164 relations: Afghanistan, Air Force Reserve Command, Air National Guard, Alexander Haig, Alfred Gruenther, Algiers, Allied Joint Force Command Naples, Andrew Goodpaster, Area of responsibility, Azores, Bad Tölz, Bantz J. Craddock, Ben Gurion Airport, Berlin Wall, Bernard W. Rogers, BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile, Black Sea Rotational Force, Bombing of Iraq (1998), Bundeswehr, Camp des Loges, Casablanca, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Charles de Gaulle, Cold War, Colin Powell, Commander-in-chief, Constanța, Curtis Scaparrotti, Donald Rumsfeld, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Europe, European Theater of Operations, United States Army, Exercise Reforger, Fort Bragg, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, General (United States), George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, George Joulwan, Goldwater–Nichols Act, Grafenwöhr, Greenland, Gulf War, Heidelberg, Herzliya Pituah, Huntingdonshire, Iceland, Iceland Defense Force, Incirlik Air Base, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference, ..., Iraq, Iraq War, Israel, Israeli Air Force, James G. Stavridis, James L. Jones, John Galvin (general), John Shalikashvili, Joint Intelligence Operations Center Europe Analytic Center, Joint Task Force Aztec Silence, Joseph Ralston, Kaiserslautern Military Community, Kelley Barracks, Kosovo, Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission, Kosovo Verification Mission, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Lauris Norstad, Lebanon, Lyman Lemnitzer, Matthew Ridgway, Mediterranean Sea, Mihail Kogălniceanu International Airport, Mons, Multi-National Corps – Iraq, Munich massacre, Naples, National Guard Bureau, NATO, NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, NATO School, Oberammergau, Operation Active Endeavour, Operation Dragon Rouge, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Essential Harvest, Operation Juniper Shield, Operation Northern Watch, Operation Silk Purse, Oxford University Press, Palestinians, Panzer Kaserne, Paris, Partnership for Peace, Patch Barracks, Pershing II, Philip M. Breedlove, Prague Spring, RAF Mildenhall, RAF Molesworth, Ramstein Air Base, Red Army Faction, Red Brigades, Republic of Ireland, RSD-10 Pioneer, Russia, Sahara, September 11 attacks, Shaba II, Soviet Navy, Soviet Union, Stanleyville mutinies, State Partnership Program, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Strait of Gibraltar, Stuttgart, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Syria, Task Force East, Third Air Force, Thomas T. Handy, Timothy Ray, Unified combatant command, United Kingdom, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1199, United States Africa Command, United States Air Force, United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Army Europe, United States Army Reserve, United States Atlantic Command, United States Central Command, United States Department of Defense, United States European Command, United States Joint Forces Command, United States Marine Corps Forces, Europe, United States Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa, United States Navy SEALs, United States Secretary of Defense, United States Sixth Fleet, V Corps (United States), Vietnam War, VII Corps (United States), Warsaw Pact, Wesley Clark, Wiesbaden, William Arkin, Zaire, 10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command, 10th Special Forces Group (United States), 12th Combat Aviation Brigade, 16th Sustainment Brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, 18th Military Police Brigade (United States), 1958 Lebanon crisis, 1972 Summer Olympics, 21st Theater Sustainment Command, 2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States), 352d Special Operations Wing, 5th Operational Squadron, 7th Army Training Command. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia.
The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force as well as the militia air force of each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Alexander Meigs "Al" Haig Jr. (December 2, 1924February 20, 2010) was the United States secretary of state under President Ronald Reagan and the White House chief of staff under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Alfred Maximilian Gruenther (March 3, 1899 – May 30, 1983) was a senior United States Army officer, Red Cross president, and bridge player.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Allied Joint Force Command (JFC) Naples (JFC Naples) is a NATO military command based in Lago Patria, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy—the base was formerly located in the Bagnoli quarter of Naples.
Andrew Jackson Goodpaster (February 12, 1915 – May 16, 2005) was an American Army General.
Area of Responsibility (AOR) is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan (UCP), that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations; for which a force, or component commander bears a certain responsibility.
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Bad Tölz is a town in Bavaria, Germany and the administrative center of the district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen.
Bantz John Craddock (born August 24, 1949) is a former United States Army general.
Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה הבינלאומי בן גוריון; مطار بن غوريون الدولي), commonly referred to as Ben Gurion Airport or Natbag (נתב״ג), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest airport in the country, located to the southeast of Tel Aviv.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Bernard William Rogers (July 16, 1921October 27, 2008) was a United States Army general who served as the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, and later as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, Europe and Commander in Chief, United States European Command.
