264 relations: Act Against Slavery, Act of Union 1840, Adjutant general, Agricultural cooperative, Albany, New York, Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton, Alexander Wood (merchant), Algonquin people, Allan MacNab, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Anishinaabe, Apostolic vicariate, Auditor general, Bank of the People, Bank of Upper Canada, Battle of Beaver Dams, Battle of Chippawa, Battle of Crysler's Farm, Battle of Fort George, Battle of Lake Erie, Battle of Lundy's Lane, Battle of Queenston Heights, Battle of Stoney Creek, Battle of the Thames, Battle of York, Black Codes (United States), Brazil, British North America, Buffalo, New York, Bytown, Calton, Glasgow, Canada Company, Canada under British rule, Canadian English, Captain Swing, Carleton Place, Caroline affair, Caroline test, Cartista, Catholic Church, Charles Duncombe (Upper Canada Rebellion), Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham, Chartered company, Church of England, Church of Scotland, Clergy Corporation, Cobourg, Coinage of Upper Canada, Connell James Baldwin, ..., Constitution Act, 1867, Constitutional Act 1791, Constitutional monarchy, Continental System, Cork (city), Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School, Cornwall, Ontario, County, Cree, Daniel Webster, Diocese, Donald Bethune, Dundas, Ontario, Eastern District, Upper Canada, Erie Canal, Executive Council of Upper Canada, Exonym and endonym, Family Compact, Farmers' Storehouse Company, Former colonies and territories in Canada, Fort Detroit, Francis Bond Head, George III of the United Kingdom, George IV of the United Kingdom, Glasgow, Glengarry County, Ontario, Goderich, Ontario, Grammar school, Grand River land dispute, Great Lakes, Great Migration of Canada, Haldimand Proclamation, Hamilton Harbour, Hamilton, Ontario, Henry Sherwood, Historica Canada, Home District, Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hugh Richardson (shipowner), Hunters' Lodges, Huron Tract, Illinois, Indian Reserve (1763), Indiana, Inspector general, Irish diaspora, Iroquois, Isaac Brock, Isaac Buchanan, James Lesslie (publisher), Jarvis Collegiate Institute, Jeremy Bentham, John Beverley Robinson, John By, John Galt (novelist), John Graves Simcoe, John Hamilton (Ontario politician), John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, John Rolph (politician), John Strachan, Joint-stock company, Just price, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingston Collegiate and Vocational Institute, Kingston, Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Lake Superior, Lambton County, Lanarkshire, Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, Legislative Council of Upper Canada, Lieutenant governor (Canada), List of lieutenant governors of Ontario, London, Ontario, Longhouses of the indigenous peoples of North America, Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, Lower Canada, Lower Canada Rebellion, Loyalist (American Revolution), Marshall Spring Bidwell, Michigan, Michigan Territory, Midland District, Upper Canada, Midland, Ontario, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Minnesota, Mississaugas, Mixed government, Mohawk language, Montreal, Moral economy, Navy Island, Neutrality Act of 1794, New France, Niagara River, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Northern Ontario, Northwest Territory, Odawa, Ohio, Ojibwe, Old German Baptist Brethren, Oligarchy, Ontario, Ontario Highway 2, Ontario Highway 5, Ontario Legislative Building, Orange Order, Ottawa, Ottawa River, Ottawa Valley, Owenism, Paris, Ontario, Parliament of Great Britain, Parliament of Upper Canada, Pays d'en Haut, Pennsylvania German language, Peter Perry, Peter Robinson (Canadian politician), Peterborough, Ontario, Petworth Emigration Scheme, Philemon Wright, Pinus resinosa, Pinus strobus, Poor Law Commission, Poor relief, Port Colborne, Post road, Pound sterling, Preemptive war, Province, Province of Canada, Province of Quebec (1763–1791), Provincial Secretary and Registrar of Ontario, PS Frontenac, Quarter session, Quebec, Quebec Act, Quebec City, Queen Victoria, Radical War, Rebellions of 1837–1838, Receiver general, Reformation, Report on the Affairs of British North America, Republic of Canada, Responsible government, Robert Baldwin, Robert