274 relations: Administrative units of Pakistan, Affricate consonant, Afghan refugees, Agra, Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi, Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi, Ahmedabad, Ahsan Iqbal, Ajmer, ALA-LC romanization, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Alveolar consonant, Andhra Pradesh, Apabhraṃśa, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Ashley Eden, Aspirated consonant, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, Australia, Ayin, Azamgarh, Back vowel, Bangalore, Bangladesh, Bareilly, Battle of Karbala, Bengal, Bhopal, Bidar, Bihar, Bijnor, Bilabial consonant, Brill Publishers, British Raj, Budaun, Canada, Catalonia, Central vowel, Central Zone (Hindi), Chagatai language, Chennai, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Code-switching, Constitution of India, Culture of Pakistan, ..., Daily Jang, Dakhini, Dakhini Muslims, Dawn News, Deccan Plateau, Delhi, Delhi Sultanate, Demographics of Afghanistan, Dental consonant, Deoband, Devanagari, Education in Pakistan, English language, English novel, Etymology, Ezāfe, Faisalabad, Fiqh, Flap consonant, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Germany, Ghalib, Ghazal, Ghulam Abbas (writer), Glossary of the British Raj, Glottal consonant, Gopi Chand Narang, Gorakhpur, Government of India, Government of Pakistan, Gulbarga, Gulzar, Hadith, Hazaras, He (letter), Heinrich Blochmann, Hindi, Hindi Belt, Hindi–Urdu controversy, Hindustani language, Hindustani people, History, Husayn ibn Ali, Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Sindh, Indian Signing System, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Islamabad, Islamic literature, Ismat Chughtai, Jammu and Kashmir, Jhang, Jharkhand, Kaithi, Kanpur, Karachi, Karbala, Karnataka, Khariboli dialect, Kolkata, Konkani language, Krishan Chander, Lahore, Lal Kitab, Languages of Pakistan, Languages with official status in India, Latin, Lingua franca, List of newspapers in India, List of Urdu-language poets, List of Urdu-language writers, Lower court, Lucknow, Madhya Pradesh, Madrasa, Maharashtra, Mahmud of Ghazni, Malegaon, Mandarin Chinese, Marathi language, Marathwada, Marsiya, Masnavi, Meerut, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Millat, Mir Babar Ali Anis, Mir Taqi Mir, Mirza Salaamat Ali Dabeer, Moradabad, Morphology (linguistics), Mughal Empire, Muhajir people, Muhammad, Multan, Mumbai, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Mutual intelligibility, Muzaffarnagar, Myanmar, Mysore, Naeem Baig, Najibabad, Nanded, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Naskh (script), Nastaʿlīq script, National Translation Mission, Nawa-i-Waqt, Nazm, Na`at, Nepal, Noha, North India, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Norway, Novel, Okara District, Old English, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Orda (organization), Pakistan, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Pakistani literature, Palatal consonant, Parbhani, Partition of India, Pashtuns, Patna, Persian alphabet, Persian and Urdu, Persian calligraphy, Persian Gulf, Persian language, Persian language in South Asia, Persianization, Peshawar, Phoneme, Portuguese language, Prakrit, Premchand, Provincial languages of Pakistan, Punjab, Punjabi dialects, Punjabi language, Qasida, Quetta, Quran, Qurratulain Hyder, Rahman Abbas, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Rampur, Uttar Pradesh, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rashid ul Khairi, Rawalpindi, Register (sociolinguistics), Rekhta, Retroflex consonant, Roop Chand Joshi, Roorkee, Ruqʿah script, Saadat Hasan Manto, Saharanpur, Sanskrit, Sargodha, Saudi Arabia, Sharia, Shauraseni language, Short story, Sialkot, Skardu, Sociolinguistics, South Asia, Standard language, States and union territories of India, States of India by Urdu speakers, Stop consonant, Sufism, SUNY Press, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Swadesh list, Syntax, Tajiks, Taw, Telangana, The Indian Express, The Munsif Daily, The Musalman, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turkish language, Turkmens, Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Urdish, Urdu alphabet, Urdu Braille, Urdu Digest, Urdu in Aurangabad, Urdu in the United Kingdom, Urdu Informatics, Urdu keyboard, Urdu poetry, Uttar Pradesh, Uvular consonant, Uzbeks, Velar consonant, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Voiced velar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel length, West Bengal, Yangon. Expand index (224 more) » « Shrink index
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afghan refugees are nationals of Afghanistan who left their country as a result of major wars or persecution.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi (احمد ندیم قاسمی) born Ahmad Shah Awan (احمد شاہ اعوان) on 20 November 1916 – died 10 July 2006, was an Urdu and English language Pakistani poet, journalist, literary critic, dramatist and short story author.
