406 relations: Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Lincoln, Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, Admission to the Union, Advisory opinion, Alexander Hamilton, Ambiguity, American Civil War, Annapolis Convention (1786), Anti-Federalism, Apportionment Act of 1792, Archivist of the United States, Arithmetic mean, Ark of the Covenant, Article Five of the United States Constitution, Article Four of the United States Constitution, Article One of the United States Constitution, Article Seven of the United States Constitution, Article Six of the United States Constitution, Article Three of the United States Constitution, Article Two of the United States Constitution, Articles of Confederation, Authentication, Avalon Project, Bail, Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co., Baker v. Carr, Barbary pirates, Barron v. Baltimore, Benito Juárez, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Lincoln, Bicameralism, Bill of Rights 1689, Board of Trade of City of Chicago v. Olsen, Border states (American Civil War), Boumediene v. Bush, Brown v. Board of Education, By-election, C-SPAN, Case or Controversy Clause, Certiorari, Charles Evans Hughes, Child Labor Amendment, Chisholm v. Georgia, City of Boerne v. Flores, Civil law (common law), Civil liberties, Civil liberties in the United States, Civil religion, ..., Coleman v. Miller, Colored, Coming into force, Comity, Commander-in-chief, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, Commentaries on the Laws of England, Commerce Clause, Committee of Detail, Committees of correspondence, Common law, Congress of the Confederation, Congressional Apportionment Amendment, Congressional power of enforcement, Connecticut Compromise, Consent of the governed, Constitution, Constitution Day (United States), Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, Constitution of San Marino, Constitutional convention (political meeting), Constitutional Convention (United States), Constitutionalism, Constitutionalism in the United States, Constitutionality, Contempt of court, Continental Congress, Contumacy, Convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution, Corsican Constitution, Cortes Generales, Corwin Amendment, Council of Revision, Crime, Criminal law, Criminal sentencing in the United States, Cruel and unusual punishment, Declaratory judgment, Direct election, Direct tax, Discretionary jurisdiction, Discrimination, District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment, Double jeopardy, Downes v. Bidwell, Dred Scott, Dred Scott v. Sandford, Due process, Due Process Clause, Earl Warren, Edmund Burke, Edmund Randolph, Edward Coke, Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Elections in the United States, Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Emancipation Proclamation, Eminent domain, Engel v. Vitale, Entrenched clause, Enumerated powers (United States), Enumerative definition, Epoch (reference date), Equal Rights Amendment, Eschatocol, Establishment Clause, Evidence (law), Exclusive jurisdiction, Executive (government), Executive privilege, Extradition, Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, Fauquier County, Virginia, Federal district, Federal government of the United States, Federal judiciary of the United States, Federal Register, Federalism, Federalist No. 43, Federalist No. 47, Federalist No. 78, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, FindLaw, Fine (penalty), Finley Peter Dunne, Firearm, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First inauguration of George Washington, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free Exercise Clause, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of movement, Freedom of religion in the United States, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Friendly suit, Full Faith and Credit Clause, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, George Washington, Gideon v. Wainwright, Gitlow v. New York, Glorious Revolution, Gouverneur Morris, Government debt, Governor (United States), Governor General of Canada, Grand jury, Griswold v. Connecticut, Grutter v. Bollinger, Guards Division, Habeas corpus, Hammer v. Dagenhart, Head of government, Head of state, Hearts of Oak (New York militia), Hepburn v. Griswold, History of democracy, History of slavery, Impeachment, Income tax, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Indictment, Institutes of the Lawes of England, Institution, Instrument of Government (1772), Involuntary servitude, Jacob Shallus, Jacobson v. Massachusetts, James Madison, James Wilson, John Adams, John Blair Jr., John F. Kennedy School of Government, John Jay, John Locke, John Marshall, John Rock (abolitionist), John Rutledge, José Rizal, Joseph Story, Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, Judicial restraint, Judicial review, Judiciary, Judiciary Act of 1789, Judiciary Act of 1925, Jury, Jury trial, Just compensation, Kentucky, Kingdom of Great Britain, Lame duck (politics), Lawrence v. Texas, Lawyer, Legislature, List of amendments to the United States Constitution, List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, List of national constitutions, List of political conspiracies, List of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution, List of sources of law in the United States, List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Chase Court, London Company, Louis Brandeis, Louisiana, Louisiana (New Spain), Loyalist (American Revolution), Magna Carta, Mandamus, Marbury v. Madison, Martial law, Massachusetts Body of Liberties, Mayflower Compact, McCulloch v. Maryland, Miracle at Philadelphia, Miranda v. Arizona, Miranda warning, Missouri Compromise, Montesquieu, Mootness, MP3, Muscogee, Nathaniel Gorham, Nation