Fleming Gourlay, Robert Randal, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, Royal Army Chaplains' Department, Royal Engineers, Royal Proclamation of 1763, Saint Lawrence River, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, Samuel Lount, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Saulteaux, Scottish people, Seven Years' War, Sharon, Ontario, Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto, Slavery Abolition Act 1833, Solicitor General of Ontario, Southern Ontario, State religion, Status quo ante bellum, Sullivan Expedition, Tecumseh, The Canadas, The Canadian Encyclopedia, The Children of Peace, The Christian Guardian, The Reform Movement (Upper Canada), Thomas David Morrison, Thomas Mercer Jones, Thomas Talbot (Upper Canada), Timber rafting, Timeline of Ontario history, Toronto, Toronto Gore Township, Ontario, Treaty of Ghent, Treaty of Paris (1763), Trent River (Ontario), Tuscarora language, Twelve Mile Creek (Ontario), Underground Railroad, United Empire Loyalist, United Presbyterian Church (Scotland), University of Toronto, Upper Canada College, Upper Canada Rebellion, Upstate New York, Utilitarianism, War of 1812, Webster–Ashburton Treaty, Wesleyan Methodist Church (Great Britain), Western District, Upper Canada, Whiskey Rebellion, William "Tiger" Dunlop, William Allan (banker), William Hamilton Merritt, William Henry Boulton, William IV of the United Kingdom, William John O'Grady, William Lyon Mackenzie, William Warren Baldwin, Windsor, Ontario, Wisconsin, York, Upper Canada. 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The Act Against Slavery was an anti-slavery law passed on July 9, 1793, in the second legislative session of Upper Canada, the colonial division of British North America that would eventually become Ontario.
The British North America Act, 1840 (3 & 4 Victoria, c.35), commonly known as the Act of Union 1840, was enacted in July 1840 and proclaimed February 10, 1841 in Montréal.
An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.
An agricultural cooperative, also known as a farmers' co-op, is a cooperative where farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alexander Baring, 1st Baron Ashburton PC (27 October 177412 May 1848) was a British politician and financier, and a member of the Baring family.
Alexander Wood (January 1772 – September 11, 1844) was a Scottish merchant and magistrate in Upper Canada who was the centre of a sex scandal in 1810.
The Algonquins are indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family.
Sir Allan Napier MacNab, 1st Baronet (19 February 1798 – 8 August 1862) was a Canadian political leader and Premier of the Province of Canada, from 1854 to 1856.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anishinaabe (or Anishinabe, plural: Anishinaabeg) is the autonym for a group of culturally related indigenous peoples in Canada and the United States that are the Odawa, Ojibwe (including Mississaugas), Potawatomi, Oji-Cree, and Algonquin peoples.
An apostolic vicariate is a form of territorial jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church centered in missionary regions and countries where a diocese has not yet been established.
An auditor general, also known in some countries as a comptroller general or comptroller and auditor general, is a senior civil servant charged with improving government accountability by auditing and reporting on the government's operations.
The Bank of the People was created by radical Reform politicians James Lesslie, James Hervey Price, and Dr John Rolph in Toronto in 1835.
The Bank of Upper Canada was established in 1821 under a Charter granted by the legislature of Upper Canada in 1819 to a group of Kingston merchants.
The Battle of Beaver Dams took place on 24 June 1813, during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Chippawa (sometimes incorrectly spelled Chippewa) was a victory for the United States Army in the War of 1812, during an invasion of the British Empire's colony of Upper Canada along the Niagara River on July 5, 1814.
The Battle of Crysler's Farm, also known as the Battle of Crysler's Field, was fought on 11 November 1813, during the Anglo-American War of 1812 (the name Chrysler's Farm is sometimes used for the engagement, but Crysler is the proper spelling).
