118 relations: Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Adenine, Agence France-Presse, Alanine, Aldehyde, Alkylation, Allosteric regulation, Amide, Ammonia, Animal, Antimetabolite, Aromaticity, Aspartate carbamoyltransferase, Aspartic acid, Bacteria, Base pair, Berry, Biosynthesis, Bovinae, Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, Carbohydrate metabolism, Carbon dioxide, Cassini–Huygens, Cereal germ, Chemical synthesis, Chloroacetic acid, Cofactor (biochemistry), Condensation, Cosmic dust, Cotton, Cytosine, Dehydrogenation, Demethylation, Diazine, DNA, DNA replication, Drug delivery, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Fluorine, Fluorouracil, Folate, Galactose, Glucose, Guanine, Halogen, Helianthus, Herring, Hydrazine, Hydrogen bond, ..., Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrolysis, Imide, Ionization, Iron, Lactam, Lactic acid, Life, Liver, Malic acid, Medication, Meteorite, Methylation, Microorganism, Murchison meteorite, NASA, Natural abundance, Nitration, Nucleic acid, Nucleobase, Oleum, Orchard, Organic compound, Outer space, Oxygen, Panspermia, Pea, Pesticide, PH, Phenol, Phosphate, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polysaccharide, Pyrimidine, Red giant, Redox, Ribonucleoside, Ribose, RNA, RNA world, Saturn, Sodium hypochlorite, Soybean, Sperm, Spleen, Sugar, Sugar beet, Tautomer, Thiouracil, Thymine, Thymus, Titan (moon), Tomato, Turnip, Ultraviolet, Universe, Uracil-DNA glycosylase, Urea, Uric acid, Uridine, Uridine diphosphate, Uridine diphosphate glucose, Uridine monophosphate, Uridine triphosphate, Vineyard, Wheat, Xanthine, Yeast. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (also known as aspartate transcarbamoylase or ATCase) catalyzes the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine or ammonia and bicarbonate.
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chloroacetic acid, industrially known as monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is the organochlorine compound with the formula ClCH2CO2H.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from an organic molecule.
Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.
Diazines are a group of organic compounds having the molecular formula C4H4N2.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In organic chemistry, an imide is a functional group consisting of two acyl groups bound to nitrogen.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
A lactam is a cyclic amide.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Murchison meteorite is a large meteorite that fell to earth near Murchison, Victoria, in Australia, in 1969.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Nitration is a general class of chemical process for the introduction of a nitro group into an organic chemical compound.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid).
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A ribonucleoside is a type of nucleoside including ribose as a component.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
Thiouracil refers both to a specific molecule consisting of a sulfated uracil, and a family of molecules based upon that structure.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Uracil-DNA glycosylase, also known as UNG or UDG, is an enzyme.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Uridine is a glycosylated pyrimidine-analog containing uracil attached to a ribose ring (or more specifically, a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond.
Uridine diphosphate, abbreviated UDP, is a nucleotide diphosphate.
Uridine diphosphate glucose (uracil-diphosphate glucose, UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar.
Uridine monophosphate (UMP), also known as 5′-uridylic acid (conjugate base uridylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of the organic base uracil linked to the 1' carbon of the ribose sugar, and esterified with tri-phosphoric acid at the 5' position.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.