178 relations: Abdomen, Achaemenid Empire, Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, American English, Amniotic fluid, Anal gland, Anatomical terminology, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Antidiuretic, Anuria, Australian English, Autonomic nervous system, Bedridden, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Black-footed cat, Bladder sphincter dyssynergia, Bladder stone, British English, Bulbospongiosus muscle, Bush dog, Canidae, Cannabis, Cape fox, Carnivore, Cauda equina, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Chamber pot, Cleanliness, Cloaca, Cystometry, Decimal Day, Defecation, Detrusor muscle, Dhole, Diabetes insipidus, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diaper, Diergaarde Blijdorp, Diuresis, Diuretic, Dog, Doping in sport, Dysuria, Elimination communication, Euphemism, ..., Excretion, External sphincter muscle of female urethra, External sphincter muscle of male urethra, Feces, Felidae, Female reproductive system, Female urinal, Female urination device, Filum terminale, Flehmen response, Glans penis, Golden jackal, Gray wolf, Haram, Herodotus, Hoary fox, Hops, Human sexuality, India, Internal urethral sphincter, Interstitial cystitis, Intimate parts in Islam, Islamic toilet etiquette, Kidney failure, Kingdom (biology), Kob, Laos, Law Commission (England and Wales), List of dialects of the English language, List of human positions, Lumbar, Maned wolf, Meta-analysis, Micturition syncope, Modesty, Mongolia, Music of China, Muslim, Mustelidae, National Health Service, Neutering, Nocturnal enuresis, Oliguria, Onuf's nucleus, Overactive bladder, Overflow incontinence, Panamanian night monkey, Paraphilia, Parasympathetic nervous system, Paruresis, Patagonian mara, Pay toilet, Pelvic splanchnic nerves, Penile sheath, Penis, Periaqueductal gray, Physiology, Pissing contest, Placentalia, Polyuria, Pontine micturition center, Postganglionic nerve fibers, Preganglionic nerve fibers, Preputial gland, Primate, Prostate, Prostatitis, Pseudo-penis, Pudendal nerve, Pyrazine, Qibla, Red fox, Reflex, Ring-tailed lemur, Rodent, Russia, Sacrum, Sanitation, Scottish English, Seasonal breeder, See a man about a dog, Sex, Sexual maturity, Sexual penetration, Slang, Smooth muscle tissue, Social inhibition, Somatic nervous system, Spinal cord, Spinal cord injury, Spinal shock, Spotted hyena, Squatting position, Stallion, Strepsirrhini, Stress incontinence, Surveillance, Sympathetic nervous system, Tabes dorsalis, Taking the piss, Termite, Territory (animal), The Journal of Comparative Neurology, Toilet, Toilet seat, Toilet training, Transitional epithelium, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Urea, Urethra, Urinal, Urinal (health care), Urinary bladder, Urinary catheterization, Urinary incontinence, Urinary meatus, Urinary retention, Urinary system, Urinary tract infection, Urination, Urine, Urolagnia, Urophagia, Viverridae, Vulva, Vulval vestibule, White-headed capuchin, Young–Laplace equation. Expand index (128 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The amniotic fluid is the protective liquid contained by the amniotic sac of a gravid Amniote.
The anal glands or anal sacs are small glands found near the anus in many mammals, including dogs and cats.
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
An antidiuretic is a substance that helps to control fluid balance in an animal's body by reducing urination, opposing diuresis.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Being bedridden is a form of immobility that can present as the inability to move or even sit upright.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
The black-footed cat (Felis nigripes), also called small-spotted cat, is the smallest African cat and endemic to the southwestern arid zone of Southern Africa.
Bladder sphincter dyssynergia (also known as detrusor sphincter dysynergia (DSD) (the ICS standard terminology agreed 1998) and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO)) is a consequence of a neurological pathology such as spinal injury or multiple sclerosis.
A bladder stone is a stone found in the urinary bladder.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The bulbospongiosus muscle (bulbocavernosus in older texts) is one of the superficial muscles of the perineum.
The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America.
