184 relations: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Air conditioning, Air pollution, Albedo, American cliff swallow, American Meteorological Society, Ant, Anticholinergic, Arizona State University, Asphalt, Atmosphere, Atmospheric pressure, Autocorrelation, Barbiturate, Barcelona, BBC News, Berkeley Earth, Berkeley, California, Blog, Boundary layer, California Air Resources Board, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Census, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chicago, Chives, Climate change, Cloud, Cloud cover, Common house gecko, Concrete, Construction, Convection, Deciduous, Dementia, Denver, Depression (mood), Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Diuretic, Earth's energy budget, Ecosystem, Ectotherm, Emission intensity, Emissivity, Environmental justice, Evapotranspiration, Evolution, Fog, ..., Foraging, Gavin Schmidt, Glendale, California, Global warming, Google Maps, Grant (money), Green belt, Green Building Initiative, Green parking lot, Green roof, Greenhouse gas, Grey-headed flying fox, Growing season, Health, Heat capacity, Heat cramps, Heat exhaustion, Heat stroke, Heat syncope, Heat wave, Homogenization (climate), Humidity, Instrumental temperature record, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Inversion (meteorology), Invertebrate, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Joseph J. Romm, Journal of Climate, Landscaping, Lavandula, Lawrence Hall of Science, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Local ordinance, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Basin, Low-carbon fuel standard, Luke Howard, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Mediterranean climate, Megalopolis, Melbourne, Mesoscale meteorology, Metropolitan area, Miami, Microscale meteorology, Moscow, NASA, Natural selection, Nature (journal), New York City, Nitrogen oxide, Nonprofit organization, Oak, Oregano, Ozone, Parkinson's disease, Particulates, Patrick Michaels, Permeable paving, Phoenix, Arizona, Platanus racemosa, Pollution, Population density, Precipitation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Procurement, Profit (economics), Proportionality (law), Prune, Pruning, Pusan National University, Quercus agrifolia, Quercus lobata, Raleigh, North Carolina, Reflective surfaces (climate engineering), Refrigeration, Regression analysis, Renewable energy, Ross McKitrick, Rural area, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Satellite imagery, Science Daily, Scrub oak, Social network, Solar irradiance, Solar power, Sowing, Spain, State Implementation Plan, Stormwater, Street canyon, Summer, Surface weather observation, Tampa, Florida, Temperature, The Economist, The Guardian, Thermal conductivity, Thermoregulation, Time constant, Tornado, Tree planting, TreePeople, Troposphere, Tropospheric ozone, Umbellularia, United States Department of Energy, United States dollar, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of California, Berkeley, University of Cincinnati, University of Melbourne, Urban area, Urban climatology, Urban dust dome, Urban heat island, Urban reforestation, Urban sprawl, Urban thermal plume, Urbanization, Vegetation, Victoria (Australia), Visalia, California, Volatile organic compound, Waste heat, Wealth, Weather station, Wildlife, Wind, Wind speed, Winter. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The American cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) is a member of the passerine bird family Hirundinidae consisting of both swallow and martin species.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) is the premier scientific and professional organization in the United States promoting and disseminating information about the atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic sciences. Its mission is to advance the atmospheric and related sciences, technologies, applications, and services for the benefit of society.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Autocorrelation, also known as serial correlation, is the correlation of a signal with a delayed copy of itself as a function of delay.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Berkeley Earth is a Berkeley, California based independent 501(c)(3) non-profit focused on land temperature data analysis for climate science.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cedar Rapids is the second-largest city in Iowa and is the county seat of Linn County.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chives, scientific name Allium schoenoprasum, is an edible species of the genus Allium.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
'Cloud cover' (also known as 'cloudiness', 'cloudage', or 'cloud amount') refers to the fraction of the sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location.
The common house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) (not to be confused with the Mediterranean species Hemidactylus turcicus known as Mediterranean house gecko), is a reptile native of Southeast Asia.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between energy Earth receives from the Sun, energy Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered the so-called "Earth’s heat engine".
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
An emission intensity (also carbon intensity, C.I.) is the emission rate of a given pollutant relative to the intensity of a specific activity, or an industrial production process; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to gross domestic product (GDP).
The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.
Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
Foraging is searching for wild food resources.
Gavin A. Schmidt is a climatologist, climate modeler and Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York, and co-founder of the award-winning climate science blog RealClimate.
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google.
Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas.
Green Building Initiative (GBI) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that administers green building assessment and certification services in the United States.
Green parking lots are a form of parking lot designed to be environmentally more sustainable.
A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) is a megabat native to Australia.
