence Hall is the building where both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
The Institute of Bill of Rights Law (IBRL), founded in 1982, is a center for the study of constitutional law at the William & Mary School of Law in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States.
Jack Norman Rakove (born June 4, 1947) is an American historian, author and professor at Stanford University.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
John Hancock (October 8, 1793) was an American merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution.
John Ten Eyck Lansing Jr. (January 30, 1754 – vanished December 12, 1829) was an American lawyer and politician.
In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires approval by the Senate and the House and is presented to the president for his approval or disapproval.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Kentucky General Assembly, also called the Kentucky Legislature, is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Kentucky.
The United States Ambassador to France is the official representative of the President of the United States to the President of France.
Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789.
Luther Martin (February 20, 1748, Piscataway, New Jersey – July 8, 1826, New York, New York) was a politician and one of the United States' Founding Fathers, who left the Constitutional Convention early because he felt the Constitution violated states' rights.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Massachusetts General Court (formally styled the General Court of Massachusetts) is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. (2010), is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that found that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" as protected under the Second Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment against the states.
Miranda v. Arizona,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Archives Building, known informally as Archives I, is the original headquarters of the National Archives and Records Administration.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Near v. Minnesota,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision that found that prior restraints on publication violate freedom of the press as protected under the First Amendment, a principle that was applied to free speech generally in subsequent jurisprudence.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New York Public Library (NYPL) is a public library system in New York City.
New York Times Co.
New York Times Co.
The Ninth Amendment (Amendment IX) to the United States Constitution addresses rights, retained by the people, that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Obergefell v. Hodges,, is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A patient's bill of rights is a list of guarantees for those receiving medical care.
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 (ratified September 28, 1776) was the state's first constitution following the Declaration of Independence, and has been described as the most democratic in America, although it notably based rights in "men" not in "persons," as contemporaneous constitutions did in neighboring areas such as New Jersey, and as the 1689 English Bill of Rights and 1787 U.S. Constitution and 1791 U.S. Bill of Rights did.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the constitutionality of several Pennsylvania state statutory provisions regarding abortion was challenged.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government or institution, on expression, that prohibits particular instances of expression.
In United States criminal law, probable cause is the standard by which police authorities have reason to obtain a warrant for the arrest of a suspected criminal or the issuing of a search warrant.
Public trial or open trial is a trial open to public, as opposed to the secret trial.
Quartering Act is a name given to two or more Acts of British Parliament requiring local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with housing and food.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732June 19, 1794) was an American statesman from Virginia best known for the Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain.
Richard Labunski is an American journalism professor at the University of Kentucky and newspaper columnist who is an outspoken advocate for reforming the United States Constitution in his book The Second Constitutional Convention.
Right to counsel means a defendant has a right to have the assistance of counsel (i.e., lawyers), and if the defendant cannot afford a lawyer, requires that the government appoint one or pay the defendant's legal expenses.
The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.
The right to petition government for redress of grievances is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals.
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
Robert Yates (January 27, 1738 – September 9, 1801) was a politician and judge well known for his Anti-Federalist stances.
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions.
Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American statesman and lawyer, as well as a Founding Father of the United States.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The Salary Grab Act was passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1873.
Samuel Adams (– October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.
A search warrant is a court order that a magistrate or judge issues to authorize law enforcement officers to conduct a search of a person, location, or vehicle for evidence of a crime and to confiscate any evidence they find.
The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights.
The Second Bill of Rights is a list of rights that was proposed by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his State of the Union Address on Tuesday, January 11, 1944.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Self-incrimination is the act of exposing oneself generally, by making a statement "to an accusation or charge of crime; to involve oneself or another in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof." Self-incrimination can occur either directly or indirectly: directly, by means of interrogation where information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed; or indirectly, when information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed voluntarily without pressure from another person.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seventh Amendment (Amendment VII) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
South Dakota v. Dole,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court considered the limitations that the Constitution places on the authority of the United States Congress when it uses its authority to influence the individual states in areas of authority normally reserved to the states.
The Speedy Trial Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "n all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy trial" The Clause protects the defendant from delay between the presentation of the indictment or similar charging instrument and the beginning of trial.
In the United States, a state court has jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U.S. state, as opposed to the federal government.
Substantive due process, in United States constitutional law, is a principle allowing courts to protect certain fundamental rights from government interference, even if procedural protections are present or the rights are not specifically mentioned elsewhere in the US Constitution.
Talton v. Mayes,,. was a United States Supreme Court case, in which the court decided that the individual rights protections, which limit federal, and later, state governments, do not apply to tribal government.
The Taxpayer Bill of Rights (abbreviated TABOR) is a concept advocated by conservative and free market libertarian groups, primarily in the United States, as a way of limiting the growth of government.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Third Amendment (Amendment III) to the United States Constitution places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent, forbidding the practice in peacetime.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
The Twenty-seventh Amendment (Amendment XXVII) to the United States Constitution prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
A conference committee is a committee of the United States Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
Exceptions to free speech in the United States are limitations on the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech and expression as recognized by the United States Supreme Court.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
United States v. Cruikshank, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.
United States v. Miller,, was a Supreme Court case that involved a Second Amendment challenge to the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA).
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University Press of New England (UPNE), located in Lebanon, New Hampshire and founded in 1970, is a university press consortium including Brandeis University, Dartmouth College (its host member), Tufts University, the University of New Hampshire, and Northeastern University.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a document drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to reform or abolish "inadequate" government.
The Virginia House of Delegates is one of two parts in the Virginia General Assembly, the other being the Senate of Virginia.
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 (however it was not first introduced into the Virginia General Assembly until 1779) by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia.
A warrant is generally an order that serves as a specific type of authorization, that is, a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, which permits an otherwise illegal act that would violate individual rights and affords the person executing the writ protection from damages if the act is performed.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
We Hold These Truths, a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the United States Bill of Rights, is an hour-long radio program that explored American values and aired live on December 15, 1941, the first to be broadcast on all four major networks (CBS, NBC Red, NBC Blue, and Mutual).
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette,, is a decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment protects students from being forced to salute the American flag or say the Pledge of Allegiance in public school.
Western calligraphy is the art of writing and penmanship as practiced in the Western world, especially using the Latin alphabet (but also including calligraphic use of the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, as opposed to "Eastern" traditions such as Turko-Perso-Arabic, Chinese or Indian calligraphy).
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
A writ of assistance is a written order (a writ) issued by a court instructing a law enforcement official, such as a sheriff or a tax collector, to perform a certain task.
The Wyoming State Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. State of Wyoming.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The First United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia.
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