state, National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives Building, National Constitution Center, Necessary and Proper Clause, New Hampshire, New Jersey Plan, New Orleans, New York (state), New York University Law Review, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Ninth Amendment to the United States Constitution, No Religious Test Clause, Northwest Ordinance, Office of the Federal Register, Oliver Ellsworth, Olmstead v. United States, Oregon v. Mitchell, Organized crime, Original jurisdiction, Overt act, Parchment, Parliament of Great Britain, Pasquale Paoli, Patriot (American Revolution), Penal labor in the United States, Pocket Constitution, Poll taxes in the United States, Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., Polybius, Preamble, Preamble to the United States Constitution, Precedent, President of the United States, Privileges and Immunities Clause, Prohibition in the United States, Property, Provisional government, Qing dynasty, Quartering Acts, Question of law, Quorum, Race (human categorization), Radio, Ratification, Recess appointment, Reconstruction Amendments, Reconstruction era, Regime, Regulation, Republic, Republicanism in the United States, Res judicata, Reynolds v. Sims, Right to keep and bear arms, Right to keep and bear arms in the United States, Right to petition, Ripeness, Robert H. Jackson, Roger B. Taney, Roman Republic, Rufus King, Rule of law, Rum-running, Salmon P. Chase, Search and seizure, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Second Constitutional Convention of the United States, Sedition, Self-incrimination, Separation of powers, Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Shays' Rebellion, Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, Signing of the United States Constitution, Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Slavery in the United States, Social contract, Sons of Liberty, Sovereign immunity in the United States, Standing (law), State constitution (United States), State governments of the United States, State legislature (United States), State of the Union, State ratifying conventions, Stenberg v. Carhart, Student activism, Suffrage, Sun Yat-sen, Supermajority, Supremacy Clause, Supreme Court of the United States, Television, Temperance movement in the United States, Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Texas v. Johnson, Texas v. White, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, The Federalist Papers, The Spirit of the Laws, Third Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Hobbes, Three-Fifths Compromise, Timeline of drafting and ratification of the United States Constitution, Title 1 of the United States Code, Titles of Nobility Amendment, Treason, Treason laws in the United States, Treaty of Paris (1783), Trial, Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, Two Treatises of Government, U.S. state, Ulysses S. Grant, Unicameralism, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Bill of Rights, United States Census, United States Congress, United States congressional apportionment, United States congressional committee, United States constitutional law, United States Declaration of Independence, United States district court, United States House of Representatives, United States nationality law, United States Senate, United States Statutes at Large, United States v. Darby Lumber Co., University of Chicago Law School, Veazie Bank v. Fenno, Vermont, Vice President of the United States, Vietnam War, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Virginia Plan, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Voting rights in the United States, Warren Court, Wars of the Roses, Washington, D.C., Weapon, Western calligraphy, Western culture, Whigs (British political party), White Americans, William Blackstone, William Howard Taft, William Jackson (secretary), William Rehnquist, William Samuel Johnson, Wisconsin v. Illinois, Witness, Women's suffrage, Worcester v. Georgia, 1st United States Congress. Expand index (356 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
The Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 (enacted March 2, 1807) is a United States federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States.
The Admission to the Union Clause of the United States Constitution, oftentimes called the New States Clause, and found at Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1, authorizes the Congress to admit new states into the United States beyond the thirteen already in existence at the time the Constitution went into effect.
An advisory opinion is an opinion issued by a court or a commission like an election commission that does not have the effect of adjudicating a specific legal case, but merely advises on the constitutionality or interpretation of a law.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Annapolis Convention, formally titled as a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government, was a national political convention held September 11–14, 1786 at Mann's Tavern in Annapolis, Maryland, in which twelve delegates from five states—New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia—gathered to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected.
Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution.
The Apportionment Act of 1792 was an apportionment bill passed by the United States Congress on April 10, 1792, and signed into law by President George Washington on April 14, 1792.
The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (stress on third syllable of "arithmetic"), or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Article Five of the United States Constitution describes the process whereby the Constitution, the nation's frame of government, may be altered.