The biological family Canidae (from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
The Cape fox (Vulpes chama), also called the cama fox or the silver-backed fox, is a small fox, native to southern Africa.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The cauda equina is a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlets, consisting of the second through fifth lumbar nerve pairs, the first through fifth sacral nerve pairs, and the coccygeal nerve, all of which arise from the lumbar enlargement and the conus medullaris of the spinal cord.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
A chamber pot is a portable toilet (bathroom), especially in the bedroom at night.
Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the habit of achieving and maintaining that state.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
Cystometry, also known as flow cystometry, is a clinical diagnostic procedure used to evaluate bladder function.
On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
The detrusor muscle, also detrusor urinae muscle, muscularis propria of the urinary bladder and (less precise) muscularis propria, is smooth muscle found in the wall of the bladder.
The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is a canid native to Central, South and Southeast Asia.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
A diaper (American English) or a nappy (Australian English and British English) is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate or urinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment.
italic (Blijdorp Zoo), also named Rotterdam Zoo, is a zoo in the northwestern part of Rotterdam, one of the oldest zoos in the Netherlands.
Diuresis is increased urination and the physiologic process that produces such an increase.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
Elimination communication (EC) is a practice in which a caregiver uses timing, signals, cues, and intuition to address an infant's need to eliminate waste.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
The external sphincter muscle of female urethra is a muscle which controls urination in females.
The external sphincter muscle of urethra (or sphincter urethrae membranaceae) surrounds the whole length of the membranous portion of the urethra, and is enclosed in the fasciæ of the urogenital diaphragm.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
A female urinal is designed for the anatomy of women and intended to be used by women and girls.
A female urination device, female urination aid, or stand-to-pee device (STP) is a device which aids a woman or girl to urinate while standing upright.
The filum terminale ("terminal thread") is a delicate strand of fibrous tissue, about 20 cm in length, proceeding downward from the apex of the conus medullaris.
The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening, is a behavior in which an animal curls back its upper lip exposing its front teeth, inhales with the nostrils usually closed, and then often holds this position for several seconds.
The glans penis is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the human penis.
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The hoary fox (Lycalopex vetulus), also called raposinha-do-campo (Portuguese for "meadow fox"), is a species of zorro or "false" fox endemic to Brazil.
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The internal urethral sphincter is a urethral sphincter muscle which constricts the internal urethral orifice.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder.
The intimate parts of the human body must, according to Islam, be covered by clothing.
The Islamic faith has particular rules regarding personal hygiene when going to the toilet.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
The kob (Kobus kob) is an antelope found across sub-Saharan Africa, in Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria and some part of Senegal to South Sudan.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
In England and Wales the Law Commission (Comisiwm y Gyfraith) is an independent body set up by Parliament by the Law Commissions Act 1965 to keep the law of England and Wales under review and to recommend reforms.
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.
Human positions refer to the different physical configurations that the human body can take.
In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum. The lumbar region is sometimes referred to as the lower spine, or as an area of the back in its proximity.
The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Micturition syncope or post-micturition syncope is the name given to the human phenomenon of fainting shortly after or during urination.
Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Music of China refers to the music of the Chinese people, which may be the music of the Han Chinese as well as other ethnic minorities within mainland China.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
Neutering, from the Latin neuter ('of neither sex'), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
Onuf's nucleus is a distinct group of neurons located in the ventral part (laminae IX) of the anterior horn of the sacral region of the human spinal cord involved in the maintenance of micturition and defecatory continence, as well as muscular contraction during orgasm.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a condition where there is a frequent feeling of needing to urinate to a degree that it negatively affects a person's life.
Overflow incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence, characterized by the involuntary release of urine from an overfull urinary bladder, often in the absence of any urge to urinate.
The Panamanian night monkey or Chocoan night monkey (Aotus zonalis) is a species of night monkey formerly considered a subspecies of the gray-bellied night monkey of the family Aotidae.
Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Paruresis is a type of phobia in which the sufferer is unable to urinate in the real or imaginary presence of others, such as in a public restroom.
The Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a relatively large rodent in the mara genus (Dolichotis).
A pay toilet is a public toilet that requires the user to pay.
Pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut.
Almost all mammal penises have foreskins or prepuce, although in non-human cases the foreskin is usually a sheath (sometimes called the preputial sheath or penile sheath) into which the whole penis is retracted.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A pissing contest, or pissing match, is a game in which participants compete to see who can urinate the highest, the farthest, or the most accurately.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
The Pontine micturition center (PMC, also known as Barrington's nucleus) is a collection of neuronal cell bodies located in the rostral pons in the brainstem involved in the supraspinal regulation of micturition.
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers.
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers.
Preputial glands are exocrine glands that are located in the folds of skin front of the genitals of some mammals (including mice, ferrets, and even-toed ungulates) and produce pheromones.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland.
A pseudo-penis is any structure found on an animal that, while superficially appearing to be a penis, is derived from a different developmental path.
The pudendal nerve is the main nerve of the perineum.
Pyrazine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C4H4N2.
The Qibla (قِـبْـلَـة, "Direction", also transliterated as Qiblah, Qibleh, Kiblah, Kıble or Kibla), is the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during Ṣalāṫ (صَـلَاة).
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a large strepsirrhine primate and the most recognized lemur due to its long, black and white ringed tail.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
To see a man about a dog or horse is an English idiom, usually used as a way to apologize for one's imminent departure or absence—generally to euphemistically conceal one's true purpose, such as going to use the toilet or going to buy a drink.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Sexual penetration is the insertion of a body part or other object into a body orifice, such as the vagina, anus or mouth, as part of human sexual activity or animal sexual behavior.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Social inhibition is a conscious or subconscious avoidance of a situation or social interaction.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
Spinal shock was first defined by Whytt in 1750 as a loss of sensation accompanied by motor paralysis with initial loss but gradual recovery of reflexes, following a spinal cord injury (SCI) – most often a complete transection.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees and hips are bent.
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded (castrated).
Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar, galagos, ("bushbabies") and pottos from Africa, and the lorises from India and southeast Asia.
Stress incontinence, also known as stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or effort incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tabes dorsalis, also known as syphilitic myelopathy, is a slow degeneration (specifically, demyelination) of the neural tracts primarily in the dorsal columns (posterior columns) of the spinal cord (the portion closest to the back of the body) & dorsal roots.
Taking the piss is a Commonwealth term meaning to take liberties at the expense of others, or to be joking, or to be unreasonable.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
The Journal of Comparative Neurology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that focuses on neuroscience and related fields, but specifically does not deal with clinical aspects of them.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
A toilet seat is a hinged unit consisting of a round or oval open seat, and usually a lid, which is bolted onto the bowl of a toilet used in a sitting position (as opposed to a squat toilet).
Toilet training, or potty training, is the process of training someone, particularly a young child, to use the toilet for urination and defecation, though training may start with a smaller toilet bowl-shaped device (often known as a potty).
Transitional epithelium is a type of stratified epithelium – tissue consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract and expand as needed.
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
A urinal is a sanitary plumbing fixture for urination only, predominantly used by males.
A urinal is a bottle for urination.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
The urinary meatus, also known as the external urethral orifice, is the opening or meatus of the urethra.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Urolagnia (also urophilia, undinism, golden shower and watersports) is a form of salirophilia (which is a form of paraphilia) in which sexual excitement is associated with the sight or thought of urine or urination.
Urophagia is the consumption of urine.
Viverridae is a family of small to medium-sized mammals, the viverrids, comprising 15 genera, which are subdivided into 38 species.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
The vulval vestibule (or vulvar vestibule or vestibule of vagina) is a part of the vulva between the labia minora into which the urinary meatus (urethral opening) and the vaginal opening open.
The white-headed capuchin (Cebus capucinus), also known as the white-faced capuchin or white-throated capuchin, is a medium-sized New World monkey of the family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae.
In physics, the Young–Laplace equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation that describes the capillary pressure difference sustained across the interface between two static fluids, such as water and air, due to the phenomenon of surface tension or wall tension, although usage on the latter is only applicable if assuming that the wall is very thin.
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