The growing season is the part of the year during which local weather conditions (i.e. rainfall and temperature) permit normal plant growth.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heat cramps, a type of heat illness, are muscle spasms that result from loss of large amount of salt and water through exercise.
Heat exhaustion is a severe form of heat illness.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
Heat syncope is fainting or dizziness as a result of overheating (syncope is the medical term for fainting).
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
Homogenization in climate research means the removal of non-climatic changes.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC.
Joseph J. Romm (born June 27, 1960) is an American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert who advocates reducing greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and increasing energy security through energy efficiency, green energy technologies and green transportation technologies.
The Journal of Climate (JCLI) is a scientific journal published semi-monthly by the American Meteorological Society.
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including.
Lavandula (common name lavender) is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae.
The Lawrence Hall of Science is a public science center that offers hands-on science exhibits, designs curriculum, aids professional development, and offers after school science resources to students of all ages.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide.
A local ordinance is a law usually found in a code of laws for a political division smaller than a state or nation, i.e., a local government such as a municipality, county, parish, prefecture, etc.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Basin is a sedimentary basin located in southern California, in a region known as the Peninsular Ranges.
A low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as compared to conventional petroleum fuels, such as gasoline and diesel.
Luke Howard, FRS (28 November 1772 – 21 March 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and an amateur meteorologist with broad interests in science.
Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Mesoscale meteorology is the study of weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than microscale and storm-scale cumulus systems.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Microscale meteorology is the study of short-lived atmospheric phenomena smaller than mesoscale, about 1 km or less.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Patrick J. ("Pat") Michaels (born February 15, 1950) is an American climatologist.
Permeable paving is a method of paving vehicle and pedestrian pathways that allows for infiltration of fluids.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Platanus racemosa is a species of plane tree known by several common names, including California sycamore, western sycamore, California plane tree, and in North American Spanish aliso.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process.
In economics, profit in the accounting sense of the excess of revenue over cost is the sum of two components: normal profit and economic profit.
Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts.
A prune is a dried plum of any cultivar, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum.
Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots.
Pusan National University (PNU, also called Busan National University) is one of ten national Universities in South Korea.
Quercus agrifolia, the California live oak or coast live oak, is a highly variable, often shrubby evergreen oak tree, a type of live oak, native to the California Floristic Province.
Quercus lobata, commonly called the valley oak or roble, grows into the largest of North American oaks.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
Reflective surfaces are surfaces that can deliver high solar reflectance (the ability to reflect the visible, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths of the sun, reducing heat transfer to the surface) and high thermal emittance (the ability to radiate absorbed, or non-reflected solar energy).
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Ross McKitrick (born 1965) is a Canadian economist specializing in environmental economics and policy analysis.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) provides electricity to Sacramento County, California, and a small portion of adjacent Placer County.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scrub oak is a common name for six species of small, shrubby oaks.
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
Sowing is the process of planting.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A State Implementation Plan (SIP) is a United States state plan for complying with the federal Clean Air Act, administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
A street canyon (also known as an urban canyon) is a place where the street is flanked by buildings on both sides creating a canyon-like environment.
Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn.
Surface weather observations are the fundamental data used for safety as well as climatological reasons to forecast weather and issue warnings worldwide.
Tampa is a major city in, and the county seat of, Hillsborough County, Florida, United States.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter τ (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Tree-planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purpose.
TreePeople is a California based nonprofit environmental advocacy group located in Los Angeles.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California, as well as to coastal forests extending into Oregon.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urban climatology refers to a specific branch of climatology that is concerned with interactions between urban areas and the atmosphere, the effects they have on one another, and the varying spatial and temporal scales at which these processes (and responses) occur.
Urban dust domes are a meteorological phenomenon in which soot, dust, and chemical emissions become trapped in the air above urban spaces.
An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.
Urban reforestation is the practice of planting trees, typically on a large scale, in urban environments.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
An urban thermal plume describes rising air in the lower altitudes of the Earth's atmosphere caused by urban areas being warmer than surrounding areas.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Visalia is a city situated in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley of California, approximately southeast of San Francisco, north of Los Angeles, west of Sequoia National Park and south of Fresno.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity.
Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones (winter does not occur in the tropical zone).
Heat Island, Heat island, Heat island effect, Heat islands, Heat-island effect, Heat-island phenomenon, UH Islands, Urban Heat Island, Urban Heat Island Affect, Urban Heat Island Effect, Urban heat, Urban heat dome, Urban heat effect, Urban heat island affect, Urban heat island effect, Urban heat islands, Urban heat zone.