The Ground Launched Cruise Missile, or GLCM, (officially designated BGM-109G Gryphon) was a ground-launched cruise missile developed by the United States Air Force in the last decade of the Cold War and destroyed under the INF Treaty.
Black Sea Rotational Force began in 2010 with the purpose to form a Security Cooperation Marine Air-Ground Task Force.
The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 December 1998, to 19 December 1998, by the United States and United Kingdom.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Camp des Loges, also known as the Ooredoo Training Centre for sponsorship reasons, is a sports complex located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
Curtis Michael "Mike" Scaparrotti (born March 5, 1956) is a four-star general in the United States Army, and the current Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) of NATO Allied Command Operations.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Theater of Operations, United States Army (ETOUSA) was a United States Army formation which directed US Army operations in parts of Europe from 1942 to 1945.
Exercise Campaign Reforger (from return of forces to '''Ger'''many) was an annual exercise and campaign conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO.
Fort Bragg, North Carolina is a military installation of the United States Army and is the largest military installation in the world (by population) with more than 50,000 active duty personnel.
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is a United States Department of Defense and Federal Ministry of Defence (Germany) security and defense studies institute.
George Alfred Joulwan (born November 16, 1939, Pottsville, Pennsylvania) is a retired United States Army general. He finished his military career as the Commander-in-Chief, United States European Command and Supreme Allied Commander (SACEUR) in 1997.
The Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of October 4, 1986, (signed by President Ronald Reagan), made the most sweeping changes to the United States Department of Defense since the department was established in the National Security Act of 1947 by reworking the command structure of the United States military.
Grafenwöhr (Northern Bavarian: Groafawehr) is a town in the district Neustadt (Waldnaab), in the region of the Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) in eastern Bavaria, Germany.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Herzliya Pituach (הרצליה פיתוח) is an affluent beachfront neighbourhood in the western Herzliya, Israel, in the Tel Aviv District.
Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire, as well as a historic county of England.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Iceland Defense Force (IDF) was a military command of the United States Armed Forces from 1951 to 2006.
Incirlik Air Base (İncirlik Hava Üssü) is a Turkish air base of slightly more than 3320 ac (1335 ha), located in the İncirlik quarter of the city of Adana, Turkey.
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty) is the abbreviated name of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union (and later its successor states, in particular the Russian Federation).
The International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference is an organization of the principal leaders of the national groups of military chaplains.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
James George Stavridis (born February 15, 1955) is a retired United States Navy admiral and the current dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, a graduate school for international affairs.
James Logan "Jim" Jones Jr. (born December 19, 1943) is a retired United States Marine Corps general and a former United States National Security Advisor.
John Rogers Galvin (May 13, 1929 – September 25, 2015) was an American army general who served as the sixth dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University and a member of the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century.
John Malchase David Shalikashvili (ჯონ მალხაზ დავით შალიკაშვილი,; June 27, 1936 – July 23, 2011) was a United States Army general who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Supreme Allied Commander from 1993 to 1997.
The Joint Intelligence Operations Center Europe (JIOCEUR) Analytic Center (JAC), formerly known as the Joint Analysis Center, is a Joint Intelligence Center serving as a focal point of military intelligence for the United States European Command located at RAF Molesworth, Cambridgeshire, UK.
Joint Task Force Aztec Silence is a United States Department of Defense task force conducting anti-terrorism operations.
General Joseph W. Ralston (born November 4, 1943) is currently the United States Special Envoy for Countering the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and holds senior positions in various defense related corporations.
Kaiserslautern Military Community is a community of Americans living in and around Kaiserslautern, Germany supporting United States Armed Forces and NATO installations, such as the Ramstein Air Base, Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Kapaun Air Station, Vogelweh Housing Area, Pulaski Barracks, Kleber Kaserne, Daenner Kaserne, Panzer Kaserne, Sembach Kaserne, Miesau Army Depot, and Rhine Ordnance Barracks.
Kelley Barracks (formerly Helenen-Kaserne) is a U.S. military installation and headquarters of United States Africa Command, and is a part of US Army Garrison Stuttgart in Stuttgart-Möhringen in Germany.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission (KDOM) was a group of independent observers sent to Kosovo during the Kosovo War.
The Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM) was an OSCE mission to verify that the Serbian, and Yugoslav forces were complying with the UN October Agreement to end atrocities in Kosovo, withdraw armed forces from Kosovo, and abide by a ceasefire.
The Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) is an overseas military hospital operated by the United States Army and the Department of Defense.