The Battle of Fort George was a battle fought during the War of 1812, in which the Americans defeated a British force and captured Fort George in Upper Canada.
The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, on Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Lundy's Lane (also known as the Battle of Niagara Falls) was a battle of the Anglo-American War of 1812, which took place on 25 July 1814, in present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario.
The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle in the War of 1812 and resulted in a British victory.
The Battle of Stoney Creek was fought on 6 June 1813, during the War of 1812 near present-day Stoney Creek, Ontario.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain and its Indian allies in the Tecumseh's Confederacy.
The Battle of York was fought on April 27, 1813, in York (present-day Toronto), the capital of the colonial province of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), during the Anglo-American War of 1812.
The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Bytown is the former name of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada's capital city.
Calton (lit, Caltoun) is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow.
The Canada Company was a large private chartered British land development company, incorporated by royal charter on August 19, 1826, under an act of British parliament.
Canada was under British rule beginning with the Treaty of Paris (1763), when New France, of which the colony of Canada was a part, formally became a part of the British Empire.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
"Captain Swing" was the name appended to several threatening letters during the rural English Swing Riots of 1830, when labourers rioted over the introduction of new threshing machines and the loss of their livelihoods.
Carleton Place is a town in Eastern Ontario, Canada, in Lanark County, about west of downtown Ottawa.
The Caroline affair (also known as the Caroline case) was a diplomatic crisis beginning in 1837 involving the United States, Britain, and the Canadian independence movement.
The Caroline test is a 19th-century formulation of customary international law, reaffirmed by the Nuremberg Tribunal after World War II, which said that the necessity for preemptive self-defense must be "instant, overwhelming, and leaving no choice of means, and no moment for deliberation." The test takes its name from the ''Caroline'' affair.
A Chartist was a Portuguese political label arose after the Portuguese Liberal Revolution of 1820.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles Duncombe (28 July 1792 – 1 October 1867) was a leader in the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837 and subsequent Patriot War.
Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham GCB PC (Waverley Abbey, England, 13 September 1799Kingston, Canada, 19 September 1841) was a British businessman, politician, diplomat and the first Governor General of the united Province of Canada.
A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration, and colonization.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
The Clergy Corporation, or the Clergy Reserve Corporation of Upper Canada, existed to oversee, manage and lease the Clergy reserves of Upper Canada, a large amount of land in Upper Canada that had been put aside for the Anglican and later Protestant churches.
Cobourg (/'koːbə˞g/) is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in Southern Ontario east of Toronto and east of Oshawa.
Upper Canada had a short history as a coin-issuing entity.
Connell James Baldwin (1777 – 14 December 1861) was an Irish soldier and civil servant.
The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.
The Clergy Endowments (Canada) Act 1791 (31 Geo 3 c 31), (the Act) commonly known as the Constitutional Act 1791, is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School (CCVS) is a high school located in Cornwall, Ontario.
Cornwall is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada, and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
The Cree (script; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America, with over 200,000 members living in Canada.
Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782October 24, 1852) was an American politician who represented New Hampshire (1813–1817) and Massachusetts (1823–1827) in the United States House of Representatives; served as a Senator from Massachusetts (1827–1841, 1845–1850); and was the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841–1843), and Millard Fillmore (1850–1852).
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Donald Bethune (July 11, 1802 – June 19, 1869) was a lawyer, judge, entrepreneur and political figure in Upper Canada.
Dundas is a community and former town in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Eastern District was one of four districts of the Province of Quebec created in 1788 in the western reaches of the Montreal District and partitioned in 1791 to create the new colony of Upper Canada.
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal).
The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
The Family Compact is the term used by historians for a small closed group of men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in Upper Canada (modern Ontario) from the 1810s to the 1840s.
The Farmers’ Storehouse was Canada's first farmer's cooperative, founded in Toronto and the Home District in 1824.
