168 relations: Abdulaziz Sachedina, Abstention, Allan C. Carlson, Allies of World War II, American Anthropological Association, American Friends Service Committee, American Library Association, Amnesty International, Animator, Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, Apartheid, Asian values, Bedia Afnan, Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, Censorship, Charles Malik, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Chinese Civil War, Chinese language, Christian democracy, Colonialism, Columbia University, Command responsibility, Common Era, Conscience, Conscientious objector, Consent of the governed, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Cultural relativism, Customary international law, Decade, Descriptive ethics, Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Eastern Bloc, Eleanor Roosevelt, English language, European Convention on Human Rights, European Union, Evangelism, Expatriate, Expectation of privacy, Faisal Kutty, Farewell Sermon, Four Freedoms, Fourth Geneva Convention, France, Franklin D. Roosevelt, ..., Freedom from fear, Freedom of association, Freedom of movement, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, Freedom of thought, French language, Fundamental rights, Government of the United Kingdom, Great Ape Project, Greenwood Publishing Group, Guinness World Records, Hansa Jivraj Mehta, History of human rights, History of Thailand (1932–1973), History of the Philippines (1946–65), Hominidae, Honduras, Human rights, Human rights commission, Human Rights Day, Human rights in China, International Bill of Human Rights, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, International Federation for Human Rights, Iran, Jacques Maritain, John Peters Humphrey, John Sankey, 1st Viscount Sankey, Judeo-Christian, Kingdom of Afghanistan, Law Library of Congress, Lebanon, Library Bill of Rights, List of literary works by number of translations, Magna Carta, Mainland China, Marcello Spatafora, Moral universalism, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey, Muslim, Napoleonic Code, Nazi Germany, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Peace Prize, Nonpartisanism, Nonsectarian, Objectivity (philosophy), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Pakistan, Palais de Chaillot, Paris, Pediment, Peng Chun Chang, Pope John Paul II, Portico, Post-independence Burma, 1948–62, Presidential Republic (1925–73), Quaker United Nations Office, René Cassin, Republic of China (1912–1949), Riffat Hassan, Right to an adequate standard of living, Right to life, Rights, Russian language, Saudi Arabia, Seán MacBride, Second Brazilian Republic, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Secularism, Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah, Sharia, Slave Trade Act, Slavery, Slavery in international law, Slavery in Russia, Slavery in the United States, Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, Sovereignty, Spanish language, State of the Union, Stephen R. Johnson, Supreme Court of the United States, Taiwan, Timeline of young people's rights in France, Timeline of young people's rights in the United Kingdom, Timeline of young people's rights in the United States, Tommy Douglas, Trocadéro, Turkey, Unicode, Unitarian Universalist Service Committee, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Convention against Torture, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Millennium Declaration, United Nations Secretariat, United States Declaration of Independence, University of Pennsylvania Press, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, War Resisters' International, Western culture, Western world, World Conference on Human Rights, World War II, Yale Law School, Yemen, Youth for Human Rights International. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Abdulaziz Sachedina is Professor and International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) Chair in Islamic Studies at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia.
Abstention is a term in election procedure for when a participant in a vote either does not go to vote (on election day) or, in parliamentary procedure, is present during the vote, but does not cast a ballot.
Allan C. Carlson (born Des Moines, Iowa, 1949) is a scholar and professor of history at Hillsdale College in Hillsdale, Michigan.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) founded organization working for peace and social justice in the United States and around the world.
The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence.
Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade (born) is a Brazilian judge on the International Court of Justice, based in The Hague (Den Haag), Netherlands, a position he has held since 6 February 2009.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Asian values was a political ideology of the 1990s, which defined elements of society, culture and history common to the nations of Southeast and East Asia.
The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation adopted in Cairo, Egypt, on 5 August 1990, (Conference of Foreign Ministers, 9–14 Muharram 1411H in the Islamic calendar) which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and affirms Islamic sharia as its sole source.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Habib Malik (sometimes spelled Charles Habib Malek; 1906 - 28 December 1987; شارل مالك) was a Lebanese academic, diplomat, and philosopher.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for European Union (EU) citizens and residents into EU law.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights treaty of the United Nations intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee Convention, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
A decade is a period of 10 years.
Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of people's beliefs about morality.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was drafted from early 1947 to late 1948 by Drafting Committee the first United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat and activist.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.
Expectation of privacy is a legal test which is crucial in defining the scope of the applicability of the privacy protections of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Faisal Kutty is a lawyer, academic, writer, public speaker and human rights activist.
The Farewell Sermon (خطبة الوداع, Khuṭbatu l-Wadāʿ), also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or the Last Sermon, is believed by Muslims to have been delivered by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (6 March 632) in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat, during the Islamic pilgrimage of Hajj.
The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, 1941.
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Freedom from fear is listed as a fundamental human right according to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Some universally recognized rights that are seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or the U.N. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, include the following.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Great Ape Project (GAP), founded in 1993, is an international organization of primatologists, anthropologists, ethicists, and others who advocate a United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Great Apes that would confer basic legal rights on non-human great apes: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Hansa Jivraj Mehta (3 July 1897 – 4 April 1995) was a reformist, social activist, educator, independence activist, and writer from India.
While belief in the sanctity of human life has ancient precedents in many religions of the world, the idea of modern human rights began during the era of renaissance humanism in the early modern period.
The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period.