Article Four of the United States Constitution outlines the relationship between each state and the others, and the several States and the federal government.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
Article Seven of the United States Constitution sets the number of state ratifications necessary in order for the Constitution to take effect and prescribes the method through which the states may ratify it.
Article Six of the United States Constitution establishes the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, forbids a religious test as a requirement for holding a governmental position and holds the United States under the Constitution responsible for debts incurred by the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government.
Article Two of the United States Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, which carries out and enforces federal laws.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.
The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.
Bail is a set of restrictions that are imposed on a suspect while awaiting trial, to ensure they comply with the judicial process.
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co., 259 U.S. 20 (1922), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled the 1919 Child Labor Tax Law unconstitutional as an improper attempt by Congress to penalize employers using child labor.
Baker v. Carr,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that redistricting (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
Barron v. Baltimore,, is a landmark United States Supreme Court case in 1833, which helped define the concept of federalism in US constitutional law.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin Lincoln (January 24, 1733 (O.S. January 13, 1732) – May 9, 1810) was an American army officer.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
Board of Trade of City of Chicago v. Olsen, 262 U.S. 1 (1923), is a United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court upheld the Grain Futures Act as constitutional under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.
Boumediene v. Bush,, was a writ of habeas corpus submission made in a civilian court of the United States on behalf of Lakhdar Boumediene, a naturalized citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina, held in military detention by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
By-elections, also spelled bye-elections (known as special elections in the United States, and bypolls in India), are used to fill elected offices that have become vacant between general elections.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
The Supreme Court of the United States has interpreted the Case or Controversy Clause of Article III of the United States Constitution (found in Art. III, Section 2, Clause 1) as embodying two distinct limitations on exercise of judicial review.
Certiorari, often abbreviated cert. in the United States, is a process for seeking judicial review and a writ issued by a court that agrees to review.
Charles Evans Hughes Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, Republican politician, and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States.
The Child Labor Amendment is a proposed and still-pending amendment to the United States Constitution that would specifically authorize Congress to regulate "labor of persons under eighteen years of age".
Chisholm v. Georgia,, is considered the first United States Supreme Court case of significance and impact.
City of Boerne v. Flores,, was a US Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's enforcement power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Civil liberties in the United States are certain unalienable rights retained by (as opposed to privileges granted to) citizens of the United States under the Constitution of the United States, as interpreted and clarified by the Supreme Court of the United States and lower federal courts.
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
Coleman v. Miller, is a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court which clarified that if the Congress of the United States—when proposing for ratification an amendment to the United States Constitution, pursuant to Article V thereof—chooses not to set a deadline by which the state legislatures of three-fourths of the states or, if prescribed by Congress State ratifying conventions in three-fourths of the states, must act upon the proposed amendment, then the proposed amendment remains pending business before the state legislatures (or ratifying conventions).
Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
Coming into force or entry into force (also called commencement) refers to the process by which legislation, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect.
In law, comity is "a practice among different political entities (as countries, states, or courts of different jurisdictions)" involving the "mutual recognition of legislative, executive, and judicial acts.".
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States is a three-volume work written by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Joseph Story and published in 1833.
The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765–1769.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
The Committee of Detail was a committee established by the United States Constitutional Convention on July 24, 1787 to put down a draft text reflecting the agreements made by the Convention up to that point, including the Virginia Plan's 15 resolutions.
The committees of correspondence were shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the Thirteen Colonies on the eve of the American Revolution.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
The Congressional Apportionment Amendment (originally titled Article the First) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution, one of twelve proposed amendments to the United States Constitution approved by the 1st Congress on September 25, 1789, and sent to the legislatures of the several states for ratification.
A Congressional power of enforcement is included in a number of amendments to the United States Constitution.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Constitution Day (or Citizenship Day) is an American federal observance that recognizes the adoption of the United States Constitution and those who have become U.S. citizens.
The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (Конституція Пилипа Орлика (Konstytutsiya Pylypa Orlyka) or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host Пакти і Конституції прав і вольностей Війська Запорозького (Pakty i Konstytutsii Prav i Volnostei Viyska Zaporozkoho), Pacta et Constitutiones Legum Libertatumque Exercitus Zaporoviensis) was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine.
The Constitution of San Marino is distributed over a number of legislative instruments of which the most significant are the Statutes of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974 as amended in 2002.