A number of states and polities formerly claimed colonies and territories in Canada prior to the evolution of the current provinces and territories under the federal system.
Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Detroit was a fort established on the west bank of the Detroit River by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701.
Sir Francis Bond Head, 1st Baronet KCH PC (1 January 1793 – 20 July 1875), known as "Galloping Head", was Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada during the rebellion of 1837.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glengarry County, an area covering, is a county in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Goderich (pronounced either God-rich or God-er-ich) is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario and is the county seat of Huron County.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
The Grand River land dispute, also known as the Caledonia land dispute, came to wide attention in Canada in 2006 when the Six Nations formally reactivated the 1995 litigation against Canada and Ontario.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Migration of Canada (also known as the Great Migration from Britain) was a period of high immigration to Canada from 1815 to 1850, involving over 800,000 immigrants.
The Haldimand Proclamation was a decree that granted land to the Iroquois who had served on the British side during the American Revolution.
Hamilton Harbour, formerly known as Burlington Bay, lies on the western tip of Lake Ontario, bounded on the northwest by the City of Burlington, on the south by the City of Hamilton, and on the east by Hamilton Beach (south of the Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway) and Burlington Beach (north of the channel).
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Henry Sherwood, (1807 – July 7, 1855) was a Canadian lawyer and Tory politician, involved in both provincial and municipal politics.
Historica Canada is the country's largest organization dedicated to enhancing awareness of Canadian history and citizenship.
The Home District was one of four districts of the Province of Quebec created in 1788 in the western reaches of the Montreal District and detached in 1791 to create the new colony of Upper Canada.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Hugh Richardson, (June 12, 1784 – August 2, 1870) was a Canadian shipowner and captain.
The Hunters' Lodge was the last of a series of secret organizations formed in 1838 in the United States in the Rebellions in the Canadas.
The Huron Tract Purchase also known as the Huron Block, registered as Crown Treaty Number 29, is a large area of land in southwestern Ontario bordering on Lake Huron to the west and Lake Erie to the east.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Indian Reserve is a historical term for the largely uncolonized area in North America acquired by Great Britain from France through the Treaty of Paris (1763) at the end of the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in the North American theatre), and set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by American Indians, who already inhabited it.
Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB (6 October 1769 – 13 October 1812) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Guernsey.
Isaac Buchanan (July 21, 1810 – October 1, 1883) was a businessman and political figure in Canada West.
James Lesslie (November 22, 1802 – April 19, 1885) was an Ontario bookseller, reform politician and newspaper publisher.
Jarvis Collegiate Institute is a high school in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Beverley Robinson (February 21, 1821 – June 19, 1896) was a Canadian politician, lawyer and businessman.
Lieutenant-Colonel John By (7 August 1779 – 1 February 1836) was an English military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and founding Bytown in the process, which would become the Canadian capital, Ottawa.
John Galt (2 May 1779 – 11 April 1839) was a Scottish novelist, entrepreneur, and political and social commentator.
John Graves Simcoe (25 February 1752 – 26 October 1806) was a British Army general and the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada from 1791 until 1796 in southern Ontario and the watersheds of Georgian Bay and Lake Superior.
John Hamilton (1802 – 10 October 1882) was a businessman, a political figure in Upper Canada and member of the Senate of Canada.
John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, GCB, PC (12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840), also known as "Radical Jack" and commonly referred to in Canadian history texts simply as Lord Durham, was a British Whig statesman, colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America.
John Rolph (4 March 1793 – 19 October 1870) was a physician, lawyer and political figure in Upper Canada.
John Strachan (1778–1867) was a figure in Upper Canada and the first Anglican Bishop of Toronto.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
The just price is a theory of ethics in economics that attempts to set standards of fairness in transactions.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Kingston Collegiate and Vocational Institute (K.C.V.I.) is a secondary school in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Kingston is a city in eastern Ontario, Canada.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Superior (Lac Supérieur; ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
Lambton County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada.
