An adaptive user interface (also known as AUI) is a user interface (UI) which adapts, that is changes, its layout and elements to the needs of the user or context and is similarly alterable by each user.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Apache Flex, formerly Adobe Flex, is a software development kit (SDK) for the development and deployment of cross-platform rich Internet applications based on the Adobe Flash platform.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
Attentive user interfaces (AUI) are user interfaces that manage the user's attention.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears.
In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task.
In human–computer interaction, a command verb is a verb that appears in a user interface and is used for the user to tell the computer to do something (rather than vice versa).
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
In computer programming, a compile and go system, compile, load, and go system, assemble and go system, or load and go system is a programming language processor in which the compilation, assembly, or link steps are not separated from program execution.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
A computer monitor is an output device which displays information in pictorial form.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Computer user satisfaction (and closely related concepts such as system satisfaction, user satisfaction, computer system satisfaction, end user computing satisfaction) is the attitude of a user to the computer system (s)he employs in the context of his/her work environments.
Concision (alternatively brevity, laconicism, terseness, or conciseness) is minimizing words, while conveying an idea.
Crossing-based interfaces are graphical user interfaces that use crossing gestures instead of, or in complement to, pointing.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
In computing, the desktop metaphor is an interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by graphical user interfaces to help users interact more easily with the computer.
Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.
A digital library, digital repository, or digital collection, is an online database of digital objects that can include text, still images, audio, video, or other digital media formats.
Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
In computer science, direct manipulation is a human–computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid, reversible, and incremental actions and feedback.
Direct voice input (DVI) (sometimes called voice input control (VIC)) is a style of human–machine interaction "HMI" in which the user makes voice commands to issue instructions to the machine.
Distinguishable interfaces use computer graphic principles to automatically generate easily distinguishable appearance for computer data.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.
An electrical connector, is an electro-mechanical device used to join electrical terminations and create an electrical circuit.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Flat design is a minimalist user interface (UI) design genre, or design language, commonly used in graphical user interfaces (such as web applications and mobile apps), especially in such graphical materials as posters, arts, guide documents, publishing products.
Forgiveness is the intentional and voluntary process by which a victim undergoes a change in feelings and attitude regarding an offense, lets go of negative emotions such as vengefulness, forswears recompense from or punishment of the offender, however legally or morally justified it might be, and with an increased ability to wish the offender well.
A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech.
Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms.
Google Glass is a brand of smart glassesan optical head-mounted display designed in the shape of a pair of eyeglasses.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
Haptic communication is a branch of nonverbal communication that refers to the ways in which people and animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
The history of the graphical user interface, understood as the use of graphic icons and a pointing device to control a computer, covers a five-decade span of incremental refinements, built on some constant core principles.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
A human interface device or HID is a type of computer device usually used by humans that takes input from humans and gives output to humans.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText).
Common User Access (CUA) is a standard for user interfaces to operating systems and computer programs.
Systems Application Architecture (SAA), introduced in 1987, is a set of standards for computer software developed by IBM.
Icon design is the process of designing a graphic symbol that represents some real, fantasy or abstract motive, entity or action.
Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world.
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Information architecture (IA) is the structural design of shared information environments; the art and science of organizing and labelling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability and findability; and an emerging community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.
Information overload (also known as infobesity or infoxication) is a term used to describe the difficulty of understanding an issue and effectively making decisions when one has too much information about that issue.
Information visualization or information visualisation is the study of (interactive) visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition.
An intelligent user interface (Intelligent UI, IUI, or sometimes Interface Agent) is a user interface (UI) that involves some aspect of artificial intelligence (AI or computational intelligence).
Interaction design, often abbreviated as IxD, is "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services." Beyond the digital aspect, interaction design is also useful when creating physical (non-digital) products, exploring how a user might interact with it.
Interaction protocols are possible communication scenarios between individual agents in multi-agent systems.
An interaction technique, user interface technique or input technique is a combination of hardware and software elements that provides a way for computer users to accomplish a single task.
The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.
In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information.
Jakob Nielsen (born 5 October 1957) is a Danish web usability consultant.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator.
A line printer prints one entire line of text before advancing to another line.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Magnetic tape data storage is a system for storing digital information on magnetic tape using digital recording.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
Motion capture (Mo-cap for short) is the process of recording the movement of objects or people.
In computing, a natural user interface, or NUI, or natural interface is a user interface that is effectively invisible, and remains invisible as the user continuously learns increasingly complex interactions.
Natural-language user interfaces (LUI or NLUI) are a type of computer human interface where linguistic phenomena such as verbs, phrases and clauses act as UI controls for creating, selecting and modifying data in software applications.
ncurses (new curses) is a programming library providing an application programming interface (API) that allows the programmer to write text-based user interfaces in a terminal-independent manner.
NLS, or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer collaboration system from the 1960s.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
In computing, an object-oriented user interface (OOUI) is a type of user interface based on an object-oriented programming metaphor.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In human–computer interaction, an organic user interface (OUI) is defined as a user interface with a non-flat display.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
A persona (plural personae or personas), in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Pirates of Silicon Valley is an original 1999 American made for television biographical drama film, directed by Martyn Burke and starring Noah Wyle as Steve Jobs and Anthony Michael Hall as Bill Gates.