Lauris Norstad (March 24, 1907 – September 12, 1988) was an American General in the United States Army Air Forces and United States Air Force.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lyman Louis Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 – November 12, 1988) was a United States Army general, who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1960 to 1962.
General Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895 – July 26, 1993) was the 19th Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mihail Kogălniceanu Airport is situated in southeastern Romania, in the commune of Mihail Kogălniceanu, north-northwest of Constanța.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Multi-National Corps – Iraq (MNC-I) was a formerly multinational, later U.S. only, army corps created on 15 May 2004, fighting the Iraq War.
The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officer.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
The National Guard Bureau is the federal instrument responsible for the administration of the United States National Guard established by the United States Congress as a joint bureau of the Department of the Army and the Department of the Air Force.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The NATO School Oberammergau in southern Germany is NATO's key training facility on the operational level.
Oberammergau, or Upper Ammer Vale, is a municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria, Germany.
Operation Active Endeavour was a maritime operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Operation Dragon Rouge (Opération Dragon rouge, Operatie Rode Draak) was a hostage rescue operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo conducted by Belgium and the United States in 1964.
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the Global War on Terrorism.
Operation Essential Harvest (or Task Force Harvest) was a deployment mission in the Republic of Macedonia by NATO, officially launched on August 22, 2001 and effectively started on August 27.
Operation Juniper Shield formerly known as Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara (OEF-TS) is the military operation conducted by the United States and partner nations in the Sahara/Sahel region of Africa, consisting of counterterrorism efforts and policing of arms and drug trafficking across central Africa.
Operation Northern Watch (ONW), the successor to Operation Provide Comfort, was a Combined Task Force (CTF) charged with enforcing its own no-fly zone above the 36th parallel in Iraq.
Operation Silk Purse was the United States' airborne nuclear command and control mission for the European theater of operations from 1961 through 1994.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Panzer Kaserne is a U.S. military installation in Böblingen, Germany, part of US Army Garrison Stuttgart.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
Patch Barracks is a U.S. military installation in Stuttgart-Vaihingen in Germany.
The Pershing II Weapon System was a solid-fueled two-stage ballistic missile designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the Pershing 1a Field Artillery Missile System as the United States Army's primary nuclear-capable theater-level weapon.
Philip Mark Breedlove (born September 21, 1955) is a retired four-star General in the United States Air Force who served as the Commander, U.S. European Command, as well as the 17th Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) of NATO Allied Command Operations, from May 2013 until May 4, 2016.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Royal Air Force Mildenhall, more commonly known as RAF Mildenhall, is a Royal Air Force (RAF) station located near Mildenhall in Suffolk, England. Despite its status as a Royal Air Force station, it primarily supports United States Air Force (USAF) operations, and is currently the home of the 100th Air Refueling Wing (100 ARW). On 8 January 2015, the United States Department of Defense announced that operations at RAF Mildenhall would end (along with those at RAF Molesworth and RAF Alconbury), and be relocated to Germany (Spangdahlem Air Base) and also elsewhere within the UK. On 18 January 2016, the British Ministry of Defence announced that the site is to be sold.
Royal Air Force Molesworth or more simply RAF Molesworth is a Royal Air Force station located near Molesworth, Cambridgeshire, England with a history dating back to 1917.
Ramstein Air Base is a United States Air Force base in Rhineland-Palatinate, a state in southwestern Germany.
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, often abbreviated BR) was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations, kidnapping and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead".
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
The RSD-10 Pioneer (ракета средней дальности (РСД) «Пионер» tr.: Raketa Sredney Dalnosti (RSD) "Pioneer"; Medium-Range Missile "Pioneer") was an intermediate-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead, deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shaba II was a brief conflict fought in the Zairean province of Shaba (now Katanga) in 1978.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Kisangani Mutinies, also known as the Stanleyville Mutinies or Mercenaries' Mutinies, occurred in 1966 and 1967.
The State Partnership Program (SPP) is a joint program of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) and the individual states, territories, and District of Columbia.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is the head of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), also known as Allied Command Operations (ACO), of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), based in Casteau, Belgium.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations (ACO).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Black Sea Area Support Team (BS-AST) (Formerly Joint Task Force-East) is a United States European Command initiative executed by U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR) designed to strengthen relationships between the United States and its Eastern European allies.
The Third Air Force (Air Forces Europe) (3 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA).
Thomas Troy Handy (March 11, 1892 – April 12, 1982) was a United States Army four-star general who served as Deputy Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (DCSA) from 1944 to 1947; Commanding General, Fourth United States Army from 1947 to 1949; Commander in Chief, United States European Command (CINCEUR) from 1949 to 1952; Commander in Chief, U.S. Army Europe/Commander, Central Army Group (CINCUSAREUR/COMCENTAG), 1952; and Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. European Command (DCINCEUR), from 1952 to 1954.
