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Urine

Index Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals. [1]

158 relations: Absorption (chemistry), Acute intermittent porphyria, Alchemy, Allotropes of phosphorus, Ammonia, Ammonium chloride, Ancient Rome, Andalusia, Annual plant, Anuria, Asparagus, Asparagusic acid, B vitamins, Baby talk, Bacteriuria, Beetroot, Beeturia, Bethanechol, Blood, Blue diaper syndrome, By-product, Cadmium, Caffeine, Calcium phosphate, Calculus (medicine), Cassius Dio, Chemical industry, Chemical weapons in World War I, Chloramine, Chlorine, Choluria, Circulatory system, Clearance (pharmacology), Clinical urine tests, Coffee, Compost, Concentrated animal feeding operation, Conjugated estrogens, Creatinine, Dehydration, Diabetes mellitus, Diet (nutrition), Diuretic, Drinking water, Dyeing, Ecosystem, Epithelium, Estrogen, Ethanol, Euphemism, ..., Excretion, Excretory system, Facultative anaerobic organism, Fermentation, Fertilizer, Filtration, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Friends, Fulling, Germans, Gilbert's syndrome, Gonadotropin, Gram-negative bacteria, Gunpowder, Hematuria, Heme, Hemoglobin, Hennig Brand, Hermogenes (philosopher), Hilaire Rouelle, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Human feces, Human waste, Hyperuricosuria, Indo-European languages, Jaundice, Jellyfish, Kidney, Lant, Latin, Lead, Leather, Livestock, Lomax the Songhunter, Luteinizing hormone, Mammal, Management of dehydration, Melanoma, Menopause, Menotropin, Mercury (element), Metabolic waste, Metabolism, Methylene blue, Microbiological culture, Microscopy, Mordant, Nero, Nitrogen, Nitrogen cycle, Old English, Oliguria, Onion, Onomatopoeia, Pecunia non olet, Perspiration, PH, Phenazopyridine, Plant, Polyuria, Porphyria, Potassium, Propofol, Purple urine bag syndrome, Quantification (science), Reuse of excreta, Rhabdomyolysis, Rifampicin, Royal Armouries, Saffron, Salt (chemistry), Sanitation, Sewerage, Soil, Sterilization (microbiology), Survivor (U.S. TV series), Sweetness, Tanning (leather), The Heartbreak Kid (2007 film), The Paperboy (2012 film), The Real Cancun, Tissue hydration, Titus, Tuna, Turbidity, Umayyad Caliphate, United States Army Field Manuals, Urban legend, Urea, Ureter, Urethra, Uric acid, Urinal, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Urinary tract infection, Urination, Urine, Urine diversion, Urine therapy, Urine-diverting dry toilet, Urobilin, Urolagnia, Urophagia, Uroscopy, Vespasian, Vickers machine gun, World War I. Expand index (108 more) »

Absorption (chemistry)

In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.

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Acute intermittent porphyria

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a genetic metabolic disorder affecting the production of heme, the oxygen-binding prosthetic group of hemoglobin.

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Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Allotropes of phosphorus

Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andalusia

Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.

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Annual plant

An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.

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Anuria

Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.

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Asparagus

Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.

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Asparagusic acid

Asparagusic acid is an organosulfur compound with the molecular formula C4H6O2S2 and is systematically named 1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Baby talk

Baby talk is a type of speech associated with an older person speaking to a child.

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Bacteriuria

Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine.

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Beetroot

The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.

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Beeturia

Beeturia is the passing of red or pink urine after eating beetroots or foods colored with beetroot extract or beetroot pigments.

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Bethanechol

Bethanechol is a parasympathomimetic choline carbamate that selectively stimulates muscarinic receptors without any effect on nicotinic receptors.

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Blood

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blue diaper syndrome

Blue diaper syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized in infants by bluish urine-stained diapers.

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By-product

A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Cadmium

Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Calcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.

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Calculus (medicine)

A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Chemical weapons in World War I

The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.

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Chloramine

Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Choluria

Choluria is the presence of bile in urine.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clearance (pharmacology)

In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Compost

Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.

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Concentrated animal feeding operation

A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is an animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over 1000 "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year.

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Conjugated estrogens

Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin (a contraction of "pregnant mares' urine") among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications.

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Creatinine

Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).

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Dehydration

In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Diuretic

A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Dyeing

Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Estrogen

Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Euphemism

A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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Excretion

Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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Excretory system

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism, so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body.

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Facultative anaerobic organism

The title of this article should be "Facultative Aerobic Organism," as "facultative anaerobe" is a misnomer.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fertilizer

A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Filtration

Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.

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Friends

Friends is an American television sitcom, created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman, which aired on NBC from September 22, 1994 to May 6, 2004, lasting ten seasons.

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Fulling

Fulling, also known as tucking or walking (spelt waulking in Scotland), is a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Gilbert's syndrome

Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is a mild liver disorder in which the liver does not properly process bilirubin.

