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Urbanization

Index Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change. [1]

169 relations: Abraham Eraly, Affordable housing, Agriculture, American Planning Association, Ancient Egypt, Andrey Korotayev, Australasia, Automobile dependency, Back-to-the-land movement, Beijing, Birmingham, Body mass index, Bogotá, Brill Publishers, British Agricultural Revolution, Cairo, Cambridge University Press, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cholesterol, City-state, Colombia, Contagious disease, Conurbation, Counterurbanization, Delhi, Demographic transition, Denver, Developed country, Developing country, Dharma Kumar, Diet (nutrition), Division of labour, Drought, Drug, Dunedin (ship), Economics, Economies of agglomeration, Eldridge Lovelace, England, Exercise, Flood, Food desert, Fossil fuel, France, Garden city movement, Gentrification, Geography, Ghetto, Globalization, ..., Greater Manila Area, Greenway (landscape), Guangzhou, Health care, Heterosociality, Hunter-gatherer, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, Infrastructure, Inner city, Intensive animal farming, Irfan Habib, IRIN, Istanbul, Jakarta, Karachi, Keihanshin, Lagos, Land use, Landscape planning, Leonid Grinin, Lewis Mumford, Life expectancy, List of cities in India by population, List of cities proper by population, Local purchasing, London, Malnutrition, Manchester, Manila, Marketplace, Megalopolis, Mesopotamia, Metropolitan area, Mexico City, Michael Lipton, Modernization theory, Mughal Empire, Mumbai, Naxalite, Neolithic Revolution, New Urbanism, New York City, Non-communicable disease, North America, Oppidum, Overexploitation, Overseas Development Institute, Overurbanization, Overweight, Paolo Malanima, Pearl River Delta, Penguin Books, People flow, Peter Turchin, Planned community, Polis, Political demography, Primate city, Prussia, Public health, Public transport, Quality of life, Rate (mathematics), Rationalization (sociology), Rural area, Rural flight, Sanitation, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Shanty town, Shrinking cities, Slash-and-burn, Slum, Smart growth, Social equity, Social network, Sociology, South America, Subsistence agriculture, Suburbanization, Sustainable drainage system, Tapan Raychaudhuri, Tokyo, United Nations, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, United States, Urban culture, Urban design, Urban ecology, Urban heat island, Urban history, Urban metabolism, Urban morphology, Urban park, Urban planning, Urban revolution, Urban sprawl, Urban studies, Urbanisation in India, Urbanisation in Pakistan, Urbanization, Urbanization by country, Urbanization in Africa, Urbanization in China, Urbanization in the United States, Video, Violence, Wales, Walkability, White flight, Whole Earth Discipline, Working class, World, World population, Yale University, 2007 Jakarta flood, 2011 Thailand floods. Expand index (119 more) »

Abraham Eraly

Abraham Eraly (August 15, 1934—April 8, 2015) was an Indian writer of history, a teacher, and the founder of Chennai-based magazine Aside.

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Affordable housing

Affordable housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a median household income as rated by the national government or a local government by a recognized housing affordability index.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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American Planning Association

The American Planning Association (APA) is a professional organization representing the field of urban planning in the United States.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Andrey Korotayev

Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics.

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Australasia

Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).

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Automobile dependency

Automobile dependency is the concept that some city layouts cause automobiles to be favored over alternate forms of transportation such as bicycles, public transit, and walking.

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Back-to-the-land movement

The term Back-to-the-Land movement covers a number of agrarian movements across different historical periods.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Bogotá

Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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British Agricultural Revolution

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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City-state

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Contagious disease

A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.

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Conurbation

A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.

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Counterurbanization

Counterurbanization, or de-urbanization, is a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas.

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Delhi

Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Demographic transition

Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.

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Denver

Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dharma Kumar

Dharma Kumar (1928 – 19 October 2001) was an Indian economic historian, noted for her work on the agrarian history of India.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Division of labour

The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Drug

A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Dunedin (ship)

The Dunedin (1876–82) was the first ship to successfully transport a full cargo of refrigerated meat from New Zealand to England.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Economies of agglomeration

Economies of agglomeration considers the effects of urban agglomeration, it is a topic of urban economics.

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Eldridge Lovelace

Eldridge Hirst Lovelace (March 16, 1913 – November 7, 2008) was a city planner and author who prepared comprehensive plans for many large US cities.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Exercise

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Flood

A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.

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Food desert

A food desert is an area, especially one with low-income residents, that has limited access to affordable and nutritious food.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Garden city movement

The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.

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Gentrification

Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Ghetto

A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.

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Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Greater Manila Area

The Greater Manila Area generally refers to the contiguous urbanization surrounding Metro Manila, and ambiguously there are several terms.

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Greenway (landscape)

A greenway is "a strip of undeveloped land near an urban area, set aside for recreational use or environmental protection".

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Guangzhou

Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Heterosociality

In sociology, heterosociality describes social relations with persons of the opposite sex or a preference for such relations, often excluding relationships of a romantic and sexual nature.

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Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Industrialisation

Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Infrastructure

Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Inner city

The inner city or inner town is the central area of a major city or metropolis.

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Intensive animal farming

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.

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Irfan Habib

Irfan Habib (born 1931) is an Indian historian of ancient and medieval India, following the approach of Marxist historiography.

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IRIN

IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Jakarta

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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Karachi

Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.

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Keihanshin

is a metropolitan region in Japan encompassing the metropolitan areas of the cities of Kyoto in Kyoto Prefecture, Osaka in Osaka Prefecture and Kobe in Hyōgo Prefecture.