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
Constitutionalism in the United States is a basic value espoused by political parties, activist groups and individuals across a wide range of the political spectrum, that the powers of federal, state and local governments are limited by the Constitution of the United States and that the civil and political rights of citizens should not be violated.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt", is the offense of being disobedient to or discourteous toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
Contumacy is a stubborn refusal to obey authority or, particularly in law, the wilful contempt of the order or summons of a court (see contempt of court).
A Convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution, also called an Article V Convention, or Amendments Convention, called for by two-thirds (currently 34) of the state legislatures, is one of two processes authorized by Article Five of the United States Constitution whereby the Constitution, the nation's frame of government, may be altered.
The first Corsican Constitution was drawn up in 1755 for the short-lived Corsican Republic independent from Genoa beginning in 1755 and remained in force until the annexation of Corsica by France in 1769.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Corwin Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress.
The Council of Revision was, under the provisions of the Constitution of the State of New York of 1777, the legal body that revised all new legislation made by the New York State Legislature.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
In the United States, sentencing law varies by jurisdiction.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
A declaratory judgment, also called a declaration, is the legal determination of a court that resolves legal uncertainty for the litigants.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax.
Discretionary jurisdiction is a circumstance where a court has the power to decide whether to hear a particular case brought before it.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
The District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would have given the District of Columbia full representation in the United States Congress, full representation in the Electoral College system, and full participation in the process by which the Constitution is amended.
Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
Downes v. Bidwell,, was a case in which the US Supreme Court decided whether US territories were subject to the provisions and protections of the US Constitution.
Dred Scott (c. 1799 – September 17, 1858) was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly known as the "Dred Scott case." Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 September 12, 1813) was an American attorney and politician.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal.
The Eighth Amendment (Amendment VIII) of the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishments.
Elections in the United States are held for government officials at the federal, state, and local levels.
The Eleventh Amendment (Amendment XI) to the United States Constitution, which was passed by Congress on March 4, 1794, and ratified by the states on February 7, 1795, deals with each state's sovereign immunity and was adopted to overrule the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Chisholm v. Georgia,.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
Engel v. Vitale,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and encourage its recitation in public schools.
An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible.
The Enumerated powers (also called Expressed powers, Explicit powers or Delegated powers) of the United States Congress are listed in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution.
An enumerative definition of a concept or term is a special type of extensional definition that gives an explicit and exhaustive listing of all the objects that fall under the concept or term in question.
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
An eschatocol, or closing protocol, is the final section of a legal or public document, which may include a formulaic sentence of appreciation; the attestation of those responsible for the document, which may be the author, writer, countersigner, principal parties involved, and witnesses to the enactment or the subscription; or both.
In United States law, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, together with that Amendment's Free Exercise Clause, form the constitutional right of freedom of religion.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
In civil procedure, exclusive jurisdiction exists where one court has the power to adjudicate a case to the exclusion of all other courts.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Executive privilege is the power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch of the United States Government to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of information or personnel relating to the executive.
Extradition is the act by one jurisdiction of delivering a person who has been accused of committing a crime in another jurisdiction or has been convicted of a crime in that other jurisdiction into the custody of a law enforcement agency of that other jurisdiction.
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (abbreviated as FLSA) is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, and "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week.
Fauquier is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
FindLaw is a business of Thomson Reuters that provides online legal information and online marketing services for law firms.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
Finley Peter Dunne (July 10, 1867 – April 24, 1936) was an American humorist and writer from Chicago.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The first inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States was held on Thursday, April 30, 1789 on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York City, New York.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Free Exercise Clause accompanies the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
In the United States, freedom of religion is a constitutionally protected right provided in the religion clauses of the First Amendment.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
In the United States, a friendly suit is most often used when two parties desire or require judicial recognition of a settlement agreement, and so one sues the other despite the lack of conflict between them.
Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, known as the "Full Faith and Credit Clause", addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state." According to the Supreme Court, there is a difference between the credit owed to laws (i.e. legislative measures and common law) as compared to the credit owed to judgments.
The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1639 OS (January 24, 1639 NS).
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gideon v. Wainwright,, is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history.
Gitlow v. New York,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States holding that the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had extended the reach of certain limitations on federal government authority set forth in the First Amendment—specifically the provisions protecting freedom of speech and freedom of the press—to the governments of the individual states.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Gouverneur Morris I (30 January 1752 – 6 November 1816) was an American statesman, a Founding Father of the United States, and a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
Griswold v. Connecticut,, is a landmark case in the United States about access to contraception.
Grutter v. Bollinger,, was a landmark case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School.