This article covers the history of the Philippines from the recognition of independence in 1946 to the end of the presidency of Diosdado Macapagal, which covered much of the Third Republic of the Philippines which ended on January 17, 1973 with the ratification of the 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
A human rights commission, also known as a human relations commission, is a body set up to investigate, promote or protect human rights.
Human Rights Day is celebrated annually across the world on 10 December every year.
Human rights in China is a highly contested topic, especially for the fundamental human rights periodically reviewed by the United Nations Human Rights Committee, on which the government of the People's Republic of China and various foreign governments and human rights organizations have often disagreed.
The International Bill of Human Rights was the name given to and two international treaties established by the United Nations.
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.
The International Federation for Human Rights (Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme; FIDH) is a non-governmental federation for human rights organizations.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Jacques Maritain (18 November 1882 – 28 April 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher.
John Peters Humphrey, OC (April 30, 1905 – March 14, 1995) was a Canadian legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate.
John Sankey, 1st Viscount Sankey, (26 October 1866 – 6 February 1948) was a British lawyer, judge, Labour politician and Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, famous for many of his judgments in the House of Lords.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
The Kingdom of Afghanistan (د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian:, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern and central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan.
The Law Library of Congress is the law library of the United States Congress.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Library Bill of Rights is the American Library Association's statement expressing the rights of library users to intellectual freedom and the expectations the association places on libraries to support those rights.
This is a list of literary works (including novels, plays, series, collections of poems or short stories, and essays and other forms of literary non-fiction) sorted by the number of languages they have been translated into.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Marcello Spatafora (born July 30, 1941) is a retired Italian diplomat, former Permanent Representative of Italy to the United Nations.
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.
Chaudhry Sir Muhammad Zafarullah Khan (محمد ظفر اللہ خان‎; 6 February 1893 – 1 September 1985) was a Pakistani jurist and diplomat who served as the first Foreign Minister of Pakistan and the first Asian and the only Pakistani to preside over the UN General Assembly and the International Court of Justice.
The multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey started with the establishment of the opposition Liberal Republican Party (Serbest Cumhuriyet Fırkası) by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930 after President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk asked Okyar to establish the party as part of an attempted transition to multi-party democracy in Turkey.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nonpartisanism is a lack of affiliation with, and a lack of bias toward, a political party.
Nonsectarian institutions are secular institutions or other organizations not affiliated with or restricted to a particular religious group.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palais de Chaillot is a building in the Trocadéro area in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.
Peng Chun Chang also P. C. Chang (1892–1957) was a Chinese academic, philosopher, playwright, human rights activist, and diplomat.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.
During the first years of post-independence Burma, insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling themselves the Revolutionary Burma Army (RBA) led by communist officers Bo Zeya, Bo Yan Aung and Bo Yè Htut – all three of them members of the Thirty Comrades, Arakanese, and the Karen National Union (KNU).
The Presidential Republic (República Presidencial) is the period in the History of Chile spanning from the approval of the 1925 Constitution on 18 September 1925, under the government of Arturo Alessandri Palma, to the fall of the Popular Unity government headed by the President Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973.
The Quaker United Nations Office (QUNO) is a non-governmental organisation representing the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) at the United Nations.
René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist, law professor and judge.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Riffat Hassan (born 1943) is a Pakistani-American theologian and a leading Islamic feminist scholar of the Qur'an.
The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at an adequate level.
The right to life is a moral principle based on the belief that a human being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another human being.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 – 15 January 1988) was an Irish government minister, a prominent international politician and a Chief of Staff of the IRA.
Second Brazilian Republic is the period of Brazilian history between 1946 and 1964 also known as the "Republic of 46".
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Begum Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah (22 July 1915 – 11 December 2000) was a Pakistani Bengali politician, diplomat and author.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Slave Trade Act is a stock short title used for legislation in the United Kingdom and the United States that relates to the slave trade.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in international law is governed by a number of treaties, conventions and declarations.
Abolition of serfdom in Russia was in 1861.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain,, was a United States Supreme Court case involving the Alien Tort Statute and the Federal Tort Claims Act.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
Stephen R. Johnson (July 12, 1952 – January 26, 2015) was an American music video director, television director, animator, painter, and writer.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
*Around the year 300 CE, 11 or 13-year-old Faith of Agen reportedly refused the publican's order to serve the idols.
The timeline of children's rights in the United Kingdom includes a variety of events that are both political and grassroots in nature.
The timeline of young peoples' rights in the United States, including children and youth rights, includes a variety of events ranging from youth activism to mass demonstrations.
Thomas Clement Douglas (20 October 1904 – 24 February 1986) was a Canadian democratic socialist politician and Baptist minister.
The Trocadéro, site of the Palais de Chaillot, is an area of Paris, France, in the 16th arrondissement, across the Seine from the Eiffel Tower.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unitarian Universalist Service Committee (UUSC) is a non-profit, nonsectarian associate member organization of the Unitarian Universalist Association that works to provide disaster relief and promote human rights and social justice around the world.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT)) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 217 was adopted on December 10, 1948, to promote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
On 8 September 2000, following a three-day Millennium Summit of world leaders at the headquarters of the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration (Resolution 55/2).
The United Nations Secretariat (le Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations, with the others being (a) the General Assembly; (b) the Security Council; (c) the Economic and Social Council; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council; and (e) the International Court of Justice.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, also known as VDPA, is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria.
War Resisters' International (WRI) is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The World Conference on Human Rights was held by the United Nations in Vienna, Austria, on 14 to 25 June 1993.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Youth for Human Rights International (YHRI) is a Los Angeles–based non-profit organization.
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