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Lagos

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.

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Land use

Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.

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Landscape planning

Landscape planning is a branch of landscape architecture.

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Leonid Grinin

Leonid Efimovich Grinin (Леони́д Ефи́мович Гри́нин; born in 1958) is a Russian philosopher of history, sociologist, political anthropologist, economist, and futurologist.

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Lewis Mumford

Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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List of cities in India by population

The following tables are the list of cities in India by population.

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List of cities proper by population

This article lists the most populous cities in the world defined according to a concept of city proper.

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Local purchasing

Local purchasing is a preference to buy locally produced goods and services over those produced farther away.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Manchester

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Manila

Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Marketplace

A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.

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Megalopolis

A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Michael Lipton

Michael Lipton (born 13 February 1937) is a British economist specialising in rural poverty in developing countries, including issues relating to land reform and urban bias.

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Modernization theory

Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Mumbai

Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Naxalite

A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of the Communist Party of India (Maoist).

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Non-communicable disease

A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Oppidum

An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.

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Overexploitation

Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.

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Overseas Development Institute

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.

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Overurbanization

Overurbanization is a thesis originally developed by scholars of demography, geography, ecology, economics, political science, and sociology in the 20th century to describe cities whose rate of urbanization outpaces their industrial growth and economic development.

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Overweight

Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Paolo Malanima

Paolo Malanima (born 17 December 1950) is an Italian economic historian and director of the Institute of Studies on Mediterranean Societies in Naples.

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Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD), also known as Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao, is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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People flow

People flow refers to numerous people moving, around buildings, around cities or across borders.

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Peter Turchin

Peter Valentinovich Turchin (Пётр Валенти́нович Турчи́н; born 1957) is a Russian-American scientist, specializing in cultural evolution and "cliodynamics" — mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of the dynamics of historical societies.

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Planned community

A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.

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Polis

Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Political demography

Political demography is the study of how population change affects politics.

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Primate city

A primate city (Latin: "prime, first rank") is the largest city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Public transport

Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Rate (mathematics)

In mathematics, a rate is the ratio between two related quantities.

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Rationalization (sociology)

In sociology, rationalization or rationalisation refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with concepts based on rationality and reason.

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Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.

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Rural flight

Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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Seoul

Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.

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Shanghai

Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shanty town

A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.

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Shrinking cities

Shrinking cities or urban depopulation are dense cities that have experienced notable population loss.

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Slash-and-burn

Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.

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Slum

A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.

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Smart growth

Smart growth is an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl.

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Social equity

Social equity is a concept that applies concerns of justice and fairness to social policy.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Subsistence agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.

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Suburbanization

Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of (sub)urban sprawl.

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Sustainable drainage system

A sustainable drainage system (SuDs,, Sharma, D., 2008 SuDS, SUDSScottish Government. Planning Services (2001). Planning Advice Note 61. 2001-07-27.) is designed to reduce the potential impact of new and existing developments with respect to surface water drainage discharges.

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Tapan Raychaudhuri

Tapan Raychaudhuri (8 May 1926 – 26 November 2014) was an Indian historian specialising in British Indian history, Indian economic history and the History of Bengal.

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Human Settlements Programme

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–Habitat) is the United Nations agency for human settlements and sustainable urban development.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urban culture

Urban culture is the culture of towns and cities.

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Urban design

Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns and villages.

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Urban ecology

Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.

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Urban heat island

An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.

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Urban history

Urban history is a field of history that examines the historical nature of cities and towns, and the process of urbanization.

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Urban metabolism

Urban metabolism is a model to facilitate the description and analysis of the flows of the materials and energy within cities, such as undertaken in a material flow analysis of a city.

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Urban morphology

Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation.

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Urban park

An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (UK), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality.

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Urban planning

Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.

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Urban revolution

In anthropology and archaeology, the Urban Revolution is the process by which small, kin-based, nonliterate agricultural villages were transformed into large, socially complex, urban societies.

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Urban sprawl

Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.

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Urban studies

Urban studies is based on the study of the urban development of cities.

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Urbanisation in India

Urbanization in India began to accelerate after independence, due to the country's adoption of a mixed economy, which gave rise to the development of the private sector.

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Urbanisation in Pakistan

Urbanization in Pakistan has increased since the time of independence and has several different causes.

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Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Urbanization by country

This is a list of countries by urbanization.

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Urbanization in Africa

The urbanization of most of Africa is moving fast forward, especially south of the Sahara.

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Urbanization in China

Urbanization in China increased in speed following the initiation of the reform and opening policy.

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Urbanization in the United States

The urbanization of the United States has progressed throughout its entire history.

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Video

Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.

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Violence

Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Walkability

Walkability is a measure of how friendly an area is to walking.

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White flight

White flight is a term that originated in the United States, starting in the 1950s and 1960s, and applied to the large-scale migration of people of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions.

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Whole Earth Discipline

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto is the sixth book by Stewart Brand, published by Viking Penguin in 2009.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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World

The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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2007 Jakarta flood

The 2007 Jakarta flood was a major flood in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and affected several other areas around the city, such as West Java and Banten.

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2011 Thailand floods

Severe flooding occurred during the 2011 monsoon season in Thailand.

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Causes of urbanization, Environmental effects of urbanization, Environmental impact of urbanization, Global urbanization, Homo urbanus, Pseudo urbanization, Pseudo-urbanization, Rural Migration, Rural migration, Rural-urban migration, Urban drift, Urban migration, Urbanicity, Urbanisation, Urbanise, Urbanised, Urbanization rate, Urbanize.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization

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