The Guards Division is an administrative unit of the British Army responsible for the administration of the regiments of Foot Guards and the London Regiment.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Hammer v. Dagenhart,, was a United States Supreme Court decision involving the power of Congress to enact child labor laws.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hearts of Oak (originally "The Corsicans") were a volunteer militia based in the British colonial Province of New York and formed circa 1775 in New York City.
Hepburn v. Griswold,, was a US Supreme Court case in which the Chief Justice of the United States, Salmon P. Chase, speaking for the Court, declared certain parts of the Legal Tender Acts to be unconstitutional.
A democracy is a political system, or a system of decision-making within an institution or organization or a country, in which all members have an equal share of power.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
The Institutes of the Lawes of England are a series of legal treatises written by Sir Edward Coke.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Sweden's Constitution of 1772 (regeringsform, "Instrument of Government") took effect through a bloodless coup d'état, the Revolution of 1772, carried out by King Gustav III, who had become king in 1771, establishing a brief absolute monarchy in Sweden.
Involuntary servitude or involuntary slavery is a United States legal and constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another, under some form of coercion other than the worker's financial needs.
Jacob Shallus or Shalus (1750–April 18, 1796) was the engrosser or penman of the original copy of the United States Constitution.
Jacobson v. Massachusetts,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court upheld the authority of states to enforce compulsory vaccination laws.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Blair Jr. (April 17, 1732 – August 31, 1800) was an American politician, Founding Father and jurist.
The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John Swett Rock (October 13, 1825 – December 3, 1866) was an American teacher, doctor, dentist, lawyer and abolitionist, historically associated with the coining of the term "black is beautiful" (thought to have originated from a speech he made in 1858, however historical records now indicate he never actually used the specific phrase on that day).
John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 23, 1800) was the second Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and the first Governor of South Carolina after the Declaration of Independence.
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda, widely known as José Rizal (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines.
Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845.
The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 (frequently called the "court-packing plan")Epstein, at 451.
Judicial restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to limit the exercise of their own power.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch. 20) was a United States federal statute adopted on September 24, 1789, in the first session of the First United States Congress.
The Judiciary Act of 1925 (43 Stat. 936), also known as the Judge's Bill or Certiorari Act, was an act of the United States Congress that sought to reduce the workload of the Supreme Court of the United States.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
Just compensation is required to be paid by the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (and counterpart state constitutions) when private property is taken (or in some states, taken or damaged).
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
In politics, a lame duck is an elected official whose successor has already been elected.
Lawrence v. Texas,.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States.
The following is a list of existing national constitutions by country, semi-recognized countries, and by codification.
In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of people united in the goal of usurping, altering or overthrowing an established political power.
Hundreds of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution are introduced during each session of the United States Congress.
This is a partial chronological list of cases decided by the United States Supreme Court decided during the Chase Court, the tenure of Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase from December 15, 1864 through May 7, 1873.
The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Mandamus (Latin "we command") is a judicial remedy in the form of an order from a superior court, to any government, subordinate court, corporation, or public authority, to do (or forbear from doing) some specific act which that body is obliged under law to do (or refrain from doing), and which is in the nature of public duty, and in certain cases one of a statutory duty.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The Massachusetts Body of Liberties was the first legal code established by European colonists in New England.
The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony.
McCulloch v. Maryland,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Miracle At Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention is a work of historical non-fiction, written by Catherine Drinker Bowen and originally published in 1966.
Miranda v. Arizona,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
The Miranda warning, which also can be referred to as a person's Miranda rights, is a right to silence warning given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial interrogation) before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal proceedings.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
In law, the terms moot and mootness have different meanings in British English and American English.
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Nathaniel Gorham (May 27, 1738 – June 11, 1796, his first name is sometimes spelled Nathanial) was a politician and merchant from Massachusetts.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Archives Building, known informally as Archives I, is the original headquarters of the National Archives and Records Administration.
The National Constitution Center is a nonprofit, nonpartisan institution devoted to the United States Constitution.
The Necessary and Proper Clause, also known as the elastic clause, is a clause in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution that is as follows.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The New Jersey Plan (also known as the Small State Plan or the Paterson Plan) was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New York University Law Review is a flagship generalist law review journal publishing legal scholarship in all areas, including legal theory and policy, environmental law, legal history, international law, and more.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
The Ninth Amendment (Amendment IX) to the United States Constitution addresses rights, retained by the people, that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.
