231 relations: Abortion, Acetone, Acetonitrile, Acid, Algal bloom, Allantoin, Amide, Amidogen, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonia volatilization from urea, Ammonium, Ammonium carbamate, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium cyanate, Ammonium nitrate, Amphibian, Ancient Greek, Animal feed, Animal glue, Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, Ape, Arginine, Argininosuccinic acid, Aspartic acid, Aviation fuel, Barbituric acid, Barium carbonate, Base (chemistry), Bicarbonate, Big cat, Biuret, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood urea nitrogen, BlueTec, By-product, Callus, Carbamate, Carbodiimide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon-13, Carbon-14, Carbonic acid, Carbonyl fluoride, Carbonyl group, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Cat, Catalysis, ..., Chemical compound, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical formula, Chemical industry, Chemical Society Reviews, Choline chloride, Citrulline, Clathrate compound, Climate engineering, Cloud seeding, Collecting duct system, Combustion, Countercurrent exchange, Cream (pharmaceutical), Creatinine, Debridement, Debye, Deep eutectic solvent, Deicing, Denaturation (biochemistry), Dermatitis, Dermatology, Descending limb of loop of Henle, Diammonium phosphate, Diesel exhaust fluid, Diesel fuel, Dishwashing liquid, Diuretic, Dog, Duodenum, Dye, Edison (company), Endothermic process, Ethanol, Ethyl carbamate, Exhaust gas, Exothermic process, Explosive material, Fertigation, Fertilizer, Fire extinguisher, Fireproofing, Fluidized bed, Formaldehyde, France, Friedrich Wöhler, Fuel cell, Functional group, Fungus, Germany, Gram, Hair conditioner, Halite, Helicobacter pylori, Herman Boerhaave, Hilaire Rouelle, Hydantoin, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen peroxide - urea, Hydrolysis, Hydroxycarbamide, Hyponatremia, Ichthyosis, Imperial College London, Improvised explosive device, Interstitium, Invertebrate, Ionic liquid, Isocyanate, Isocyanic acid, Isothiouronium, JAMA Internal Medicine, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Keratoderma, Keratosis, Le Chatelier's principle, Light-independent reactions, Liver, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Lubricant, Malonic acid, Mammal, Management of dehydration, Marine biology, Metabolism, Metamorphosis, Microorganism, Moisturizer, Mole (unit), Muscle, Muscle atrophy, N-Acetylglutamic acid, Nail (anatomy), Nair (hair removal), Natural gas, Nephron, New Latin, Nitrite, Nitrobacter, Nitrocellulose, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrosomonas, Non-protein nitrogen, Nutrient, Occlusive dressing, Ocean fertilization, Onychomycosis, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Ornithine, Osmotic concentration, Partial pressure, Peptic ulcer disease, Perspiration, PH, Phosgene, Plankton, Plywood, Pollutant, Potassium bicarbonate, Pretzel, Prill, Protein, Psoriasis, Racemic mixture, Ratooning, Raw material, Recrystallization (chemistry), Reference ranges for blood tests, Renal function, Renal urea handling, Royal Society of Chemistry, Saipem, Saline (medicine), Sandvik, Sauria, Selective catalytic reduction, Selective non-catalytic reduction, Shampoo, Silver cyanate, Skin, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Soil, Stamicarbon, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stereoisomerism, Stomach, Sugar, Sulfate, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Tadpole, Thiol, Thiourea, Tonicity, Tooth whitening, Toyo Engineering Corporation, Transaminase, UAN, Urea, Urea breath test, Urea cycle, Urea nitrate, Urea phosphate, Urea transporter, Urea-containing cream, Urea-formaldehyde, Urease, Uric acid, Urine, Vasopressin, Veet, Vitalism, Wah Chang Corporation, Wöhler synthesis, William Prout, Xeroderma, Yara International, Yeast. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Allantoin is a chemical compound with formula C4H6N4O3.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In chemistry, amidogen is a radical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH2.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Urea (46-0-0) accounts for more than fifty percent of the world’s nitrogenous fertilizers.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Ammonium carbamate is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonium cyanate is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4OCN.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.
