143 relations: Abdominal pain, Altered level of consciousness, American Academy of Pediatrics, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Anus, Asepsis, Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, Atrophic vaginitis, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Bacteriuria, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Biofilm, Bloodletting, Candida albicans, Catheter, Cefalexin, Ceftriaxone, Cephalosporin, Cervicitis, Cervix, Chlamydia trachomatis, Choosing Wisely, Chronic bacterial prostatitis, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, Ciprofloxacin, Circumcision, Clinical Medicine, Clinical urine tests, Cochrane (organisation), Colony-forming unit, Constipation, Cranberry, Cranberry juice, Cyclophosphamide, Defecation, Dementia, Diabetes mellitus, Diaphragm (birth control), Douche, Dry suit, Dysuria, Ebers Papyrus, Enterococcus, Eosinophil, Eosinophilic cystitis, Epileptic seizure, ..., Escherichia coli, Estrogen, Fever, Food allergy, Formaldehyde, Fosfomycin, Fungus, Hematuria, Hemorrhagic cystitis, Hexamethylenetetramine, Hospital-acquired infection, Hypertension, Immunodeficiency, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Interstitial cystitis, Intravenous therapy, Jaundice, Kidney, Kidney stone disease, Klebsiella, Leukocyte esterase, Leukocytosis, List of chemotherapeutic agents, List of underwater divers, Low back pain, Low birth weight, Lymph, Menopause, Methemoglobin, Methemoglobinemia, Microbiological culture, Mycoplasma genitalium, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Nitrite test, Nitrofurantoin, Obesity, Old age, Oral contraceptive pill, Paracetamol, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Pessary, Phenazopyridine, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Preventive healthcare, Probiotic, Progesterone, Prostate, Prostatitis, Pseudomonas, Pubis (bone), Pyelonephritis, Pyuria, Quinolone antibiotic, Radiation therapy, Red blood cell, Renal ultrasonography, Sepsis, Sexually transmitted infection, Spermicide, Spinal cord injury, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Suprapubic aspiration, Tampon, Topical medication, Trimethoprim, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Ureter, Urethra, Urethritis, Urinary bladder, Urinary catheterization, Urinary incontinence, Urinary retention, Urinary system, Urination, Urine, Vaccine, Vagina, Vaginal discharge, Vaginal flora, Vaginal yeast infection, Vaginitis, Vesicoureteral reflux, Virus, Voiding cystourethrography, Vomiting, White blood cell, World Health Organization. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing micro-organisms (such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, pathogenic fungi, and parasites).
Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis is a painless inflammation of the prostate gland where there is no evidence of infection.
Atrophic vaginitis is the chronic and progressive inflammation of the vagina (and the lower urinary tract) due to the thinning and shrinking of the vaginal tissues and is often accompanied by vulvar and urinary pathologies.
Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
Cefalexin, also spelled cephalexin, is an antibiotic that can treat a number of bacterial infections.
Ceftriaxone, sold under the trade name Rocephin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
Cervices is inflammation of the uterine cervix.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Chlamydia trachomatis, commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a bacterial infection of the prostate gland.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a pelvic pain condition in men, and should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and acute bacterial prostatitis.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Clinical Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Royal College of Physicians.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
Cranberry juice is the juice of the cranberry.
Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
The diaphragm is a barrier method of birth control.
A douche is a device used to introduce a stream of water into the body for medical or hygienic reasons, or the stream of water itself.
A dry suit or drysuit provides the wearer with environmental protection by way of thermal insulation and exclusion of water, and is worn by divers, boaters, water sports enthusiasts, and others who work or play in or near cold or contaminated water.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Enterococcus is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
Fosfomycin (also known as phosphomycin or phosphonomycin and the trade names Monurol and Monuril) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by certain Streptomyces species, although it can now be made by chemical synthesis.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Hemorrhagic cystitis or Haemorrhagic cystitis is defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage.
Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule.
Leukocyte esterase (LE) is an esterase (a type of enzyme) produced by leukocytes (white blood cells).
Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.
This is a list of chemotherapeutic agents (also known as cytotoxic agents) that are known to be of use in chemotherapy for cancer.
This is a list of underwater divers whose exploits have made them notable.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin.
Methemoglobinemia is a condition caused by elevated levels of methemoglobin in the blood.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Mycoplasma genitalium, commonly known as Mgen, is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
A nitrite test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrite ion in solution.
Nitrofurantoin, sold under the trade name Macrobid among others, is an antibiotic used to treat bladder infections.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.
A pessary is a prosthetic device inserted into the vagina to reduce the protrusion of pelvic structures into the vagina.
Phenazopyridine is a chemical which, when excreted into the urine, has a local analgesic effect.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.
Pyuria is the condition of urine containing white blood cells or pus.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Renal ultrasonography (Renal US) is the examination of one or both kidneys using medical ultrasound.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Spermicide is a contraceptive substance that destroys sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a Gram-positive coccus belonging to the coagulase-negative genus Staphylococcus.
Suprapubic aspiration involves putting a needle into the bladder just above the pubic bone.
A tampon is a mass of absorbent material, primarily used as a feminine hygiene product.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of bladder infections.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal discharge is a mixture of liquid, cells, and bacteria that lubricates and protects the vagina.
Vaginal flora or vaginal microbiota are the microorganisms that colonize the vagina.
Vaginal yeast infection, also known as candidal vulvovaginitis and vaginal thrush, is excessive growth of yeast in the vagina that results in irritation.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), also known as vesicoureteric reflux, is a condition in which urine flows retrograde, or backward, from the bladder into the ureters/kidneys.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
In urology, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a technique for visualizing a person's urethra and urinary bladder while the person urinates (voids).
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Acute cystitis, Bacterial cystitis, Bladder infection, Bladder infections, Complicated UTI, Cystitis, Cystitis cystica, Gonococcal cystitis, Honeymoon cystitis, Honeymoon disease, Honeymoon infection, Honeymoon syndrome, Symptomatic bacteriuria, UTI (urinary tract infection), UTIs, Urinary Tract Infection, Urinary Tract Infections, Urinary infection, Urinary infections, Urinary tract infections, Urinary tract infrection, Urinary-tract infection, Urine infection.