The No Religious Test Clause of the United States Constitution is a clause within Article VI, Clause 3.
The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.
The Office of the Federal Register is an office of the United States government within the National Archives and Records Administration.
Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807) was an American lawyer, judge, politician, and diplomat.
Olmstead v. United States,, was a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, in which the Court reviewed whether the use of wiretapped private telephone conversations, obtained by federal agents without judicial approval and subsequently used as evidence, constituted a violation of the defendant’s rights provided by the Fourth and Fifth Amendments.
Oregon v. Mitchell, was a Supreme Court case which held that the United States Congress could set voting age requirements for federal elections but not for local or state elections.
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
In criminal law, an overt act is the one that can be clearly proved by evidence and from which criminal intent can be inferred, as opposed to a mere intention in the mind to commit a crime.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
Filippo Antonio Pasquale di Paoli FRS (Pascal Paoli; 6 April 1725 – 5 February 1807) was a Corsican patriot and leader, the president of the Executive Council of the General Diet of the People of Corsica.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
Penal labor in the United States, a form of slavery or involuntary servitude, is explicitly allowed by the 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
A pocket Constitution is a printed copy of the United States Constitution that is pocket-sized or pamphlet-sized and can fit in a pocket, purse, or other small container for portability.
A poll tax is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.
Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Company,, affirmed on rehearing,, with a ruling of 5–4, was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the unapportioned income taxes on interest, dividends and rents imposed by the Income Tax Act of 1894 were, in effect, direct taxes, and were unconstitutional because they violated the provision that direct taxes be apportioned.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
A preamble is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy.
The Preamble to the United States Constitution is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution's fundamental purposes and guiding principles.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Privileges and Immunities Clause (U.S. Constitution, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1, also known as the Comity Clause) prevents a state from treating citizens of other states in a discriminatory manner.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quartering Act is a name given to two or more Acts of British Parliament requiring local governments of the American colonies to provide the British soldiers with housing and food.
In law, a question of law, also known as a point of law, is a question that must be answered by applying relevant legal principles to interpretation of the law.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
In the United States, a recess appointment is an appointment by the President of a federal official when the U.S. Senate is in recess.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
Res judicata (RJ) or res iudicata, also known as claim preclusion, is the Latin term for "a matter judged", and refers to either of two concepts: in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal; and the legal doctrine meant to bar (or preclude) continued litigation of a case on same issues between the same parties.
Reynolds v. Sims, was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that unlike in the election of the United States Senate, in the election of any chamber of a state legislature the electoral districts must be roughly equal in population (thus negating the traditional function of a State Senate, which was to allow rural counties to counterbalance large towns and cities).
The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.
The right to keep and bear arms in the United States is a fundamental right protected by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, and by the constitutions of most U.S. states.
The right to petition government for redress of grievances is the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's government, without fear of punishment or reprisals.
In United States law, ripeness refers to the readiness of a case for litigation; "a claim is not ripe for adjudication if it rests upon contingent future events that may not occur as anticipated, or indeed may not occur at all." For example, if a law of ambiguous quality has been enacted but never applied, a case challenging that law lacks the ripeness necessary for a decision.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Roger Brooke Taney (March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rufus King (March 24, 1755April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Rum-running, or bootlegging, is the illegal business of transporting (smuggling) alcoholic beverages where such transportation is forbidden by law.
Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808May 7, 1873) was a U.S. politician and jurist who served as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States.
Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.
The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights.
The calling of a Second Constitutional Convention of the United States is a proposal made by some scholars and activists from across the political spectrum for the purpose of making substantive reforms to the United States Federal government by rewriting its Constitution.
Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.
Self-incrimination is the act of exposing oneself generally, by making a statement "to an accusation or charge of crime; to involve oneself or another in a criminal prosecution or the danger thereof." Self-incrimination can occur either directly or indirectly: directly, by means of interrogation where information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed; or indirectly, when information of a self-incriminatory nature is disclosed voluntarily without pressure from another person.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
The Seventh Amendment (Amendment VII) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights.
Shays Rebellion (sometimes spelled "Shays's") was an armed uprising in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787.
The Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy is a Harvard University research center that explores the intersection and impact of media, politics and public policy in theory and practice.
The Signing of the United States Constitution occurred on September 17, 1787, at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, when 39 delegates to the Constitutional Convention, representing 12 states (all but Rhode Island, which declined to send delegates), endorsed the Constitution created during the four-month-long convention.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
The Sixth Amendment (Amendment VI) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that sets forth rights related to criminal prosecutions.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
The Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies.
