109 relations: Adaptive optics, Anderson Mesa, Angular resolution, Apparent magnitude, Astrogeology Research Program, Astrometry, Astronomical Almanac, Astronomical catalog, Astronomical interferometer, Astronomical optical interferometry, Astronomical seeing, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Ångström, Be star, Binary star, Brown dwarf, Building code, Cassini–Huygens, Catadioptric system, Celestial mechanics, Charon, Charon (moon), Coconino County, Arizona, Collimated light, Colorado Plateau, Computer-aided design, Corning Inc., Coronagraph, Cryogenics, Curve fitting, Deep Impact (spacecraft), Deformable mirror, DFM Engineering, Dielectric mirror, Dwarf planet, Ephemeris, Exoplanet, F-number, First light (astronomy), Flagstaff, Arizona, Flare star, Frame of reference, George Willis Ritchey, Geostationary orbit, Giant star, Gravity darkening, Hartmann mask, IAU definition of planet, Indium antimonide, ..., Infrared, Interferometry, International Astronomical Union, International Celestial Reference Frame, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Kaj Aage Gunnar Strand, Kelvin, Kodak, Lens speed, Light pollution, Limb darkening, Liquid nitrogen, List of optical telescopes, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lowell Observatory, Methods of detecting exoplanets, Michelson interferometer, Mogollon Rim, NASA, Naval Air Facility El Centro, Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, Navy Region Southwest, New Horizons, Numerical control, Observatory, Optical aberration, Pan-STARRS, Photometry (astronomy), Pluto, Quasar, Red dwarf, Reflecting telescope, Ritchey–Chrétien telescope, Robotic telescope, Satellite, Saturn, Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Star, Starspot, Stellar classification, Stellar parallax, Stellar rotation, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, Tempel 1, The Nautical Almanac, Tilt (optics), Titan (moon), Transit instrument, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, United States federal civil service, United States Naval Observatory, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Space Surveillance Network, Vacuum deposition, Vilnius photometric system, Visible spectrum, Wavefront, Zernike polynomials. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.
Anderson Mesa (Navajo: Hosh Dikʼání) is an approximately 5-long-mesa located at, 20 miles southeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, east of Lake Mary and north of Mormon Lake, in Coconino County.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
The Astrogeology Research Program is a program of the United States Geological Survey concerned with the study of planetary geology and planetary cartography.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
The Astronomical AlmanacThe Astronomical Almanac for the Year 2015, (United States Naval Observatory/Nautical Almanac Office, 2014).
An astronomical catalog or catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery.
An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and galaxies by means of interferometry.
In optical astronomy, interferometry is used to combine signals from two or more telescopes to obtain measurements with higher resolution than could be obtained with either telescopes individually.
Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Be Stars are a heterogeneous set of stars with B spectral types and emission lines.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
A catadioptric optical system is one where refraction and reflection are combined in an optical system, usually via lenses (dioptrics) and curved mirrors (catoptrics).
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.
In Greek mythology, Charon or Kharon (Greek Χάρων) is the ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased across the rivers Styx and Acheron that divided the world of the living from the world of the dead.
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
Coconino County is a county located in the north central part of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Corning Incorporated is an American multinational technology company that specializes in specialty glass, ceramics, and related materials and technologies including advanced optics, primarily for industrial and scientific applications.
A coronagraph is a telescopic attachment designed to block out the direct light from a star so that nearby objects – which otherwise would be hidden in the star's bright glare – can be resolved.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Curve fitting is the process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit to a series of data points, possibly subject to constraints.
Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.
Deformable mirrors (DM) are mirrors whose surface can be deformed, in order to achieve wavefront control and correction of optical aberrations.
DFM Engineering is an American telescope and optics manufacturer founded in 1979 by Frank Melsheimer in Longmont, Colorado.
A dielectric mirror, also known as a Bragg mirror, is a type of mirror composed of multiple thin layers of dielectric material, typically deposited on a substrate of glass or some other optical material.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
In astronomy and celestial navigation, an ephemeris (plural: ephemerides) gives the positions of naturally occurring astronomical objects as well as artificial satellites in the sky at a given time or times.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
In astronomy, first light is the first use of a telescope (or, in general, a new instrument) to take an astronomical image after it has been constructed.