Lanarkshire, also called the County of Lanark (Siorrachd Lannraig, Lanrikshire) is a historic county in the central Lowlands of Scotland.
The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected part of the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, functioning as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada.
The Legislative Council of Upper Canada was the upper house governing the province of Upper Canada.
In Canada, a lieutenant governor (French: lieutenant-gouverneur, or: lieutenant-gouverneure) is the viceregal representative in a provincial jurisdiction of the.
The following is a list of Lieutenant Governors of Ontario and governors of predecessor colonies.
London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.
Longhouses were a style of residential dwelling built by Native American tribes and First Nation band governments in various parts of North America.
Sir Louis-Hippolyte Ménard dit La Fontaine, 1st Baronet, KCMG (October 4, 1807 – February 26, 1864) was the first Canadian to become Premier of the United Province of Canada and the first head of a responsible government in Canada.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
The Lower Canada Rebellion (French: La rébellion du Bas-Canada), commonly referred to as the Patriots' War (French: La Guerre des patriotes) by Quebecers, is the name given to the armed conflict in 1837–38 between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province.
Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.
Marshall Spring Bidwell (February 16, 1799 – October 24, 1872) was a lawyer and political figure in Upper Canada.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The Territory of Michigan was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 30, 1805, until January 26, 1837, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Michigan.
Midland District was one of four districts of the Province of Quebec created in 1788 in the western reaches of the Montreal District and partitioned in 1791 to create the new colony of Upper Canada.
Midland is a town located on Georgian Bay in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada.
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF) is a government ministry of the Canadian province of Ontario that is responsible for Ontario’s provincial parks, forests, fisheries, wildlife, mineral aggregates and the Crown lands and waters that make up 87 per cent of the province.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Mississauga are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations people located in southern Ontario, Canada.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
Mohawk (Kanien’kéha, " of the Flint Place") is a threatened Iroquoian language currently spoken by around 3,500 people of the Mohawk nation, located primarily in Canada (southern Ontario and Quebec) and to a lesser extent in the United States (western and northern New York).
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
The concept of a moral economy was an elaboration by English historian E.P. Thompson of a term already used by various eighteenth century authors, who felt that economic and moral concerns increasingly seemed to drift apart (see Götz 2015).
Navy Island is a small, uninhabited island in the Niagara River in the province of Ontario, managed by Parks Canada as a National Historic Site of Canada.
The Neutrality Act of 1794 makes it illegal for an American to wage war against any country at peace with the United States.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
Niagara-on-the-Lake is a town in Ontario, Canada.
Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario; the other primary region being Southern Ontario.
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
The Old German Baptist Brethren (OGBB) is a conservative Plain church that emerged from a division among the German Baptist Brethren in 1881 being part of the Old Order Movement.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
King's Highway 2, commonly referred to as Highway 2, is the lowest-numbered provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario (there is no numbered Ontario Highway 1) and was originally part of a series of identically numbered highways in multiple provinces which together joined Windsor, Ontario to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
King's Highway 5, commonly referred to as Highway 5 and historically as the Dundas Highway, is a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario.
The Ontario Legislative Building (L'édifice de l'Assemblée législative de l'Ontario) is a structure in central Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
The Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin: Kitchissippi) is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
The Ottawa Valley is the valley of the Ottawa River, along the boundary between Eastern Ontario and the Outaouais, Quebec, Canada.
Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th-century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.
Paris, Ontario (2016 population, 12,310) is a community located at the spot where the Nith River empties into the Grand River in Ontario, Canada.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Parliament of Upper Canada was the legislature for Upper Canada.
The Pays d'en Haut (Upper Country) was a territory of New France covering the regions of North America located west of Montreal.
Pennsylvania German (Deitsch, Pennsylvania italic, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch,; often called Pennsylvania Dutch) is a variety of West Central German spoken by the Old Order Amish, Old Order Mennonites and other descendants of German immigrants in the United States and Canada, closely related to the Palatine dialects.