In United States law, the federal government as well as state and tribal governments generally enjoy sovereign immunity, also known as governmental immunity, from lawsuits.
In law, standing or locus standi is the term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case.
In the United States, each state has its own constitution.
State governments of the United States are institutional units in the United States exercising some of the functions of government at a level below that of the federal government.
A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U.S. states.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
State ratifying conventions are one of the two methods established by Article V of the United States Constitution for ratifying proposed constitutional amendments.
Stenberg v. Carhart,, is a case heard by the Supreme Court of the United States dealing with a Nebraska law which made performing "partial-birth abortion" illegal, without regard for the health of the mother.
Student activism is work by students to cause political, environmental, economic, or social change.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution (Article VI, Clause 2) establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the supreme law of the land.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The Temperance movement in the United States was a movement to curb the consumption of alcohol.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.
Texas v. Johnson,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated prohibitions on desecrating the American flag enforced in 48 of the 50 states.
Texas v. White, was a case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869.
The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation (popularly known as the Constitution Annotated or CONAN) is a publication encompassing the United States Constitution with analysis and interpretation by the Congressional Research Service along with in-text annotations of cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.
The Third Amendment (Amendment III) to the United States Constitution places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent, forbidding the practice in peacetime.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
The drafting of the Constitution of the United States began on May 25, 1787, when the Constitutional Convention met for the first time with a quorum at the Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to revise the Articles of Confederation, and ended on September 17, 1787, the day the Constitution drafted by the convention's delegates to replace the Articles was adopted and signed.
Title 1 of the United States Code outlines the general provisions of the United States Code.
The Titles of Nobility Amendment is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
In the United States, there are both federal and state laws prohibiting treason.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
The Twentieth Amendment (Amendment XX) to the United States Constitution moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the president and vice president from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3.
The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 16, 1919.
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) to the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.
The Twenty-seventh Amendment (Amendment XXVII) to the United States Constitution prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives.
The Twenty-sixth Amendment (Amendment XXVI) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old.
The Twenty-third Amendment (Amendment XXIII) to the United States Constitution extends the right to vote in the presidential election to citizens residing in the District of Columbia by granting the District electors in the Electoral College, as if it was a state.
Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress).
United States constitutional law is the body of law governing the interpretation and implementation of the United States Constitution.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States nationality law is a uniform rule of naturalization of the United States set out in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, enacted under the power of Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution (also referred to as the Nationality Clause), which reads: Congress shall have Power - "To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization..." The 1952 Act sets forth the legal requirements for the acquisition of, and divestiture from, American nationality.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress.
United States v. Darby Lumber Co.,., was a case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, holding that the U.S. Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions.
The University of Chicago Law School is a professional graduate school of the University of Chicago.
Veazie Bank v. Fenno,, was a United States Supreme Court case.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights is a document drafted in 1776 to proclaim the inherent rights of men, including the right to reform or abolish "inadequate" government.
The Virginia Plan (also known as the Randolph Plan, after its sponsor, or the Large-State Plan) was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch.
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was drafted in 1777 (however it was not first introduced into the Virginia General Assembly until 1779) by Thomas Jefferson in the city of Fredericksburg, Virginia.
The issue of voting rights in the United States, specifically the enfranchisement and disenfranchisement of different groups, has been contested throughout United States history.
The Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Western calligraphy is the art of writing and penmanship as practiced in the Western world, especially using the Latin alphabet (but also including calligraphic use of the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, as opposed to "Eastern" traditions such as Turko-Perso-Arabic, Chinese or Indian calligraphy).
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
William Jackson (March 9, 1759 – December 17, 1828) was a figure in the American Revolution, most noteworthy as the secretary to the United States Constitutional Convention.
William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, and then as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005.
William Samuel Johnson (October 7, 1727 – November 14, 1819) was an early American statesman who was notable for signing the United States Constitution, for representing Connecticut in the United States Senate, and for serving as the third president of King's College now known as Columbia University.
Wisconsin v. Illinois, 278 U.S. 367 (1929), also referred to as the Chicago Sanitary District Case, is an opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States which held that the equitable power of the United States can be used to impose positive action on one state in a situation in which nonaction would result in damage to the interests of other states.
A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
Worcester v. Georgia,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
The First United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and later at Congress Hall in Philadelphia.
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