Ahmed Raza Khan (Arabic: أحمد رضا خان, Persian: احمد رضا خان, احمد رضا خان., अहमद रज़ा खान), commonly known as Ahmed Raza Khan Barelwi, Ahmed Rida Khan in Arabic, or simply as "Ala-Hazrat" (14 June 1856 CE or 10 Shawwal 1272 AH – 28 October 1921 CE or 25 Safar 1340 AH), was an Islamic scholar, jurist, theologian, ascetic, Sufi, and reformer in British India, and the founder of the Barelvi movement.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Ahsan Iqbal Chaudhary (born 28 March 1959) is a Pakistani politician who served as Minister for Interior and Minister for Planning, Development and Reforms in the Abbasi cabinet from 2017 to May 2018.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
Aligarh (formerly Allygurh & Koil) is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for lock industries and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district.
Prayag, or Allahabad is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad Division.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Apabhranśa (अपभ्रंश,, Prakrit) is a term used by vyākaraṇin (grammarians) since Patañjali to refer to the dialects prevalent in the Ganges (east and west) before the rise of the modern languages.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
The Honourable Sir Ashley Eden (13 November 1831 – 8 July 1887) was an official and diplomat in British India.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Aurangabad (is a city in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. The city is a tourism hub, surrounded by many historical monuments, including the Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves, which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as Bibi Ka Maqbara and Panchakki. The administrative headquarters of the Aurangabad Division or Marathwada region, Aurangabad is titled "The City of Gates" and the strong presence of these can be felt as one drives through the city. The city was founded in 1610 by Malik Amber. Aurangabad is the Tourism Capital of Maharashtra. Aurangabad is the fifth largest city in Maharashtra.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
Azamgarh is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bareilly is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Bhopal is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal district and Bhopal division.
Bidar also called as Karnatakada Kirita is a hill top city in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in south India.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bijnor, is a city and a municipal board in Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Budaun (also spelled as Badaun, formerly Vodamayuta) is a city and a seat of Budaun district, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Central Zone or Madhya languages are the central varieties of the Hindi Belt, spoken across northern India, of the Indo-Aryan languages.
Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The society and culture of Pakistan (ثقافتِ پاکستان) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north.
The Daily Jang (روزنامہ جنگ) is an Urdu newspaper based in Karachi, Pakistan.
Dakhini or Dakkhani, also spelled Dakkani (داکھان) and Deccani (dec-ca-ni), is an Indo-Aryan language of South India.
The Dakhini Muslims, or Deccani Muslims, are a community of diverse peoples from various ethnic backgrounds who inhabit the Deccan region of Southern India, and speak the Dakhini language, a form of Urdu.
Dawn News is one of Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the roughly 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Deoband is a town and a municipality in Saharanpur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English novel is an important part of English literature.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Ezāfe (اضافه), also written as izafet, izafe, izafat, izāfa, and izofa (Tajik: изофа izofa), is a grammatical particle found in some Iranian languages and Urdu that links two words together; in the Persian language it consists of the unstressed vowel -e or -i (-ye or -yi after vowels) between the words it connects and often approximately corresponds in usage to the English preposition of.
Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghalib (غاؔلِب, ग़ालिब.), born Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu:, मिर्ज़ा असदुल्लाह् बेग खiन), 26 June 1797 – 15 February 1869), was a prominent Urdu and Persian-language poet during the last years of the Mughal Empire. He used his pen-names of Ghalib (Urdu:, ġhālib means "dominant") and Asad (Urdu:, Asad means "lion"). His honorific was Dabir-ul-Mulk, Najm-ud-Daula. During his lifetime the Mughals were eclipsed and displaced by the British and finally deposed following the defeat of the Indian rebellion of 1857, events that he described. Most notably, he wrote several ghazals during his life, which have since been interpreted and sung in many different ways by different people. Ghalib, the last great poet of the Mughal Era, is considered to be one of the most famous and influential poets of the Urdu language. Today Ghalib remains popular not only in India and Pakistan but also among the Hindustani diaspora around the world.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
Ghulam Abbas (غلام عباس; 17 November 1909 2 November 1982) was a short story writer from Pakistan.
The following is based on a glossary attached to the fifth Report of the Committee of the House of Commons on Indian affairs, appointed in 1810, comprising Hindi-Urdu words commonly used in the administration of the British Raj (British India).
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Gopi Chand Narang (born 11 February 1931 in Dukki, Balochistan) is an Indian theorist, literary critic and scholar who writes in Urdu and English.
Gorakhpur is a city located along the banks of Rapti river in the north-eastern part of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, with a population of 673,446.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Gulbarga, officially known as Kalaburagi, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka, India.
Sampooran Singh Kalra (born 18 August 1934), known popularly by his pet name Gulzar, is an Indian poet, lyricist, musician, composer and film director.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
Heinrich Blochmann, known as Henry Ferdinand Blochmann (8 January 1838 – 13 July 1878), was a German orientalist and scholar of Persian language and literature who spent most of his career in India, where he worked first as a professor, and eventually as the principal at Calcutta Madrasa, now Aliah University in present Kolkata.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.
The Hindi–Urdu controversy is an ongoing dispute—dating back to the 19th century—regarding the status of Hindi and Urdu as a single language, Hindustani (lit "of Hindustan"), or as two dialects of a single language, and the establishment of a single standard language in certain areas of North India.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hindustani people, or Hindavi people, are a panethnicity primarily living in the Hindi belt region of India, which is located in the Indus-Gangetic Plain of North India, between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas, identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
Hyderabad (Sindhi and حيدرآباد; is a city located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Located 140 kilometres east of Karachi, Hyderabad is the 2nd largest in Sindh province, and the 8th largest city in Pakistan. Founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty, Hyderabad served as the Kalhoro, and later Talpur, capital until the British transferred the capital to Karachi in 1843.
The Indian Signing System or Indian Sign System (ISS) is a convention for manually coded language used in India.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.
Ismat Chughtai (21 August 1915–24 October 1991) was an Indian Urdu language writer.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jhang (Punjabi and جھنگ) is the capital city of Jhang District, in the province of Punjab, Pakistan.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar.
Kanpur (formerly Cawnpore) is the 12th most populous city in India and the second largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Khariboli, also known as Khari Boli or simply Khari, Dehlavi, Kauravi, and Vernacular Hindustani, is the prestige dialect of Hindustani, of which Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu are standard registers and literary styles, which are the principal official languages of India and Pakistan respectively.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Krishan Chander (23 November 1914 – 8 March 1977) was an Urdu and Hindi writer of short stories and novels.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lal Kitab (Hindi: लाल किताब, Urdu: لالکتاب, literally Red Book) is a set of five Urdu language books on Hindu astrology and palmistry, written in the 20th century, based on the Samudrika Shastra.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
As of 31 March 2016, there were over 100,000 publications registered with the Registrar of Newspapers for India.
This is a list of notable Urdu language writers.
A lower court is a court from which an appeal may be taken.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Malegaon is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Nashik District in the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marathwada (IPA:Marāṭhvāḍā) is a region of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Marsiya (مرثیه) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hussain ibn Ali and his comrades of the Karbala.
The Masnavi, or Masnavi-i Ma'navi (مثنوی معنوی), also written Mesnevi, Mathnawi, or Mathnavi, is an extensive poem written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Balkhi also known as Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi poet.
Meerut (IAST: Meraṭha), is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.
Millat (Gujarati: મિલ્લત, Urdu) is a bilingual Gujarati and Urdu daily newspaper founded in 1946 and based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Mir Babar Ali Anis (مِیر ببَر علی انِیس), was an Urdu poet, born in 1803 in Faizabad, Oudh (now in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh) who died in 1874 in Lucknow, North-Western Provinces.
