479 relations: Abrahamic religions, Abu Maʿshar, Accelerating expansion of the universe, Acceleration, Adam Riess, Adi-Buddha, Age of the universe, Air (classical element), Al-Ghazali, Al-Kindi, Al-Sijzi, Albert Einstein, Alexander Friedmann, Alfred A. Knopf, Ali Qushji, Anaxagoras, Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek astronomy, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andromeda Galaxy, Angular momentum, Annihilation, Antimatter, Antiparticle, Apeiron, Arche, Archimedes, Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle, Aryabhata, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Astrophysics, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomism, Atum, Aztec mythology, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian astronomy, Baryon, Baryon acoustic oscillations, Bernard F. Schutz, Beryllium, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, ..., Big Bounce, Big Crunch, Big Rip, Black body, Boron, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bound state, Brahman, Brahmanda Purana, Buddhist atomism, Callippus, Cambridge University Press, Carbon, Carl Charlier, Causality, Celestial spheres, Cepheid variable, Chaldea, Chemical element, Chemical property, Chemistry, China, Christiaan Huygens, Christian philosophy, Christianity, Chronology of the universe, Cicero, Circular motion, Circumstantial evidence, Classical element, Classical mechanics, Cleanthes, Coatlicue, Cold dark matter, Comet, Comoving and proper distances, Conservation law, Cosmic Background Explorer, Cosmic Calendar, Cosmic latte, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic ray, Cosmological constant, Cosmological principle, Cosmology, Cosmos, Course of Theoretical Physics, CP violation, Creationism, Curvature, Dark energy, Dark matter, Deceleration parameter, Decoupling (cosmology), Democritus, Density, Detailed logarithmic timeline, 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The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Abu Maʿshar, Latinized as Albumasar (also Albusar, Albuxar; full name Abū Maʿshar Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar al-Balkhī أبو معشر جعفر بن محمد بن عمر البلخي; –, AH 171–272), was an early Persian Muslim astrologer, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad.
The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate, so that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Adam Guy Riess (born December 16, 1969) is an American astrophysicist and Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute and is known for his research in using supernovae as cosmological probes.
In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Adi-Buddha, is the "First Buddha" or the "Primordial Buddha." The term reemerges in tantric literature, most prominently in the Kalachakra.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Abu Sa'id Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Jalil al-Sijzi (c. 945 - c. 1020, also known as al-Sinjari and al-Sijazi; ابوسعید سجزی; Al-Sijzi is short for "Al-Sijistani") was an Iranian Muslim astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Alexandrovich Friedmann (also spelled Friedman or Fridman; Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Фри́дман) (June 16, 1888 – September 16, 1925) was a Russian and Soviet physicist and mathematician.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed (1403 – 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: علی قوشچی, kuşçu – falconer in Turkish; Latin: Ali Kushgii) was an astronomer, mathematician and physicist originally from Samarkand, who settled in the Ottoman Empire some time before 1472.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.
Anaximenes of Miletus (Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 585 – c. 528 BC) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
Apeiron (ἄπειρον) is a Greek word meaning "(that which is) unlimited," "boundless", "infinite", or "indefinite" from ἀ- a-, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit", "boundary", the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary".
Arche (ἀρχή) is a Greek word with primary senses "beginning", "origin" or "source of action".
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aryabhata (IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Atum (Egyptian: jtm(w) or tm(w); Coptic Atoum), sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology.
Aztec mythology is the body or collection of myths of Aztec civilization of Central Mexico.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
In cosmology, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are regular, periodic fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter (normal matter) of the universe.
Bernard F. Schutz (born August 11, 1946, in Paterson, New Jersey) is an American physicist.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
The Big Bounce is a hypothetical cosmological model for the origin of the known universe.
The Big Crunch is one possible scenario for the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the metric expansion of space eventually reverses and the universe recollapses, ultimately causing the cosmic scale factor to reach zero or causing a reformation of the universe starting with another Big Bang.
In physical cosmology, the Big Rip is a hypothetical cosmological model concerning the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, and even spacetime itself, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
The Brahmanda Purana (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण)(r.c.9.hulk) is a Sanskrit text and one of the eighteen major Puranas, a genre of Hindu texts.
Buddhist atomism is a school of atomistic Buddhist philosophy that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during two major periods.
Callippus (Κάλλιππος; c. 370 BC – c. 300 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carl Vilhelm Ludwig Charlier (1 April 1862 – 4 November 1934) was a Swedish astronomer.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others.
A Cepheid variable is a type of star that pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.
Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.
Coatlicue (cōātl īcue,, “skirt of snakes”), also known as Teteoh innan (tēteoh īnnān,, “mother of the gods”), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war.
In cosmology and physics, cold dark matter (CDM) is a hypothetical form of dark matter whose particles moved slowly compared to the speed of light (the cold in CDM) since the universe was approximately one year old (a time when the cosmic particle horizon contained the mass of one typical galaxy); and interact very weakly with ordinary matter and electromagnetic radiation (the dark in CDM).
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
In standard cosmology, comoving distance and proper distance are two closely related distance measures used by cosmologists to define distances between objects.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was a satellite dedicated to cosmology, which operated from 1989 to 1993.
The Cosmic Calendar is a method to visualize the chronology of the universe, scaling its current age of 13.8 billion years to a single year in order to help intuit it for pedagogical purposes in science education or popular science.
Cosmic latte is a name assigned to the average color of the universe, found by a team of astronomers from Johns Hopkins University.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.
In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The cosmos is the universe.
The Course of Theoretical Physics is a ten-volume series of books covering theoretical physics that was initiated by Lev Landau and written in collaboration with his student Evgeny Lifshitz starting in the late 1930s.
In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
The deceleration parameter q in cosmology is a dimensionless measure of the cosmic acceleration of the expansion of space in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe.
In cosmology, decoupling refers to a period in the development of the universe when different types of particles fall out of thermal equilibrium with each other.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
This timeline shows the whole history of the universe, the Earth, and mankind in one table.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
A doppelgänger (literally "double-goer") is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and usually seen as a harbinger of bad luck.
A double exponential function is a constant raised to the power of an exponential function.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 100 million up to several billion stars, a small number compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars.
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
Ecphantus or Ecphantos (Ἔκφαντος) is a shadowy Greek pre-Socratic philosopher.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer.
The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
The (Akkadian Cuneiform:, also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation myth (named after its opening words).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Ennead or Great Ennead was a group of nine deities in Egyptian mythology worshiped at Heliopolis: the sun god Atum; his children Shu and Tefnut; their children Geb and Nut; and their children Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought.
Eternal inflation is a hypothetical inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory.
Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
In physics, and in particular relativity, an event is the instantaneous physical situation or occurrence associated with a point in spacetime (that is, a specific place and time).
Everything (or every thing), is all that exists; the opposite of nothing, or its complement.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.
In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a hypothetical vacuum that is somewhat, but not entirely, stable.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
The flat Earth model is an archaic conception of Earth's shape as a plane or disk.
Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.
A four-dimensional space or 4D space is a mathematical extension of the concept of three-dimensional or 3D space.
In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
The Friedmann equations are a set of equations in physical cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity.
The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric is an exact solution of Einstein's field equations of general relativity; it describes a homogeneous, isotropic, expanding or contracting universe that is path connected, but not necessarily simply connected.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
Observations suggest that the expansion of the universe will continue forever.
In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
The Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey (GAMA) is a project to exploit the latest generation of ground-based wide-field survey facilities to study cosmology and galaxy formation and evolution.
The distribution reveals fine, filamentary structures.
Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition of a god, Yahweh, that revealed himself to the prophet Abraham.
Goethe University Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany.
A googolplex is the number 10, or equivalently, 10.
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
Gravitation is a physics book on Einstein's theory of gravity, written by Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler and originally published by W. H. Freeman and Company in 1973.
A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
In physical cosmology, the hadron epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe during which the mass of the universe was dominated by hadrons.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
The heat death of the universe is a plausible ultimate fate of the universe in which the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy.
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Father Henry Gravrand (France, 1921 - Abbey of Latrun, Palestine, 11 July 2003) was a French Catholic missionary to Africa and an anthropologist who has written extensively on Serer religion and culture.
Heraclides Ponticus (Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός Herakleides; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who was born in Heraclea Pontica, now Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey, and migrated to Athens.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The center of the Universe is a concept that lacks a coherent definition in modern astronomy; according to standard cosmological theories on the shape of the universe, it has no center.
Hot dark matter (HDM) is a theoretical form of dark matter which consists of particles that travel with ultrarelativistic velocities.
The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) is an image of a small region of space in the constellation Fornax, containing an estimated 10,000 galaxies.
In cosmology, a Hubble volume or Hubble sphere is a spherical region of the observable universe surrounding an observer beyond which objects recede from that observer at a rate greater than the speed of light due to the expansion of the Universe.
Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The Illustris project is an ongoing series of astrophysical simulations run by an international collaboration of scientists.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.
In physical cosmology the inflationary epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when, according to inflation theory, the universe underwent an extremely rapid exponential expansion.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
is a deity born of the seven divine generations in Japanese mythology and Shinto, and his name in the Kojiki is roughly translated to as "he-who-invites" or Izanagi-no-mikoto.
In Japanese mythology, Izanami no mikoto (伊弉冉尊 or 伊邪那美命, meaning "she who invites") is a goddess of both creation and death, as well as the former wife of the god Izanagi-no-mikoto.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Japanese mythology embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculturally-based folk religion.
Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux (May 4, 1718 in Lausanne – November 30, 1751) was an astronomer from Lausanne in Switzerland.
In stellar physics, the Jeans instability causes the collapse of interstellar gas clouds and subsequent star formation.
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570), also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria, was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.
Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद, IAST: 'Kaṇāda), also known as Kashyapa, Uluka, Kananda and Kanabhuk, was an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher who founded the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda (Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM).
The Laniakea Supercluster (Laniakea; also called Local Supercluster or Local SCl or sometimes Lenakaeia) is the galaxy supercluster that is home to the Milky Way and approximately 100,000 other nearby galaxies.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
In physical cosmology, the lepton epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which the leptons dominated the mass of the universe.
Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In special and general relativity, a light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
A cosmological horizon is a measure of the distance from which one could possibly retrieve information.
A creation myth (or creation story) is a cultural, traditional or religious myth which describes the earliest beginnings of the present world.
This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way.
Knowledge of the location of Earth has been shaped by 400 years of telescopic observations, and has expanded radically in the last century.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Lucio Russo (born 22 November 1944) is an Italian physicist, mathematician and historian of science.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.
The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA) is a research institute located in Garching, just north of Munich, Bavaria, Germany.
Max Erik Tegmark (born Max Shapiro 5 May 1967) is a Swedish-American physicist and cosmologist.
Māori mythology and Māori traditions are the two major categories into which the legends of the Māori of New Zealand may usefully be divided.
In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.
In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.
In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.
Michio Kaku (born 24 January 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, futurist, and popularizer of science.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.
Modern physics is the post-Newtonian conception of physics.
In quantum field theory, the term moduli (or more properly moduli fields) is sometimes used to refer to scalar fields whose potential energy function has continuous families of global minima.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
The multiverse (or meta-universe) is a hypothetical group of multiple separate universes including the universe in which humans live.
In mathematical set theory, the multiverse view is that there are many models of set theory, but no "absolute", "canonical" or "true" model.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
NGC 604 is an H II region inside the Triangulum Galaxy.
Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
A non-standard cosmology is any physical cosmological model of the universe that was, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the then-current standard model of cosmology.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nucleocosmochronology or nuclear cosmochronology is a technique used to determine timescales for astrophysical objects and events.
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.
In special relativity, an observer is a frame of reference from which a set of objects or events are being measured.
In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Olbers' paradox, named after the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758–1840), also known as the "dark night sky paradox", is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
De mundo (Περὶ Κόσμου), known in English as On the Universe, is the work of an unknown author which was ascribed to Aristotle.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
An order of magnitude of time is (usually) a decimal prefix or decimal order-of-magnitude quantity together with a base unit of time, like a microsecond or a million years.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Pangu is the first living being and the creator of all in some versions of Chinese mythology.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity that attempt to answer the question of when gravitation produces singularities.
Periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) are a set of boundary conditions which are often chosen for approximating a large (infinite) system by using a small part called a unit cell.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Philolaus (Φιλόλαος, Philólaos) was a Greek Pythagorean and pre-Socratic philosopher.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In physical cosmology, the photon epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which photons dominated the energy of the universe.
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution.
In quantum mechanics, the Planck time is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
In particle physics and physical cosmology, Planck units are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants, in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units.
In esoteric cosmology, a plane is conceived as a subtle state, level, or region of reality, each plane corresponding to some type, kind, or category of being.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.
Prakṛti, also Prakṛiti or Prakṛuti (from Sanskrit language प्रकृति, prakṛti), means "nature".
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold (also called a semi-Riemannian manifold) is a generalization of a Riemannian manifold in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, but need only be a non-degenerate bilinear form, which is a weaker condition.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum decoherence is the loss of quantum coherence.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In physical cosmology the Quark epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction had taken their present forms, but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.
A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.
A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).
In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy, more precisely a scalar field, postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the universe.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
In Māori mythology the primal couple Rangi and Papa (or Ranginui and Papatūānuku) appear in a creation myth explaining the origin of the world (though there are many different versions).
In planetary astronomy and astrobiology, the Rare Earth Hypothesis argues that the origin of life and the evolution of biological complexity such as sexually reproducing, multicellular organisms on Earth (and, subsequently, human intelligence) required an improbable combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
In the field of Big Bang theory, and cosmology, reionization is the process that caused the matter in the universe to reionize after the lapse of the "dark ages".
A religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the cosmos or universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
Saul Perlmutter (born September 22, 1959) is a U.S. astrophysicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space.