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Gonadotropin

Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Hematuria

Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.

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Heme

Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.

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Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hennig Brand

Hennig Brand (c. 1630c. 1692 or c. 1710) was a merchant and alchemist in Hamburg.

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Hermogenes (philosopher)

Hermogenes (Ἑρμογένης; fl. 5th–4th century BC) was an ancient Athenian philosopher best remembered as a close friend of Socrates as depicted by Plato and Xenophon.

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Hilaire Rouelle

Hilaire Marin Rouelle (15 February 1718 – 7 April 1779) was an 18th-century French chemist.

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Human chorionic gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.

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Human feces

Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.

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Human waste

Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.

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Hyperuricosuria

Hyperuricosuria is a medical term referring to the presence of excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Jaundice

Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.

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Jellyfish

Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Lant

Lant is a word for aged urine, originating from the Old English word land referring to urine in general.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Leather

Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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Livestock

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Lomax the Songhunter

Lomax the Songhunter is a 2004 documentary film about Alan Lomax, a man who, after World War II, was determined to record folk music from United States and all over the world before it was blown away by mass consumer culture.

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Luteinizing hormone

Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Management of dehydration

The management of dehydration typically involves the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS).

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Melanoma

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Menopause

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Menotropin

Menotropin (also called human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG) is a hormonally active medication for the treatment of fertility disturbances.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Metabolic waste

Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methylene blue

Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.

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Microbiological culture

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.

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Microscopy

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Mordant

A mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).

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Nero

Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Oliguria

Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.

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Onion

The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.

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Onomatopoeia

An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

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Pecunia non olet

Pecunia non olet ("money does not stink") is a Latin saying.

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Perspiration

Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phenazopyridine

Phenazopyridine is a chemical which, when excreted into the urine, has a local analgesic effect.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Polyuria

Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).

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Porphyria

Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Propofol

Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.

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Purple urine bag syndrome

For other uses see PUBS (disambiguation page) Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a medical syndrome where purple discoloration of urine occurs in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infection.

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Quantification (science)

In mathematics and empirical science, quantification (or quantitation) is the act of counting and measuring that maps human sense observations and experiences into quantities.

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Reuse of excreta

Reuse of excreta (or re-use or use of excreta) refers to the safe, beneficial use of animal or human excreta, i.e. feces (or faeces in British English) and urine.

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Rhabdomyolysis

Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.

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Rifampicin

Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.

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Royal Armouries

The Royal Armouries is the United Kingdom's National Museum of Arms and Armour.

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Saffron

Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Sewerage

Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Sterilization (microbiology)

Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.

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Survivor (U.S. TV series)

Survivor is the American version of the international Survivor reality competition television franchise, itself derived from the Swedish television series Expedition Robinson created by Charlie Parsons which premiered in 1997.

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Sweetness

Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.

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Tanning (leather)

Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.

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The Heartbreak Kid (2007 film)

The Heartbreak Kid is a 2007 romantic comedy film directed by the Farrelly brothers.

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The Paperboy (2012 film)

The Paperboy is a 2012 American drama film directed by Lee Daniels and starring Matthew McConaughey, Zac Efron, John Cusack, Nicole Kidman and David Oyelowo.

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The Real Cancun

The Real Cancun is a 2003 American reality film directed by Rick de Oliveira and written by Brian Caldirola.

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Tissue hydration

Tissue hydration is the process of absorbing and retaining water in biological tissues.

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Titus

Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.

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Tuna

A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).

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Turbidity

Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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United States Army Field Manuals

United States Army Field Manuals are published by the United States Army's Army Publishing Directorate.

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Urban legend

An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.

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Urea

Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Ureter

In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

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Urethra

In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinal

A urinal is a sanitary plumbing fixture for urination only, predominantly used by males.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary system

The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Urination

Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.

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Urine

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Urine diversion

Urine diversion, also called urine separation or source separation, refers to the separate collection of human urine and feces at the point of their production, i.e. at the toilet or urinal.

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Urine therapy

In alternative medicine, urine therapy or urotherapy, (also urinotherapy or uropathy or auto-urine therapy) is the application of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including drinking of one's own urine and massaging one's skin, or gums, with one's own urine.

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Urine-diverting dry toilet

A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable sanitation in a variety of contexts worldwide.

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Urobilin

Urobilin or urochrome is the chemical primarily responsible for the yellow color of urine.

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Urolagnia

Urolagnia (also urophilia, undinism, golden shower and watersports) is a form of salirophilia (which is a form of paraphilia) in which sexual excitement is associated with the sight or thought of urine or urination.

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Urophagia

Urophagia is the consumption of urine.

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Uroscopy

Uroscopy is the historic medical practice of visually examining a patient's urine for pus, blood, or other symptoms of disease.

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Vespasian

Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.

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Vickers machine gun

The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled.303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Clear and copious, Human piss, Human urine, Urin, Urine fertilizer, Urine pH, Urine values, 🝕.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine

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