Meer Muhammad Taqi Meer ' (مِیر تقی مِیرؔ—), whose ''takhallus'' (pen name) was Mir (مِیرؔ—) (sometimes also spelt Meer Taqi Meer) (February 1723 - 21 September 1810), was the leading Urdu poet of the 18th century, and one of the pioneers who gave shape to the Urdu language itself.
Mirza Salaamat Ali Dabeer (مِرزا سلامت علی دبِیر), (1803–1875) was a leading Urdu poet who excelled and perfected the art of Marsiya writing.
Moradabad is a city, commissionary, and a municipal corporation in Moradabad district of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Muzaffarnagar is a city and a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is a part of National Capital Region.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Naeem Baig (نعیم بیگ) (born 1952) is a Pakistani short story writer.
Najibabad is a town and a municipal board in Bijnor district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
(نسخ /; also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih) is a specific style of the Arabic alphabet, said to have been invented by Persian calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (d. 940).
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
National Translation Mission (NTM) is a Government of India initiative to make knowledge texts accessible, in all Indian languages listed in the VIII schedule of the Constitution, through translation.
Nawa-i-Waqt (روزنامہ نوائے وقت) is an Urdu daily newspaper in Pakistan.
Nazm (Urdu نظم) is a major part of the Urdu poetry, that is normally written in rhymed verse and also in modern prose style poems.
Na'at (نعت) refers to poetry in praise of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Noha is a female Arabic name that means pleural of brain; brains, it also means wisdom and knowledge.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
Okara District (Punjabi and ضِلع اوكاڑا), is a district of Sahiwal Division in Punjab, Pakistan.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
An orda (also orda, ordu, ordo, or ordon) or horde was a historical sociopolitical and military structure found on the Eurasian Steppe, usually associated with the Turkic people and Mongols.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (ادارہ شماریات پاکستان, abbreviated as PBS) is the Government of Pakistan government agency commissioned charged with the national statistical services and to provide solid and comprehensive statistical research.
Pakistan literature is a distinct literature that gradually came to be defined after Pakistan gained nationhood status in 1947, emerging out of literary traditions of the South Asia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Parbhani (IPA) is a city in Maharashtra state of India.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
The Persian language historically influenced many of the modern languages and dialects of Eastern Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia including the standard register Urdu, the national language of Pakistan and an official language in seven states/territories of India.
Persian calligraphy (Persian:خوشنویسی فارسی) or Iranian calligraphy (Persian:خوشنویسی ایرانی) is the calligraphy of the Persian language.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persian language in South Asia, before the British colonized the subcontinent, was the region's lingua franca and a widely used official language.
Persianization or persification is a sociological process of cultural change in which something becomes "Persianate".
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Munshi Premchand (31 July 1880 – 8 October 1936) (real name Dhanpat Rai), was an Indian writer famous for his modern Hindi-Urdu literature.
The provincial languages of Pakistan are a set of languages that are spoken and used in the five Provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit–Baltistan, and Balochistan).
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Punjabi dialects are the series of dialects spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The qaṣīdaᵗ (also spelled qaṣīdah; is originally an Arabic word Arabic: قصيدة, plural qaṣā'id, قــصــائـد; that was passed to some other languages such as Persian: قصیده or چكامه, chakameh, in Turkish: kaside) is an ancient Arabic word and form of writing poetry, often translated as ode, passed to other cultures after the Arab Muslim expansion.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Qurratulain Hyder (20 January 1927 – 21 August 2007) was an influential Indian Urdu novelist and short story writer, an academic, and a journalist.
Rahman Abbas (born 30 January 1972) is an Indian fiction writer.
Rajinder Singh Bedi (1 September 1915 – 1984) was an Indian Urdu writer of the progressive writers' movement and a playwright, who later worked in Hindi cinema as a film director, screenwriter and dialogue writer.