Peter Perry (November 14, 1792 – August 24, 1851) was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada.
Peter Robinson (1785 – July 8, 1838) was a Canadian politician who served as Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Ontario.
Peterborough is a city on the Otonabee River in Central Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Toronto and about 270 kilometers (167 mi) southwest of Ottawa.
The Petworth Emigration Scheme, sponsored by the Earl of Egremont and promoted by Thomas Sockett, anglican Rector of Petworth, sent around 1800 working-class people from the south of England to Upper Canada between 1832 and 1837.
Philemon Wright (September 3, 1760 – June 3, 1839) was a farmer and entrepreneur who founded what he named Columbia Falls Village, mostly known as Wright's Town and Wright's Village to others, the first permanent settlement in the National Capital Region of Canada.
Pinus resinosa, known as red pine or Norway pine, is a pine native to North America.
Pinus strobus, commonly denominated the eastern white pine, northern white pine, white pine, Weymouth pine (British), and soft pine accessed 12 August 2013 is a large pine native to eastern North America.
The Poor Law Commission was a body established to administer poor relief after the passing of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834.
In English and British history, poor relief refers to government and ecclesiastical action to relieve poverty.
Port Colborne (2016 population 18,306) is a city on Lake Erie, at the southern end of the Welland Canal, in the Niagara Region of southern Ontario, Canada.
A post road is a road designated for the transportation of postal mail.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
The Provincial Secretary and Registrar of Ontario was a senior position in the provincial cabinet of Ontario from before Canadian Confederation until the 1960s.
Frontenac was a steamboat, the first paddle steamer launched on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, in 1816.
The courts of quarter sessions or quarter sessions were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the Kingdom of England (including Wales) from 1388 until 1707, then in 18th-century Great Britain, in the later United Kingdom, and in other dominions of the British Empire.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Quebec Act of 1774 (Acte de Québec), (the Act) formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Radical War or also known as the Scottish Insurrection of 1820, was a week of strikes and unrest, a culmination of Radical demands for reform in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland which had become prominent in the early years of the French Revolution, but had then been repressed during the long Napoleonic Wars.
The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (Les rébellions de 1837) were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838.
A receiver general (or receiver-general) is an officer responsible for accepting payments on behalf of a government, and for making payments to a government on behalf of other parties.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Report on the Affairs of British North America, commonly known as the Durham Report, or Lord Durham's Report is an important document in the history of Quebec, Ontario, Canada and the British Empire.
The Republic of Canada was a government proclaimed by William Lyon Mackenzie on December 5, 1837.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Robert Baldwin (May 12, 1804 – December 9, 1858) was a Canadian lawyer and politician who, with his political partner Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, led the first responsible ministry in Canada.
Robert Fleming Gourlay (March 24, 1778 – August 1, 1863) was a Scottish-Canadian writer, political reform activist, and agriculturalist.
Robert Randal (ca 1766 – May 2, 1834) was a businessman and political figure in Upper Canada.
The Archdiocese of Québec (Archidioecesis Quebecensis; Archidiocèse de Québec) is a Catholic archdiocese in Quebec, Canada.
The Royal Army Chaplains' Department (RAChD) is an all-officer corps that provides ordained clergy to minister to the British Army.
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Sainte-Marie among the Hurons (Sainte-Marie-au-pays-des-Hurons) was a French Jesuit settlement in Wendake, the land of the Wendat, near modern Midland, Ontario, from 1639 to 1649.
Samuel Lount (September 24, 1791 – April 12, 1838) was a blacksmith, farmer, magistrate and member of the Legislative Assembly in the province of Upper Canada for Simcoe County from 1834 to 1836.
The Saulteaux (pronounced,; also written Salteaux and many other variants) are a First Nations band government in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sharon is a former village now incorporated into the municipality of the Town of East Gwillimbury, Ontario, Canada, formerly the Township of East Gwillimbury.