Timothy M. Ray is a United States Air Force Lieutenant General.
A unified combatant command (UCC) is a United States Department of Defense command that is composed of forces from at least two Military Departments and has a broad and continuing mission.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1199, adopted on 23 September 1998, after recalling Resolution 1160 (1998), the Council demanded that the Albanian and Yugoslav parties in Kosovo end hostilities and observe a ceasefire.
The United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM, U.S. AFRICOM, and AFRICOM), is one of ten unified combatant commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Air Forces in Europe – Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA) is a United States Air Force major command (MAJCOM) and a component command of both United States European Command (USEUCOM) and United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM). As part of its mission, USAFE-AFAFRICA commands U.S. Air Force units pledged to NATO, maintaining combat-ready wings based from Great Britain to Turkey. USAFE-AFAFRICA plans, conducts, controls, coordinates and supports air and space operations in Europe, parts of Asia and all of Africa with the exception of Egypt to achieve U.S. national and NATO objectives based on taskings by the two combatant commanders. USAFE-AFAFRICA is headquartered at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. It is the oldest continuously active USAF major command, originally activated on 1 February 1942 at Langley Field, Virginia, as the Eighth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces. Two years later, it was designated as United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF) and on 7 August 1945 it was designated as United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). On 20 April 2012 United States Air Forces in Europe formally became the U.S. Air Forces in Europe – Air Forces Africa when the 17th Air Force inactivated. The command has more than 35,000 active duty personnel, Air Reserve Component personnel, and civilian employees assigned.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
United States Army Europe (USAREUR), formally United States Army Europe and Seventh Army, is an Army Service Component Command of the United States Army.
The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army.
United States Atlantic Command (acronym from 1947-1993 USLANTCOM, after 1993 USACOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Department of Defense.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States European Command (EUCOM) is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany.
United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Armed Forces.
Marine Corps Forces Europe and Africa (abbreviated as MARFOREUR/AF), headquartered in Panzer Kaserne-Barracks in Böblingen, Germany, is the U.S. Marine Corps component of the U.S. European Command.
United States Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa (NAVEUR-NAVAF) is the United States Navy component command of the United States European Command and United States Africa Command.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Sixth Fleet is the United States Navy's operational fleet and staff of United States Naval Forces Europe.
V Corps was a regular corps of the United States Army during World War I, World War II, Cold War, Kosovo, and War on Terrorism.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The VII Corps of the United States Army was one of the two principal corps of the United States Army Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr. (born December 23, 1944) is a retired General of the United States Army.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
William M. Arkin (born May 15, 1956) is an American political commentator, best-selling author, journalist, activist, blogger, and former United States Army soldier.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
The 10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) is a theater level Army air and missile defense organization and directly subordinated to United States Army Europe.
The 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne) (10th SFG(A) or 10th Group) is an active duty United States Army Special Forces (SF) Group.
The 12th Combat Aviation Brigade is a Combat Aviation Brigade of the United States Army.
The 16th Sustainment Brigade is a sustainment brigade of the United States Army based at Smith Barracks in Baumholder, Germany.
The 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team ("Sky Soldiers") is an airborne infantry brigade combat team of the United States Army based in Vicenza, Italy.
The 18th Military Police Brigade is a military police brigade of the United States Army based in Grafenwoehr, Germany, with subordinate battalions and companies stationed throughout Germany.
The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention.
The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.
The 21st Theater Sustainment Command (21st TSC) provides theater sustainment throughout EUCOM and AFRICOM Areas of Responsibility in support of USAREUR and 7th Army.
The 2nd Cavalry Regiment, also known as the 2nd Dragoons, is an active Stryker infantry and cavalry regiment of the United States Army.
The 352d Special Operations Wing is an operational unit of the United States Air Force Special Operations Command currently stationed at RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom.
The 5th Mediterranean squadron of warships, or Fifth Eskadra, was/is a flotilla of ships of the Soviet Navy, and much later, the Russian Navy.
The 7th Army Training Command is a United States Army training organization located in Grafenwöhr, Bavaria, Germany.
Commander in Chief, US European Command, Commander, United States European Command, Deputy Commander in Chief, U.S. European Command, EUCOM, EURCOM, European Command, SOCEUR, Special Operations Command Europe, Special Operations Command, Europe, U.S. European Command, US European Command, USEUCOM, United States Military Command.