Rampur is a city and a municipality headquarter of Rampur District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rashid ul Khairi or Allama Rashid-ul-Khairi (largely known as Musavire Gham (مصوّرِ غم)) (راشد الخیری) (1868-1936) was an outstanding social reformer of British India and a reputed writer of Urdu Language.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Rekhta (ریختہ), (रेख़्ता),(rextā) was the Hindustani language as its dialectal basis shifted to the Khariboli dialect of Delhi.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Pandit Roop Chand Joshi (18 January 1898 – 24 December 1982) was an Indian author who is noted for having written currently available versions of Lal Kitab, a collection of books on Vedic science of astrology and palmistry.
Roorkee (Rūṛkī) is a city in North India and a Municipal Corporation in the Haridwar district of state Uttarakhand, India.
or (رقعة) is a variety of the Arabic script.
Saadat Hasan Manto (سعادت حسن منٹو,; 11 May 1912 – 18 January 1955) was a Pakistani writer, playwright and author born in British India.
Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sargodha (Punjabi and سرگودھا) is the 11th largest city in Pakistan with a population of 1.5 million.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
A Dramatic Prakrit, Shauraseni was the chief language used in drama in northern medieval India.
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
Skardu (سکردو, script) is a city in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, and serves as the capital of Skardu District.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
As per Government of India census data of 2001, the total number of Urdu speakers in India were 81,061,078 and as per report of 2001, the total number of Urdu speakers in India were 51,536,111 (of which 51,533,954 spoke Urdu and 2,157 other dialects such as Bhojpuri,Maithili,Awadhi,Magadhi & many other forms of Hindustani. Urdu is officially recognised in India and has official status in the National Capital Territory of Delhi to which the language has remained deeply attached through its medieval history of Muslim sultanates and empires, and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana, and Jammu and Kashmir.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
The Swadesh list is a classic compilation of basic concepts for the purposes of historical-comparative linguistics.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The Munsif Daily is a Urdu language newspaper published from Hyderabad in India.
The Musalman is the oldest Urdu-language daily newspaper published from Chennai in India.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
The Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanization scheme is an international standard for romanising the Hindustani language (also known as Urdu/Hindi) (i.e., for transliterating) into the Latin alphabet). Syed Fasih Uddin and Quader Unissa Begum presented the scheme in 1992, at the First International Urdu Conference in Chicago. Uddin and Begum based their scheme on the work that John Borthwick Gilchrist and others began at Fort William College in Calcutta more than a century prior. Gilchrist's romanisation system became the de facto standard for romanised Hindustani during the late 19th century. Uddin and Begum attempted to improve on, and modernize, Gilchrist's system in a number of ways. For example, in the Uddin and Begum scheme, Urdu and Hindi characters correspond one-to-one. Also, diacritics indicate vowel phonics, whereas in the Gilchrist system the reader must infer vowel pronunciation from context. To facilitate Urdu and Hindustani romanisation in a much wider range of computer software, Uddin and Begum limited their character set to the common ASCII standard.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, also known as UNC, UNC Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina, or simply Carolina, is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.
Urdish, a portmanteau of Urdu and English, is the macaronic hybrid use of English and Urdu in Pakistan, involving code-switching between these languages whereby they are freely interchanged within a sentence or between sentences.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
According to Unesco (2013),, UNESCO, 2013 there are different braille alphabets for Urdu in India and in Pakistan. The Indian alphabet is based on national Bharati Braille, while the Pakistani alphabet is based on Persian Braille.
Urdu Digest (اردو ڈائجسٹ) is a monthly Urdu magazine in Pakistan.
Aurangabad is one of the historical cities of the Deccan, India.
Urdu is the fourth most commonly spoken language in the '''United Kingdom'''.
Urdu Informatics (Urdu: اردو اطلاعیات) relates to the research and contributions in bringing the utilities and usage of Urdu to the modern information and communication technologies in education and business.
The Urdu keyboard is any keyboard layout for Urdu computer and typewriter keyboards.
Urdu poetry (اُردُو شاعرى) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different forms.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
Camp language, ISO 639:ur, ISO 639:urd, Indian Urdu, Modern Standard Urdu, Oordoo, Paki language, Pakistani Urdu, Standard Urdu, URDU, Urdoo, Urdu (language), Urdu Language, Urdu Language in Bihar, Urdu dialects, Urdu language, Urdu studies, Urdu-language, Urdū, اردو, اُردُو.