Sir John Beverley Robinson, 1st Baronet, (26 July 1791 – 31 January 1863) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Upper Canada.
The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery throughout the British Empire.
The Solicitor General of Ontario was in charge of the Ministry of the Solicitor General of Ontario, which was responsible for police and other law enforcement agencies in the province.
Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
The 1779 Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was an extended systematic military campaign during the American Revolutionary War against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four Amerindian nations of the Iroquois which had sided with the British.
Tecumseh (March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century.
The Canadas is the collective name for Upper Canada and Lower Canada, two British historical colonies in present-day Canada.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The Children of Peace (1812–1889) were an Upper Canadian Quaker sect under the leadership of David Willson, known also as 'Davidites', who separated during the War of 1812 from the Yonge Street Monthly Meeting in what is now Newmarket, Ontario, and moved to the Willson's farm.
The Christian Guardian was a Wesleyan Methodist journal founded in Upper Canada in 1829.
The Reform movement was a political movement in British Canada in the early 19th century.
Thomas David Morrison (ca. 1796 – March 19, 1856) was a doctor and political figure in Upper Canada.
Thomas Mercer Jones (1795 – 2 October 1868) was an English-born administrator who arrived in Upper Canada in the 1820s and was employed as a commissioner of the Canada Company based in Goderich.
Colonel the Honourable Thomas Talbot (July 19, 1771 – February 5, 1853) was an Irish-born Canadian soldier and politician.
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts and drifted or pulled across a water body or down a river.
Ontario came into being as a province of Canada in 1867 but historians use the term to cover its entire history.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Toronto Gore (also the Gore of Toronto) was a township in Ontario, Canada.
The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Trent River is a river in southeastern Ontario which flows from Rice Lake to empty into the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario.
Tuscarora, sometimes called Skarò˙rə̨ˀ, is an Iroquoian language of the Tuscarora people, spoken in southern Ontario, Canada, North Carolina and northwestern New York around Niagara Falls, in the United States.
Twelve Mile Creek is a waterway located on the Niagara Peninsula in the Regional Municipality of Niagara in Southern Ontario, Canada.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
United Empire Loyalists (or Loyalists) is an honorific given in 1799 by Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor-general of British North America, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution.
The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (1847–1900) was a Scottish Presbyterian denomination.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Upper Canada College (UCC), located in Toronto, Ontario, is a private school for boys between Senior Kindergarten and Grade Twelve, operating under the International Baccalaureate program.
The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) in December 1837.
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The Webster–Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty that resolved several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies (the region that became Canada).
The Wesleyan Methodist Church was the name used by the majority Methodist movement in Great Britain following its split from the Church of England after the death of John Wesley and the appearance of parallel Methodist movements.
Western District was one of four districts of the Province of Quebec created in 1788 in the western reaches of the Montreal District which were later detached in 1791 to create the new colony of Upper Canada.
The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington.
William Dunlop (19 November 1792 – 29 June 1848) also known as Tiger Dunlop was an army officer, surgeon, Canada Company official, author, justice of the peace, militia officer, politician, and office holder.
William Allan, JP (1770 – July 11, 1853), was a Scottish Canadian banker, businessman and politician.
William Hamilton Merritt (3 July 1793 – 5 July 1862) was an influential figure in the Niagara Peninsula of Upper Canada in early 19th century and one of the fathers of the Welland Canal.
William Henry Boulton (April 19, 1812 – February 15, 1874) was a lawyer and political figure in Canada West.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
William John O'Grady (died c. August 18, 1840) was an Irish Catholic priest and journalist in Upper Canada.
William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Scottish-Canadian-American journalist and politician.
William Warren Baldwin (April 25, 1775 – January 8, 1844) was a doctor, businessman, lawyer, judge, architect and reform politician in Upper Canada.
Windsor is a city in Ontario and the southernmost city in Canada.
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.
York was a town and second capital of the district of Upper Canada.