A plugboard, or control panel (the term used depended on the application area), is an array of jacks, or sockets (often called hubs), into which patch cords can be inserted to complete an electrical circuit.
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed.
In computing, a pointer or mouse cursor (as part of a personal computer WIMP style of interaction) is a symbol or graphical image on the computer monitor or other display device that echoes movements of the pointing device, commonly a mouse, touchpad, or stylus pen.
In computing, a pointing device gesture or mouse gesture (or, simply, gesture) is a way of combining pointing device or finger movements and clicks that the software recognizes as a specific computer event and responds in a manner particular to that software.
In computing, post-WIMP ("windows, icons, menus, pointer") comprises work on user interfaces, mostly graphical user interfaces, which attempt to go beyond the paradigm of windows, icons, menus and a pointing device, i.e. WIMP interfaces.
The principle of least astonishment (POLA) (alternatively "principle/law/rule of least astonishment/surprise") applies to user interface and software design.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
In computing, a resident monitor is a type of system software program that was used in many early computers from the 1950s to 1970s.
Responsiveness as a concept of computer science refers to the specific ability of a system or functional unit to complete assigned tasks within a given time.
Rogue (also known as Rogue: Exploring the Dungeons of Doom) is a dungeon crawling video game by Michael Toy and Glenn Wichman and later contributions by Ken Arnold.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Smell-O-Vision was a system that released odor during the projection of a film so that the viewer could "smell" what was happening in the movie.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate.
A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.
In computing, a stylus (or stylus pen) is a small pen-shaped instrument that is used to input commands to a computer screen, mobile device or graphics tablet.
The system console, computer console, root console, operator's console, or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
A tangible user interface (TUI) is a user interface in which a person interacts with digital information through the physical environment.
The task-focused interface is a type of user interface which extends the desktop metaphor of the graphical user interface to make tasks, not files and folders, the primary unit of interaction.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A touch user interface (TUI) is a computer-pointing technology based upon the sense of touch (haptics).
A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen.
A touchscreen is an input and output device normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system.
In general, turnaround time (TAT) means the amount of time taken to fulfill a request.
The Unified Code for Units of Measure (the UCUM) is a system of codes for unambiguously representing measurement units to both humans and machines.
In chemical engineering and related fields, a unit operation is a basic step in a process.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
Usability engineering is a field that is concerned generally with human-computer interaction and specifically with devising human-computer interfaces that have high usability or user friendliness.
In software and systems engineering, a use case is a list of actions or event steps typically defining the interactions between a role (known in the Unified Modeling Language as an actor) and a system to achieve a goal.
User assistance is a general term for guided assistance to a user of a software product.
User Experience (UX) refers to a person's emotions and attitudes about using a particular product, system or service.
User experience design (UX, UXD, UED or XD) is the process of enhancing user satisfaction with a product by improving the usability, accessibility, and pleasure provided in the interaction with the product.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
User interface design (UI) or user interface engineering is the design of user interfaces for machines and software, such as computers, home appliances, mobile devices, and other electronic devices, with the focus on maximizing usability and the user experience.
User-centered design (UCD) or user-driven development (UDD) is a framework of processes (not restricted to interfaces or technologies) in which usability goals, user characteristics, environment, tasks and workflow of a product, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process.
Useware is a generic term introduced in 1998 that denotes all hard- and software components of a technical system which serve its interactive use.
vi is a screen-oriented text editor originally created for the Unix operating system.
Video production is the process of producing video content.
A virtual artifact (VA) is an immaterial object that exists in the human mind or in a digital environment, for example the Internet, intranet, virtual reality, cyberspace, etc.
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.
Visualization or visualisation (see spelling differences) is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message.
A voice-user interface (VUI) makes human interaction with computers possible through a voice/speech platform in order to initiate an automated service or process.
Wearable computers, also known as wearables or body-borne computers, are small computing devices (nowadays usually electronic) that are worn under, with, or on top of clothing.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A control panel, in web hosting, is a web-based interface provided by the hosting company that allows administrators to control server(s) and customers to manage their various hosted services in a single place.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
In human–computer interaction, WIMP stands for "windows, icons, menus, pointer", denoting a style of interaction using these elements of the user interface.
In computing, a window is a graphical control element.
WYSIWYG is an acronym for "what you see is what you get".
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
The Xerox Alto is the first computer designed from its inception to support an operating system based on a graphical user interface (GUI), later using the desktop metaphor.
The Star workstation, officially named Xerox 8010 Information System, was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that have since become standard in personal computers, including a bitmapped display, a window-based graphical user interface, icons, folders, mouse (two-button), Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers, and e-mail.
In computing, a zooming user interface or zoomable user interface (ZUI, pronounced zoo-ee) is a graphical environment where users can change the scale of the viewed area in order to see more detail or less, and browse through different documents.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
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