Flagstaff is a city in and the county seat of Coconino County in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States.
A flare star is a variable star that can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
George Willis Ritchey (December 31, 1864 – November 4, 1945) was an American optician and telescope maker and astronomer born at Tuppers Plains, Ohio.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature.
Gravity darkening, also referred to as gravity brightening, is an astronomical phenomenon where a star rotates so rapidly that it has a detectably oblate spheroid shape, such as in Achernar in the constellation Eridanus.
Hartmann mask is a tool to help focusing telescopes, mainly used by amateur astronomers.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined in August 2006 that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which.
Indium antimonide (InSb) is a crystalline compound made from the elements indium (In) and antimony (Sb).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
In astrometry, an International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is a realization of the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) using reference celestial sources observed at radio wavelengths.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Kaj Aage Gunnar Strand (27 February 1907 – 31 October 2000) was a Danish astronomer who worked in Denmark and the United States He was Scientific Director of the U.S. Naval Observatory from 1963 to 1977.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
Lens speed refers to the maximum aperture diameter, or minimum f-number, of a photographic lens.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
Limb darkening is an optical effect seen in stars (including the Sun), where the center part of the disk appears brighter than the edge or limb of the image.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
* List of largest optical reflecting telescopes - List of large optical telescopes.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States.
Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star.
The Michelson interferometer is a common configuration for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson.
The Mogollon Rim or) is a topographical and geological feature cutting across the U.S. state of Arizona. It extends approximately, starting in northern Yavapai County and running eastward, ending near the border with New Mexico. The Mogollon Rim is not to be confused with the Mogollon Mountains in New Mexico located somewhat east of the eastern end of the Rim. The official estimate of the eastern end is near Show Low, although some sources extend it farther east. See It forms the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in Arizona.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Naval Air Facility El Centro or NAF El Centro is a military airport located six miles (10 km) northwest of El Centro, in Imperial County, California.
The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is an American astronomical interferometer, with the world's largest baselines, operated by the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Lowell Observatory.
Navy Region Southwest is one of eleven current naval regions responsible to Commander, Navy Installations Command for the operation and management of Naval shore installations in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.
Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.
The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS 1; obs. code: F51 and Pan-STARRS 2 obs. code: F52) located at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, USA, consists of astronomical cameras, telescopes and a computing facility that is surveying the sky for moving or variable objects on a continual basis, and also producing accurate astrometry and photometry of already detected objects.
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image.
A Ritchey–Chrétien telescope (RCT or simply RC) is a specialized variant of the Cassegrain telescope that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and a hyperbolic secondary mirror designed to eliminate off-axis optical errors (coma).
A robotic telescope is an astronomical telescope and detector system that makes observations without the intervention of a human.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
A Shack–Hartmann (or Hartmann–Shack) wavefront sensor (SHWFS) is an optical instrument used for characterizing an imaging system.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-spectral imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2.5-m wide-angle optical telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United States.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Starspots are stellar phenomena.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
Stellar rotation is the angular motion of a star about its axis.
The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an 80/20 joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) to construct and maintain an airborne observatory.
Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.
The Nautical Almanac has been the familiar name for a series of official British almanacs published under various titles since the first issue of The Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris, for 1767: this was the first nautical almanac ever to contain data dedicated to the convenient determination of longitude at sea.
In optics, tilt is a deviation in the direction a beam of light propagates.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
In astronomy, transit instruments are used for the precise observation of star positions.
UKIRT, the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope, is a 3.8 metre (150 inch) infrared reflecting telescope, the second largest dedicated infrared (1 to 30 micrometres) telescope in the world.
The United States federal civil service is the civilian workforce (i.e., non-elected and non-military, public sector employees) of the United States federal government's departments and agencies.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Space Surveillance Network detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting Earth, e.g. active/inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, or fragmentation debris.
Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface.
The Vilnius photometric system is a medium-band seven-colour photometric system (UPXYZVS), created in 1963 by Vytautas Straižys and his coworkers.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
In physics, a wavefront is the locus of points characterized by propagation of positions of identical phase: propagation of a point in 1D, a curve in 2D or a surface in 3D.
In mathematics, the Zernike polynomials are a sequence of polynomials that are orthogonal on the unit disk.