An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue.
Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (15 June 175516 December 1809) was a French chemist and a contemporary of Antoine Lavoisier.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Argininosuccinic acid is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is an important intermediate in the urea cycle.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
Barbituric acid or malonylurea or 6-hydroxyuracil is an organic compound based on a pyrimidine heterocyclic skeleton.
Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks, ceramic glazes and cement.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard and snow leopard.
Biuret is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C2H5N3O2.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood.
BlueTEC is Daimler AG's marketing name for engines equipped with advanced NOx reducing technology for vehicle emissions control in diesel-powered vehicles.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
A callus is an area of thickened skin that forms as a response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
A carbodiimide or a methanediimine is a functional group consisting of the formula RN.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
Carbonyl fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula COF2.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Chemical Society Reviews is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry, for review articles on topics of current interest in chemistry.
Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt.
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid.
A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.
Climate engineering or climate intervention, commonly referred to as geoengineering, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, usually with the aim of mitigating the adverse effects of global warming.
Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification that changes the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Deep eutectic solvents are systems formed from a eutectic mixture of Lewis or Brønsted acids and bases which can contain a variety of anionic and/or cationic species.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Within the nephron of the kidney, the descending limb of loop of Henle is the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle.
Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (chemical formula (NH4)2HPO4, IUPAC name diammonium hydrogen phosphate) is one of a series of water-soluble ammonium phosphate salts that can be produced when ammonia reacts with phosphoric acid.
Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is an aqueous urea solution made with 32.5% urea and 67.5% deionized water.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Dishwashing liquid (BrE: washing-up liquid), known as dishwashing soap, dish detergent and dish soap, is a detergent used to assist in dishwashing.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Edison S.p.A is an energy company in the field of electricity and natural gas headquartered in Milan, Italy.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethyl carbamate (also called urethane) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2OC(O)NH2.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fertigation is the injection of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other water-soluble products into an irrigation system.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.
A fluidised bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Hair conditioner is a hair care product used to improve the feel, appearance and manageability of hair.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.
Hilaire Marin Rouelle (15 February 1718 – 7 April 1779) was an 18th-century French chemist.
Hydantoin, or glycolylurea, is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula CH2C(O)NHC(O)NH.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen peroxide - urea (also called Hyperol, artizone, urea hydrogen peroxide, and UHP) is a solid composed of equal amounts of hydrogen peroxide and urea.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxycarbamide, also known as hydroxyurea, is a medication used in sickle-cell disease, chronic myelogenous leukemia, cervical cancer, and polycythemia vera.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Ichthyosis is a family of rare genetic skin disorders characterized by dry, thickened, scaly skin.
Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
The interstitium is a contiguous fluid-filled space existing between the skin and the body organs, including muscles and the circulatory system.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.
Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R–N.
Isocyanic acid is a chemical compound with the formula HNCO, discovered in 1830 by Liebig and Wöhler.
In organic chemistry, isothiouronium is a functional group with the formula + (R.
JAMA Internal Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published monthly by the American Medical Association.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Keratoderma is a hornlike skin condition.
Keratosis (from kerat- + -osis) is a growth of keratin on the skin or on mucous membranes stemming from keratinocytes, the prominent cell type in the epidermis.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The management of dehydration typically involves the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS).
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
N-Acetylglutamic acid (also referred to as N-Acetylglutamate, abbreviated NAG, chemical formula C7H11NO5) is biosynthesized from glutamate and acetylornithine by ornithine acetyltransferase, and from glutamic acid and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme ''N''-acetylglutamate synthase.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
Nair is a hair removal product manufactured by Church & Dwight.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrobacter is a genus comprising rod-shaped, gram-negative, and chemoautotrophic bacteria.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitrosomonas is a genus of Gram-negative rod-shaped chemoautotrophic bacteria.
