115 relations: Adenomyosis, Anemia, Aromatase inhibitor, Asoprisnil, Bcl-2, Broad ligament of the uterus, Cabergoline, Cervix, Chromosome 1, Chromosome abnormality, Constipation, Cytokine, Danazol, Diabetes mellitus, Disease, Dominance (genetics), Dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, Endometrial ablation, Endometriosis, Endoscopy, Epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Estrogen, Extracellular matrix, Frequent urination, Fumarase, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue, Gravidity and parity, Grey seal, Growth factor, Gynaecology, Gynecologic ultrasonography, Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Hormonal IUDs, Hormone, Hydronephrosis, Hypertension, Hysterectomy, Hysterosalpingography, Hysteroscopy, Ibuprofen, Implantation (human embryo), Infertility, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Intravenous leiomyomatosis, Iron, Iron deficiency, ..., Iron supplement, Karyotype, Laparoscopy, Laparotomy, Leiomyoma, Leiomyosarcoma, Levonorgestrel, Low back pain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malignancy, MED12, Medical imaging, Menopause, Menorrhagia, Mifepristone, Miscarriage, Mitogen, Mitosis, Monoclonal, Myometrium, Necrosis, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Obesity, Osteoporosis, Ovarian cancer, Ovarian cyst, P53, Palpation, Paracetamol, Paracrine signalling, PCP4, Pelvic congestion syndrome, Pelvic examination, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Platelet-derived growth factor, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Pregnancy, Preterm birth, Progenitor cell, Progesterone, Progestin, Progestogen, Prolactin, Radiofrequency ablation, Raloxifene, Red meat, Renal cell carcinoma, Round ligament of uterus, Selective progesterone receptor modulator, Stem cell, Telapristone, Tibolone, Transforming growth factor beta, Transforming growth interacting factor, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Twin, Ulipristal acetate, Ultrasound, United States, Urinary bladder, Uterine artery embolization, Uterosacral ligament, Uterus, Vitamin D, Xenoestrogen. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
Adenomyosis is a gynecologic medical condition characterized by the abnormal presence of endometrial tissue (the inner lining of the uterus) within the myometrium (the thick, muscular layer of the uterus).
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Asoprisnil (INN; developmental code name J-867) is a synthetic, steroidal selective progesterone receptor modulator that was under development by Schering and TAP Pharmaceutical Products for the treatment of uterine fibroids.
Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), encoded in humans by the BCL2 gene, is the founding member of the Bcl-2 family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death (apoptosis), by either inducing (pro-apoptotic) or inhibiting (anti-apoptotic) apoptosis.
The broad ligament of the uterus is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis.
Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and others), an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome.
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Danazol, sold under the brand name Danocrine among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, hereditary angioedema, and other conditions.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.
Endometrial ablation is an outpatient medical procedure that is used to remove (ablate) or destroy the endometrial lining of the uterus in women who have heavy menstrual bleeding.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Frequent urination, or urinary frequency is the need to urinate more often than usual.
Fumarase (or fumarate hydratase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration/dehydration of fumarate to malate.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
In biology and human medicine, gravidity and parity are the number of times a female is or has been pregnant (gravidity) and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age (parity).
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Gynecologic ultrasonography or gynecologic sonography refers to the application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, the ovaries, and the Fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the Pouch of Douglas.
Reed’s syndrome (or familial leiomyomatosis cutis et uteri) is a rare inherited condition characterised by multiple cutaneous leiomyomas and, in women, uterine leiomyomas.
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.
Intrauterine device (IUD) with progestogen, sold under the brand name Mirena among others, is a intrauterine device that releases the hormone levonorgestrel.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hydronephrosis describes urine-filled dilation of the renal pelvis and/or calyces as a result of obstruction.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.
Hysterosalpingography (HSG), also known as uterosalpingography, is a radiologic procedure to investigate the shape of the uterine cavity and the shape and patency of the fallopian tubes.
Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by endoscopy with access through the cervix.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare condition seen exclusively in women in which leiomyomata, benign smooth muscle tumors, are found in veins.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.
A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%).
Leiomyosarcoma, also referred to as LMS, is a malignant (cancerous) smooth muscle tumor.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription, subunit 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as MED12, is a human gene found on the X chromosome.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).
Mifepristone, also known as RU-486, is a medication typically used in combination with misoprostol, to bring about an abortion.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Monoclonal cells are a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication.
The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall, consisting mainly of uterine smooth muscle cells (also called uterine myocytes), but also of supporting stromal and vascular tissue.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac within the ovary.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Purkinje cell protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PCP4 gene.
Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen.
A pelvic examination is the physical examination of the external and internal female pelvic organs.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).
Raloxifene, developed by Eli Lilly in 1997 and sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer.
In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.
The round ligament of the uterus originates at the uterine horns, in the parametrium.
A selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) is an agent that acts on the progesterone receptor.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Telapristone, as telapristone acetate (proposed brand names Proellex, Progenta; former code name CDB-4124), is a synthetic, steroidal selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) related to mifepristone which is under development by Repros Therapeutics for the treatment of breast cancer, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids.
Tibolone, sold under the brand names Livial and Tibofem among others, is a medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and endometriosis.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Transforming growth interacting factor (TGIF) is a potential repressor of TGF-β pathways in myometrial cells.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Ulipristal acetate, sold under the brand name Ella among others, is a medication used for emergency birth control and uterine fibroids.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure where an interventional radiologist uses a catheter to deliver small particles that block the blood supply to the uterine body.
The uterosacral ligaments (or recto-uterine ligaments) belong to the major ligaments of uterus.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen.