219 relations: ;login:, Apple Inc., Arch Linux, ARPANET, Assembly language, Association for Computing Machinery, Asynchronous I/O, AT&T Corporation, Austin Group, AWK, B (programming language), Bell Labs, Bell System, Bell System Technical Journal, Berkeley Software Distribution, Bourne shell, Brian Kernighan, Burroughs large systems, C (programming language), C mathematical functions, C standard library, Client–server model, Command-line interface, Common Development and Distribution License, Common Open Software Environment, Comparison of open-source and closed-source software, Comparison of operating systems, Compiler, Computer Chronicles, Computer mouse, Computer multitasking, Computer network, Computer terminal, Computing platform, Connection-oriented communication, Copyright, Coroutine, CP/M, Darwin (operating system), Debian, Delimiter, Dennis Ritchie, Device file, Disk storage, Donald B. Gillies, Douglas McIlroy, DragonFly BSD, Eqn, Eunuch, Executable and Linkable Format, ..., Fedora (operating system), File system, File Transfer Protocol, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, Free software, Free software movement, FreeBSD, Fsck, GE-600 series, General Electric, Generic trademark, Gentoo Linux, Ghostscript, GNU, GNU C Library, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU Core Utilities, GNU General Public License, GNU Hurd, GNU toolchain, Graphical user interface, High-level programming language, HP Multi-Programming Executive, HP-UX, Hybrid kernel, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IBM, IBM AIX, IBM i, IBM System/34, 36 System Support Program, Illumos, Input/output, Inspur K-UX, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inter-process communication, Internet, Internet protocol suite, Ioctl, IRIX, Job Control Language, Joe Ossanna, John Lions, Ken Thompson, Kernel (operating system), Latin, Lex (software), Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linux distribution, Linux Journal, Linux kernel, Linux Mint, List of operating systems, List of Unix commands, List of Unix systems, MacOS, Magnetic tape data storage, Make (software), Man page, Mandriva Linux, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Message queue, Microkernel, Microsoft, Mkfs, Mobile device, Modular design, Modular programming, Monolithic kernel, Mount (computing), MS-DOS, Multi-user software, Multics, NetBSD, Network Control Program, Network socket, Newline, Novell, Nroff, Old English, Open-source model, Open-source software, OpenBSD, OpenDocument, OpenGL, OpenSolaris, OpenSUSE, OpenVMS, Operating system, Oracle Corporation, Pascal (programming language), Peter G. Neumann, Peter H. Salus, Pic language, Pipeline (Unix), Plain text, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, Porting, POSIX, PostScript, Printer (computing), Programming tool, Proprietary software, PWB/UNIX, Record-oriented filesystem, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Refer (software), Regular expression, Research Unix, Reusability, Richard Stallman, Rob Pike, Roff (computer program), RSX-11, Santa Cruz Operation, SCO Group, SCO Group, Inc. v. Novell, Inc., Semaphore (programming), Sequent Computer Systems, Server (computing), Session Initiation Protocol, Shared memory, Shell script, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Single UNIX Specification, Slackware, Slander of title, Small caps, SOAP, Software engineering, Software portability, Solaris (operating system), Sun Microsystems, SUSE Linux, System call, Tbl, TeX, Text editor, The Open Group, The Unix Programming Environment, Time-sharing, Timeline of operating systems, Trademark, Troff, Tru64 UNIX, Ubuntu (operating system), University, University of California, Berkeley, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Unix domain socket, Unix filesystem, Unix philosophy, Unix shell, Unix System Laboratories, UNIX System Laboratories, Inc. v. Berkeley Software Design, Inc., UNIX System V, Unix time, Unix-like, Usage share of operating systems, User space, UUCP, Word play, Workstation, X Window System, Xenix, Yacc, Year 2038 problem, Z/OS, 386BSD. Expand index (169 more) » « Shrink index
;login: is a long-running technical journal published by the USENIX Association, focusing on the UNIX operating system and system administration in general.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Arch Linux (or Arch) is a Linux distribution for computers based on x86-64 architectures.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
In computer science, asynchronous I/O (also non-sequential I/O) is a form of input/output processing that permits other processing to continue before the transmission has finished.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
The Austin Group or the Austin Common Standards Revision Group is a joint technical working group formed to develop and maintain a common revision of POSIX.1 and parts of the Single UNIX Specification.
AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.
The Bell System Technical Journal was a periodical publication by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in New York devoted to the scientific and engineering aspects of electrical communication.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
Brian Wilson Kernighan (born January 1, 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C mathematical operations are a group of functions in the standard library of the C programming language implementing basic mathematical functions.
The C standard library or libc is the standard library for the C programming language, as specified in the ANSI C standard.
The client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL) is a free and open-source software license, produced by Sun Microsystems, based on the Mozilla Public License (MPL).
The Common Open Software Environment or COSE was an initiative formed in March 1993 by the major Unix vendors of the time to create open, unified operating system (OS) standards.
Free/open-source software – the source availability model used by free and open-source software (FOSS) – and closed source are two approaches to the distribution of software.
These tables provide a comparison of operating systems, of computer devices, as listing general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available PC or handheld (including smartphone and tablet computer) operating systems.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computer Chronicles was an American half-hour television series, broadcast from 1983 to 2002 on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) public television, which documented the rise of the personal computer from its infancy to the immense market at the turn of the 21st century.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.
Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Coroutines are computer-program components that generalize subroutines for non-preemptive multitasking, by allowing multiple entry points for suspending and resuming execution at certain locations.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
Darwin is an open-source Unix operating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
A delimiter is a sequence of one or more characters used to specify the boundary between separate, independent regions in plain text or other data streams.
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
In Unix-like operating systems, a device file or special file is an interface to a device driver that appears in a file system as if it were an ordinary file.
Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.
Donald Bruce Gillies (October 15, 1928 – July 17, 1975) was a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, known for his work in game theory, computer design, and minicomputer programming environments.
Malcolm Douglas McIlroy (born 1932) is a mathematician, engineer, and programmer.
DragonFly BSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system created as a fork of FreeBSD 4.8.
Part of the troff suite of Unix document layout tools, eqn is a preprocessor that formats equations for printing.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
In computing, the Executable and Linkable Format (ELF, formerly named Extensible Linking Format), is a common standard file format for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps.
Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the directory structure and directory contents in Linux distributions.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
The system utility fsck (file system consistency check) is a tool for checking the consistency of a file system in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, macOS, and FreeBSD.
The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE).
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, usually against the intentions of the trademark's holder.
Gentoo Linux (pronounced) is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system.
Ghostscript is a suite of software based on an interpreter for Adobe Systems' PostScript and Portable Document Format (PDF) page description languages.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
The GNU C Library, commonly known as glibc, is the GNU Project's implementation of the C standard library.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing reimplementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, which are used on Unix-like operating systems.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU.
The GNU toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools produced by the GNU Project.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
MPE (Multi-Programming Executive) is a discontinued business-oriented mainframe computer real-time operating system made by Hewlett-Packard.
HP-UX (from "Hewlett Packard Unix") is Hewlett Packard Enterprise's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on UNIX System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984.
A hybrid kernel is an operating system kernel architecture that attempts to combine aspects and benefits of microkernel and monolithic kernel architectures used in computer operating systems.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.
IBM i is an operating system that runs on IBM Power Systems and on IBM PureSystems.
System Support Program (SSP) was an operating system for the IBM System/34 and System/36 minicomputers.
illumos is a free and open-source Unix operating system.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
Inspur K-UX is a Linux distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux produced by Inspur, a Chinese multinational company specializing in information technology.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
In computing, ioctl (an abbreviation of input/output control) is a system call for device-specific input/output operations and other operations which cannot be expressed by regular system calls.
IRIX is a discontinued operating system developed by Silicon Graphics (SGI) to run on their MIPS workstations and servers.
Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.
Joseph F. Ossanna (December 10, 1928, Detroit, Michigan – November 28, 1977, Morristown, New Jersey) worked as a member of the technical staff at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey.
John Lions (19 January 1937 – 5 December 1998) was an Australian computer scientist.
Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lex is a computer program that generates lexical analyzers ("scanners" or "lexers").
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
Linux Journal is a monthly technology magazine published by Linux Journal, LLC.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu that strives to be a "modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use." Linux Mint provides full out-of-the-box multimedia support by including some proprietary software and comes bundled with a variety of free and open-source applications.
This is a list of operating systems.
This is a list of Unix commands as specified by IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, which is part of the Single UNIX Specification (SUS).
Each version of the UNIX Time-Sharing System evolved from the version before, with version one evolving from the prototypal Unix.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Magnetic tape data storage is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording.
In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program.
A man page (short for manual page) is a form of software documentation usually found on a Unix or Unix-like operating system.
Mandriva Linux (a fusion of the French distribution Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux and the Brazilian distribution Conectiva Linux) was a Linux distribution by Mandriva.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In computer science, message queues and mailboxes are software-engineering components used for inter-process communication (IPC), or for inter-thread communication within the same process.
In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS).
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
In computer operating systems, mkfs is a command used to format a block storage device with a specific filesystem.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
Modular design, or "modularity in design", is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, that can be independently created and then used in different systems.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
Mounting is a process by which the operating system makes files and directories on a storage device (such as hard drive, CD-ROM, or network share) available for user to access via the computer's file system.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Multi-user software is software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet.
A network socket is an internal endpoint for sending or receiving data within a node on a computer network.
Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.
Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah.
nroff (short for "new roff") is a Unix text-formatting program.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is a ZIP-compressed XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents.
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.
OpenSolaris is a discontinued, open source computer operating system based on Solaris created by Sun Microsystems.
openSUSE, formerly SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional, is a Linux-based project and distribution sponsored by SUSE Linux GmbH and other companies.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Peter Gabriel Neumann (born 1932) is a computer-science researcher who worked on the Multics operating system in the 1960s.
Peter H. Salus is a linguist, computer scientist, historian of technology, author in many fields, and an editor of books and journals.
In computing, Pic is a domain-specific programming language by Brian Kernighan for specifying diagrams in terms of objects such as boxes with arrows between them.
In Unix-like computer operating systems, a pipeline is a sequence of processes chained together by their standard streams, so that the output of each process (stdout) feeds directly as input (stdin) to the next one.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
A programming tool or software development tool is a computer program that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
The Programmer's Workbench (PWB/UNIX) is an early, now discontinued, version of the Unix operating system created in the Bell Labs Computer Science Research Group of AT&T.
In computer science, a record-oriented filesystem is a file system where data is stored as collections of records.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market.
refer is a program for managing bibliographic references, and citing them in troff documents.
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
Research Unix is a term used to refer to versions of the Unix operating system for DEC PDP-7, PDP-11, VAX and Interdata 7/32 and 8/32 computers, developed in the Bell Labs Computing Science Research Center (frequently referred to as Department 1127).
In computer science and software engineering, reusability is the use of existing assets in some form within the software product development process; these assets are products and by-products of the software development life cycle and include code, software components, test suites, designs and documentation.
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
Robert "Rob" C. Pike (born 1956) is a Canadian programmer and author.
roff was the first Unix text-formatting computer program, the most important application run on the first machine specifically purchased to run UNIX, and a predecessor of the nroff and troff document processing systems.
RSX-11 is a discontinued family of multi-user real-time operating systems for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) was a software company based in Santa Cruz, California which was best known for selling three Unix variants for Intel x86 processors: Xenix, SCO UNIX (later known as SCO OpenServer), and UnixWare.
SCO, The SCO Group, The TSG Group, Caldera Systems, and Caldera International are the various names of an American software company that became known for acquiring the Santa Cruz Operation's Server Software and Services divisions, and UnixWare and OpenServer technologies, and then, under CEO Darl McBride, pursuing a series of legal battles known as the SCO-Linux controversies.
SCO v. Novell was a United States lawsuit in which The SCO Group (SCO) claimed ownership of the source code for the Unix operating system, including portions of Linux.
In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system such as a multitasking operating system.
Sequent Computer Systems was a computer company that designed and manufactured multiprocessing computer systems.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a communications protocol for signaling and controlling multimedia communication sessions in applications of Internet telephony for voice and video calls, in private IP telephone systems, as well as in instant messaging over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission.
The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark.
Slackware is a Linux distribution created by Patrick Volkerding in 1993.
In law, slander of title is normally a claim involving real estate in which one entity publishes a false statement that disparages or clouds another entity's title to property, causing a financial loss.
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.
SOAP (originally Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
SUSE Linux is a computer operating system.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
Part of the troff suite of Unix document layout tools, tbl is a preprocessor that formats tables in preparation for processing with troff/nroff.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
The Open Group is an industry consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications".
The Unix Programming Environment, first published in 1984 by Prentice Hall, is a book written by Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike, both of Bell Labs and considered an important and early document of the Unix operating system.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
This article presents a timeline of events in the history of computer operating systems from 1951 to the current day.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
troff is the major component of a document processing system developed by AT&T Corporation for the Unix operating system.
Tru64 UNIX is a discontinued 64-bit UNIX operating system for the Alpha instruction set architecture (ISA), currently owned by Hewlett-Packard (HP).
Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
A Unix domain socket or IPC socket (inter-process communication socket) is a data communications endpoint for exchanging data between processes executing on the same host operating system.
In Unix and operating systems inspired by it, the file system is considered a central component of the operating system.
The Unix philosophy, originated by Ken Thompson, is a set of cultural norms and philosophical approaches to minimalist, modular software development.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
Unix System Laboratories (USL), sometimes written UNIX System Laboratories, was an American software laboratory and product development company that existed from 1989 through 1993.
USL v. BSDi was a lawsuit brought in the United States in 1992 by Unix System Laboratories against Berkeley Software Design, Inc and the Regents of the University of California over intellectual property related to the Unix operating system.
UNIX System V (pronounced: "System Five") is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system.
Unix time (also known as POSIX time or UNIX Epoch time) is a system for describing a point in time, defined as the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Thursday, 1 January 1970,.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
The usage share of operating systems is an estimate of the percentage of computing devices that run each operating system at any particular time.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
UUCP is an abbreviation of Unix-to-Unix Copy.
Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement.
A workstation is a special computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system for various microcomputer platforms, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s.
Yacc (Yet Another Compiler-Compiler) is a computer program for the Unix operating system developed by Stephen C. Johnson.
The Year 2038 problem relates to representing time in many digital systems as number of seconds passed since 1 January 1970 and storing it as a signed 32-bit integer.
z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM.
386BSD, sometimes called "Jolix", is a discontinued free Unix-like operating system based on BSD, first released in 1992.
AT&T Unix, List of Unix user groups, Open Group Base Specification, Traditional Unix, Truly Unix, UNIX, UNIX kernel, UNIX operating system, UNIX system, UNIX systems, Unix box, Unix operating system, Unix system, Unixes.