In theoretical physics, scalar field theory can refer to a relativistically invariant classical or quantum theory of scalar fields.
The relative expansion of the universe is parametrized by a dimensionless scale factor a. Also known as the cosmic scale factor or sometimes the Robertson–Walker scale factor, this is a key parameter of the Friedmann equations.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.
Sean Michael Carroll (born October 5, 1966) is a cosmologist and physics professor specializing in dark energy and general relativity.
Seleucus of Seleucia (Σέλευκος Seleukos; born c. 190 BC; fl. c. 150 BC) was a Hellenistic astronomer and philosopher.
The Serer creation myth is the traditional creation myth of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania.
The Serer people are a West African ethnoreligious group.
In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
The shape of the universe is the local and global geometry of the universe.
In topology, a topological space is called simply connected (or 1-connected, or 1-simply connected) if it is path-connected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed (intuitively for embedded spaces, staying within the space) into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question.
Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.
A soap bubble is an extremely thin film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
Space and survival refers to the idea that the long-term survival of the human species and civilization requires proper use of the resources of outer space and the need for space colonization and space science.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Static force fields are fields, such as a simple electric, magnetic or gravitational fields, that exist without excitations.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.
Joannes Stobaeus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Στοβαῖος; fl. 5th-century AD), from Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
In the theory of general relativity, a stress–energy–momentum pseudotensor, such as the Landau–Lifshitz pseudotensor, is an extension of the non-gravitational stress–energy tensor which incorporates the energy–momentum of gravity.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In physical cosmology, structure formation is the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and larger structures from small early density fluctuations.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
A supercluster is a large group of smaller galaxy clusters or galaxy groups; it is among the largest-known structures of the cosmos.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
The TalkOrigins Archive is a website that presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
Temporal finitism is the doctrine that time is finite in the past.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos is a book by Brian Greene published in 2011 which explores the concept of the multiverse and the possibility of parallel universes.
The Sand Reckoner (Ψαμμίτης, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
Thomas Wright (22 September 171125 February 1786) was an English astronomer, mathematician, instrument maker, architect and garden designer.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
In the religion of ancient Babylon, Tiamat (𒀭𒋾𒊩𒆳 or, Greek: Θαλάττη Thaláttē) is a primordial goddess of the salt sea, mating with Abzû, the god of fresh water, to produce younger gods.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Time in physics is defined by its measurement: time is what a clock reads.
While predictions of the future can never be absolutely certain, present understanding in various scientific fields allows for the prediction of far-future events, if only in the broadest outline.
This is a timeline of the formation and subsequent evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang (13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago) to the present day.
This is a timeline of the near future, covering predicted or calculated events from the present until the end of the 23rd century.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
In mathematics, a toroid is a surface of revolution with a hole in the middle, like a doughnut, forming a solid body.
In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
A type Ia supernova (read "type one-a") is a type of supernova that occurs in binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars is a white dwarf.
Udayana, also known as Udayanācārya (Udyanacharya, or Master Udayana), was a very important Hindu logician of the tenth century who attempted to reconcile the views held by the two major schools of logic (Nyaya and Vaisheshika).
The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology, whose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated.
The universal wavefunction (or wave function) is a term introduced by Hugh Everett in his PhD thesis The Theory of the Universal Wave Function, and forms a core concept in the relative state interpretationHugh Everett, Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics, Reviews of Modern Physics vol 29, (1957) pp 454–462.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe.
Vacuum genesis (zero-energy universe) is a scientific hypothesis about the Big Bang that questions whether the universe began as a single particle arising from an absolute vacuum, similar to how virtual particles come into existence and then fall back into non-existence.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
Vachaspati Mishra was a 9th- or 10th-century CE Indian philosopher.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
Cosmic voids are vast spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the universe), which contain very few or no galaxies.
The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.
Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
While the presence of any mass bends the path of light passing near it, this effect rarely produces the giant arcs and multiple images associated with strong gravitational lensing.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
The world egg, cosmic egg or mundane egg is a mythological motif found in the creation myths of many cultures and civilizations.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
In Norse mythology, Ymir, Aurgelmir, Brimir, or Bláinn is the ancestor of all jötnar.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
Zeno's paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (c. 490–430 BC) to support Parmenides' doctrine that contrary to the evidence of one's senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion.
The zero-energy universe hypothesis proposes that the total amount of energy in the universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.
In mathematics, a 3-sphere, or glome, is a higher-dimensional analogue of a sphere.
Earth's universe, Formation of the Universe, Local Universe, Localverse, Our universe, Physical world, Size of Universe, Size of the universe, Space and the universe, The Theory of The Universe, The Universe, The universe, Theory of the universe, Universal theories, Universal theory, Universe (thermodynamics), Universes.