Non-protein nitrogen (or NPN) is a term used in animal nutrition to refer collectively to components such as urea, biuret, and ammonia, which are not proteins but can be converted into proteins by microbes in the ruminant stomach.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An occlusive dressing is an air- and water-tight trauma medical dressing used in first aid.
Ocean fertilization or ocean nourishment is a type of climate engineering based on the purposeful introduction of nutrients to the upper ocean to increase marine food production and to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic, salty substance.
A Pretzel (Breze(l)) is a type of baked bread product made from dough most commonly shaped into a twisted knot.
A prill is a small aggregate or globule of a material, most often a dry sphere, formed from a melted liquid.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Ratooning is the agricultural practice of harvesting a monocot crop by cutting most of the above ground portion but leaving the roots and growing shoot apices intact so as to allow the plants to recover and produce a fresh crop in the next season.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Renal urea handling is the part of renal physiology that deals with the reabsorption and secretion of urea.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Saipem S.p.A. (Società Anonima Italiana Perforazioni E Montaggi) is an Italian oil and gas industry contractor.
Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.
Sandvik is a global company founded in 1862 by Göran Fredrik Göransson in Sandviken, Sweden.
The clade Sauria was traditionally a suborder for lizards which originally (before 1800) comprised crocodilians too.
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, and water.
Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is a method to lessen nitrogen oxide emissions in conventional power plants that burn biomass, waste and coal.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Silver cyanate is a chemical compound; it is the cyanate salt of silver.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Stamicarbon is the licensing and IP center of Maire Tecnimont SpA which licenses technology for manufacturing urea as well as provide follow-up services designed to ensure the best possible operation of the urea plant throughout its working life.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
was a steel manufacturer based in Osaka, Japan until it merged with Nippon Steel in 2012 to form Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, the third largest steel manufacturer in the world as of 2015.
A tadpole (also called a pollywog) is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thiourea is an organosulfur compound with the formula SC(NH2)2.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Tooth whitening (termed tooth bleaching when utilising bleach), is either the restoration of a natural tooth shade or whitening beyond the natural shade.
is a Japanese engineering, procurement and construction company serving mainly the hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) and petrochemical sectors worldwide.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
UAN is a solution of urea and ammonium nitrate in water used as a fertilizer.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
The urea breath test is a rapid diagnostic procedure used to identify infections by Helicobacter pylori, a spiral bacterium implicated in gastritis, gastric ulcer, and peptic ulcer disease.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Urea nitrate is a fertilizer-based high explosive that has been used in improvised explosive devices in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, and various other terrorist acts elsewhere in the world, like the 1993 World Trade Center bombings.
Urea phosphate is an organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and phosphorus.
A urea transporter is a membrane transport protein, transporting urea.
Urea, also known as carbamide-containing cream, is used as a medication and applied to the skin to treat dryness and itching such as may occur in psoriasis, dermatitis, or ichthyosis.
Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, so named for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure, is a non-transparent thermosetting resin or polymer.
Ureases, functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Veet, formerly called Neet and Immac, is a current trademark of chemical depilatory internationally sold products manufactured by Reckitt Benckiser.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Wah Chang Corporation is an American manufacturing company based in Albany, Oregon in the United States.
The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea.
William Prout FRS (15 January 1785 – 9 April 1850) was an English chemist, physician, and natural theologian.
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.
Yara International ASA is a Norwegian chemical company.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
(NH2)2CO, ATC code B05BC02, ATC code D02AE01, ATCvet code QB05BC02, ATCvet code QD02AE01, Bosch-Meiser urea process, Bosch–Meiser urea process, CH4ON2, Carbamide, Carbonic diamide, Carbonyl diamide, Carbonyldiamine, Diaminomethanal, Diaminomethanone, E927b, Impact of urea on brain cells, Karbasal, Topical urea, Urea group, Urea groups, Ureagenesis, Ureas.